Drains

drains in of Paris
drains in Paris

under drains one understands plants for the arranged derivative about waste water, thus dirt landing on water, precipitation discharges and meltwaters. They consist particularly of duct systems (in Northern Germany these often Siele mentioned) to the settlement drainage and associated collecting and cleaning equipment. The waste waterby drains are collected and transported to waste water treatment plants (purification plants) or introduced in waters.

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development

with the formation of connected settlements also problems resulted from wastes, waste water and floodings. Their simple disposal was a principal reason for the emergence of settlements at brooks and rivers; thus the natural Vorflut can be used for derivative.

OverTide and rain water fast and from hygenic reasons of waste water arranged to derive to be able, developed already long ago first drains. With washing drains wastes and waste water were away-rinsed by water. Usually for it rain water served or in addition, natural waters. Conduit-type sewers leave themselves already3,000 v. Chr. prove in the Euphrates valley. Already at times of the Romans washing drains became related, usually acted it thereby however around open coagulate themselves, because of the high building expenditure were sewage drain rarely. Most well-known Roman drains are the Cloaca maxima in Rome. A remainder of an underground,Roman sewerage system is this very day accessible in the Cologne old part of town.

In the early Middle Ages was lost the knowledge around the hygenic meaning of an arranged waste water disposal to a large extent, why it over centuries to devastating plague - and Choleraepidemien came. Only in the modern times became in due tothe industrialization cities an arranged waste water disposal grown strongly essentially. In the year 1739 Vienna was for the first time completely canalized as the first city of Europe. Only at 1842 in London with the building of the drains system one began. In Hamburg that developed after the large fire of 1842 starting from 1856first modern drains system on the European mainland.

drainage procedures

the waste water, which is seized by drains, are today the settlement waste water of households and small trades and to a large extent the precipitation waste water, which are derived from roof areas and sealed surfaces. Partially arrive alsoIndustrial waste water into drains. Because of the often very special pollution by mineral oils, salts or other chemicals usually special cleaning requirements result. Industrial waste waters are therefore often before-clarified in company-owned plants, before they are introduced in larger (public) systems.

Existed in Germany and Austria still tointo the 1960er years inside (in the rural areas into the 1990er years) many Hausfäkalkanäle from lowering pits and seeping pits, then in the last decades by the municipalities much was invested, in order to summarize these in-building stations in local drains and transmit the waste water purification plants. The public duct systemconsists of channels, pits, special buildings (storm overflow basin, pumping stations, curve buildings, discharge openings etc.) as well as, statute-dependently, connecting cables up to property borders and/or. Revision pits.

types after discharge

after the discharge one differentiates between the following drainage systems:


  • Are exhausted together to mixing drains house, industry and precipitation waste water.
  • Modified mixing drains
    waste water as well as precipitation waste water in need of treatmentare together exhausted. Precipitation waste water in need of treatment are not locally seeped.
  • Separation drains
    waste water in a channel, precipitation waste water in a separate channel is exhausted. Because of the usually small dirt freight of rain landing on water these are usually introduced directly in waters and are not treated in purification plants.
  • Extended separation drains
    Waste water and precipitation waste water in need of treatment are derived in separate channels. Precipitation waste water in need of treatment are not locally seeped.
  • Special procedures
    with remote buildings or settlements know, dependent on waste water arising and - condition, also pressure - or vacuum drainage procedures and storage in dischargeless Sammelgruben with disposal by vehicles for disposal thatWaste water to be used. Also during the local waste water purification by small sewage treatment plants (trickling filters, activated sludge processes, plant purification plants and broad irrigation) feed canals are necessary.

In Germany outweighs to today mixing drains, with which about 60% of the settlement areas of all inhabitants are drained. With the new building from plants becomes forwardseverything in populated areas however usually separation drains related. Also the drainage conception changed itself in the last years. From the derivative-oriented view and in the sense of an economic and ecological aspect the decentralized rain water infiltration wins locally increasingly in meaning.

types after size

afterthe size differentiates one:

  • To
    it belong to house drains pipe diameter DN 100 (10 cm) to DN 200 (
    20 cm) drains, toilets and in-house Gullis (the items of drainage). House drains are disposed into the public duct system or flow into waste water treatment units and/or dischargeless Sammelgruben in the direct proximity of theobject which can be drained. The items of drainage of a house become over traps (e.g.Siphon) attached and to the gutter-pipes drains. The gutter-pipes flow into the basic channel, which leads the waste water to the annexe pit. Possibly a sewage raising plant is necessary for low-lying projectiles. Around damage by back pressure from thatDuct system and from this resulting floodings to avoid, should be arranged all items of drainage over the back pressure level (mostly the road upper edge, there on overloading of local drains the waste water over the pits withdraws and therefore the water level in the local channel only to there to rise can).Back pressure safety devices are for items of drainage belowthe back pressure level to plan, are however not completely reliable, if these do not correspond to the relevant standards. Since in the building the drainage has to take place after the separation system, the drop line of the gutters may not be closed on the underground pipeline. This happens best in the revision pit. The gutter-pipesare to be aired out over roof, in order to prevent an empty sucking from traps to as well as to make a removal possible of the smells from the duct system. For this reason no traps should be intended also in basic channels.
    With the annexe pit and/or. in the drainage system access openings should be arranged. As material of house drainsmostly plastic, grey cast iron or stoneware are used. The material choice depends on the aggressiveness of the waste water, the pipe diameter, the processing and the costs.
  • To local drains pipe diameter DN 250 (25 cm) to DN 800 (80 cm) too these belong the connection channels, which flow into strassenkanäle, which tooSecondary and main sewers to be united. The main sewers transmit the waste water to a purification plant. Beside the power mains there are storage basins as well as storm overflows and storm-water basins, which flow directly into receiving streams. (Particularly within the rural range) if longer distances are to be overcome, pumping plants are often arranged, around the tubing cross sectionsand differences in height keep smaller to overcome to be able.

channels

usually exhibit sewers a downward gradient from 0,1 to 2% and a nominal size between 200 mm (and/or. DN 250 according to the newer technical rules) and z. T. several meters up. The channels are usually as Freispiegelleitungen so mentioned implemented, i.e. the water level in the pipe is under the tubing vertex; the channels are completely filled with waste water only in exceptional cases (e.g. with strong rain events with mixing or rain water drains). In special cases (small downward gradient in the catchment area or transportation lines) negative pressure systems becomeor pressure pipes uses. If the tubing downward gradient is too small or it is upward gradients to be overcome, additional pump plants must be planned. Between longer tubing sections Kontrollschächte lie. The lines have large cross sections compared with drinking water pipelines. Main main sewers in population centres can do committing and partly even with boats passably(e.g. the Geest Stammsiel with that Hamburg jetties) implemented its. For remote settlements (e.g. remote farmsteads to avoid weekend house settlements) are used decentralized small sewage treatment plants in exceptional cases also pressure or vacuum drainages or around long channels. Channels become today in the most diverse materials such as fiber-reinforced concrete, stoneware, Plastic or concrete implemented. In former times channels were up-bricked frequently from bricks or implemented in ceramic(s) pipes.

organization and costs

Germany

the building and the maintenance of public drains and the public waste water treatment plants (purification plants) are incumbent on the “sewage disposal-requiring”, in the rulethe respective municipality. This knows the sewage disposal obligation third, e.g. a waste water purpose federation transfer.

For new connections to public drains a connection contribution can have to be paid depending upon waste water statute. The use fees are usually accounted for with connection to a central waste water net after drinking water consumption. During decentralized connection(Small sewage treatment plant) in accordance with the driven off Fäkalschlammmenge one accounts for.

Austria

the establishment, preservation and enterprise of sewage disposal plants takes place via individuals, enterprises and enterprises, water cooperatives, municipalities and water federations.

The accounting of the drains costs is in Austria municipality thing. In principle it gives forthe current fees of the sewerage system of two accounting models:

  • after the surface of the attached building projectiles (more in ländl. Area)
  • after the water consumption from the drinking water pipeline (see drinking water and water distribution system, this distributor increased within the urban range applied).

In addition charges for being connected are to be paid with the new connection.

Work on []

Literature

  • Christian Berger, Johannes Lohaus: - Result of the DWA inquiry was entitled to drains 2004. KA-waste water, waste 52 (5), S. 528 - to 539 (2005), ISSN 1616-430X

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Drains - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)