|Administrative seat:||Santa Cruz de Tenerife|
|population|| Rank 8 of 17
1 of,915,540 inhabitants
| Rank 13 of 17|
- 7,447 km ²
|expansion:|| North south: ca.200|
west east: ca.500
|administration and politics|
|autonomy since:||16. August 1982|
|president:||Adán Martín Menis (CC)|
|- congress:||14 seats|
|- senate:||2 seats|
|Internet operational readiness level of the autonomous community Kanari islands|
the Kanari islands are one geographically to Africa, politically however to Spain belonging Inselgruppe in the Atlantic - about 150km west southern Morocco convenient. You belong to Teneriffa, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera, El Hierro as well as some smaller and partly uninhabited islands.
Table of contents
government and administration
the islands form together since 1982 one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain with at present 60 delegates. This community consists of two provinces: Palmas and Santa Cruz de Teneriffa read. The province capital read Palmas de Gran Canaria administers the eastern islands Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. Santa Cruz de Tenerife as the second province capital administers the western islands Teneriffa, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro.
The Gobierno civil of read Palmas is the superordinate instance, the there civil governor is simultaneous government delegates of Madrid. Local one administrative authorities are the own Cabildos Insulares of everyone of the seven islands, their union are called Mancomunidad de Cabildos. Those Cabildos Insulares are again in municipalities with one city hall each (Ayuntamiento) partitioned.
As Spanish the Kanaren belongs to area both to the European union and to the European customs territory, whereby they profit within some ranges from special conditions and oneRow from aid programmes and subsidies receive. As currency the euro at the 1 solved. January 2002 the peseta off.
The Spanish value added tax does not give it on the islands, but a clearly lower island tax is levied on goods and services. With real estate propertyone acquires automatically residencia, which brings reductions of 20%, for example with internal-Spanish flights and ferries, as well as many further privileges with itself. On the islands there are branches of the most important Spanish and many foreign banks. The moreover one those orderKanaren over two universities, on Gran Canaria in read Palmas and on Teneriffa in San Cristóbal de La Laguna.
geological seen are still young the islands with an age of approximately 30 million years. Afterall first excessive quantities it is to have given to only six Kanari islands, without considering the five small islands in the north Lanzarotes. One believes that Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were at that time connected with one another. These two islands, and also lot Lobos, do not becomementions individually.
Geological finds confirm that on the archipelago at the most for three thousand years humans live. No older fossils were found, which suggest humans. Anthropologi bone finds point out besides that it at least three groups in thisUrbevölkerung gave, which was also still differently distributed on the individual islands. To these three races descendants of the Cromagnon, the Berber and the negroide type of the black African belong. In addition, finds from this time show that it noneuniform Urbevölkerung to have given can, but that different immigrants established themselves at different times at different places. It probably besides hardly contacts between the islands gave, so that different languages, habits, rites and behaviors to have developed.
Like thoseNatives arrived in each case at the islands, cannot today not be reconstructed. There is a theory of a German historian that the Goten would have fought successfully in North Africa against the Romans, later however even struck by Arabs to the escape andto the Kanaren shipped are. This could stand for the theory that the Guanchen descends from the Goten, because they were predominantly largely, lightmembranously, naive and blond. Another theory assumes west African than native, those from a storm upa western island floated are, where they called themselves Alizuth, which meant as much as luck and joy. The Roman Kolonisation of North Africa of the 1. Century v. Chr. in the 3. Century n. Chr. humans have in in each casethe escape floated. To this epoch at least the historical documentation of navigation decreases/goes back at present the Phönizier . It is proven that the Phönizier around approximately 600 v. Chr. on behalf the Egyptian Pharaos Necho II.around Africa segelten. They would havethe islands hardly surveyed can do, it give however no proofs for an attendance.
Also Greeks are to have given a name to the archipelago: Elysius Parayso (country of the illusions and the joy). Shortly thereafter the Inselgruppe became as Campos Elyseos (Paradies)admits. It was said that these islands were a place, where humans led a calm, sweet life. Soon the name Campos Elyseos for poets and writers was a synonym for the lucky islands.
First founded reports without influencefrom mythology and speculations come from Romans the Plinius the older one. In its Naturalis historia there is a reliable description of the archipelago for the first time. Roaming across one wild dogs (Latin: ) arranged canes the Roman scholar to give to the islands the name Canaria.Many peoples, like Phönizier, will have been however not safe Karthager , Iberer , Romans , Etrusker , Goten and Mauren on the islands, documented certifications over it give it. Afterwards the islands sank into centuries a continuing Sleeping Beauty slumber, therethey apart of the run of world history into oblivion turned out. Thus a last stone-temporal culture, i.e. those the Guanchen, remained to beginning 15. Century receive.
That changed starting from that for 14. Century, as the Genuese Lancelotto Malocello around 1312 the island Lanzarote visited, and there until 1330 remained. It reached that from it discovered and one drew in in possession taken island in the map of the world of the Angelino Dulcert as Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus. Since that time Lanzarote carries its name. Overthese two decades of the Lancelotto Malocello on Lanzarote little is well-known, the social structures must at least in clock have remained, which changed later under Jean de Béthencourt. 1393 was already visited the islands by a sevillanischen fleet, which with manyIsland products in Spain Gelüste after the possession of the archipelago woke. The final conquest of the archipelago, the then southernmost Christianisierung, began 1402 by the Normannen Jean de Béthencourt and its companion Gadifer de la Salle. It became toward endthe same century of the catholic kings Ferdinand II. and Isabella I. terminated, which sent the conquerer Alonso Fernández de Lugo. Thus became in 15. Century the culture the native, who suppresses Guanchen, radically, so that today only little deliversis. To their leftovers belong to the Guanche in stone gemeisselte, writing-similar indications, dances, meals and few remainders of their old language. Many Guanchen were killed in battles, most however to the new settlers were subjected. But they also partly mixed themselvesby marriage with them. With the time some own rights, some received Ländereien were given, so that also today still some native its distant ancestors find with the Guanchen. Since these conquest courses the islands belong to Spain. As actualFounder of the Christianisierung of the Inselgruppe and so-called Missionar of the Guanchen applies the Spanish Franziskanermönch Didakus, Spanish for San Diego de Alcala, who had already traveled 1441 on the islands and who had created monastery Fortaventure on Fuerteventura.
One knew a further emigration wave between 1935 and 1940, in the time forwards and duringthe Spanish civil war and at the beginning of the Second World War, observe. At that time many Kanarier emigrated to South America, in particular Venezuela. Many this emigrant returned meanwhile, and elements of the South American culture and the linguistic usage have themselves on thatIslands with the Spanish mixes. Venezuela is called on the Kanaren therefore frequently “the respected island”.
, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Teneriffa, La Gomera consist geography the Kanari islands of the seven Hauptinseln, La Palma and El Hierro, six middle islands (Alegranza, Graciosa, Montaña Clara, lot Lobos, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste) and different smaller uninhabited islands and rock (like Anaga, Salmor andGarachico). They lie in the Atlantic in a geographical region, those as Makaronesien are designated (together with cape Verde, the Azores, and the larva Irish Republican Army archipelago). The highest mountain of the Kanari islands is the 3718 m high pico de Teide. It lies on the island Teneriffa and is at the same time of Spain highest collection.
the climate of the Kanari islands is due to its proximity to the northern turning circle between that 27. and 29. Degree of latitude the wholeYear over pleasantly, which brought in the surname “islands of eternal spring” for the archipelago. The sea adjusts the temperatures and the trade winds keeps away hot air masses from the close seeing era usually. Hoist brings hot air only rarely andDesert sand of the African continent. The daytime temperatures move the whole year over between approx. 20°C and 30°C. Climaticdetermining also the Wolkenbildung of the trade winds as well as the direction (northeast trade wind) are, from which the trade winds blow. The northeast of each individual island is usuallycoolly and damper pronouncedly than the dry and warm southwest.
Climaticbark (example Gomera)---------------------------------------------------------------------- Month January February MÄR April MAY June July August September October November December ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ø daytime temperature 21 21 22 23 24 25 27 29 28 2624 22 Ø night temperature 15 15 15 16 17 18 20 21 20 19 18 16 Ø sun hours per day 6 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 8 7 6 5 Ø rain days/month 6 4 3 2 2 10 0 2 5 6 7 Ø water temperature 19 18 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 21 20
the archipelago is only two flying hours of the iberischen peninsula, and about four flying hours ofCentral Europe removes. There are direct flights to the most important cities of Spain, Europe and the world. Each island possesses in the meantime its own airport, whereby the airports Tenerife Sur and Gran Canaria rank among busiest Spain. Also among themselves are thoseIslands by numerous airlines connected.
The moreover one the islands Teneriffa and Gran Canaria possess in each case one of the largest seas port of the world, based on expansion, ship arising and commercial activity. The islands are again connected with numerous ferries also among themselves.
the most important cities on the Kanari islands are (with indication of the number of inhabitants of the 1. January 2005):
- read Palmas de Gran Canaria (Gran Canaria) 378,628
- Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Teneriffa) 221,567
- San Cristóbal de LaLaguna (Teneriffa) 141,627
- Telde (Gran Canaria) 96,547
- Arona (Teneriffa) 65,550
- Santa Lucía de Tirajana (Gran Canaria) 56.268
- Arrecife (Lanzarote) 53,920
- San Bartolomé de Tirajana (Gran Canaria) 46.428
- La Orotava (Teneriffa) 40,355
- Puerto del Rosario (Fuerteventura) 30.363
- Loosely Llanos de Aridane(La Palma) 19,878
- Santa Cruz de La Palma (La Palma) of 17,788
by the eventful past of the archipelago are coined/shaped the cultural properties of the islands the result of a culture mixture, by Guanchen, Berbergruppen, European colonial gentlemen and thoseHabits and habits, which by trading vessel travel, mainly of the American continent, on which islands were brought. There are numerous archaeological find places, from which valuable finds in ethnografischen and anthropologischen museums are to be seen.
At many places and roads one can do historicaland artistic Monumente admire, whose architecture, sculpture and painting express the kanarische identity. The cultural life is enriched by exhibitions, theatre and music meetings by international rank. Traditions press themselves in celebrations with typical Trachten and kanarischer folklorethe individual villages out.Religion and heidnische rites of the natives mix themselves. The Latin American angehauchte Karneval with Samba rhythms and many colors is worth mentioning.
treasures of nature
the archipelago has in his autonomous community most national park of Spain(four of altogether 13):
- National park Teide (Teneriffa)
- Timanfaya national park (Lanzarote)
- Caldera de Taburiente (La Palma)
- national park Garajonay (La Gomera)
in addition come different protected areas, which constitute about 60% of the entire island surface. This fact is expression of the will and the necessity, oneto protect singular nature. By the preferential geographical situation and each island forms a kind mini continent for the special climate. It spends a sum of beach and snow, of rock and sand, from forests and deserts on the Kanaren, High mountains and flatten levels. On many islands there are endemic animal and plant types, D. h. that these occur only here.
to that Water regime of the islands, and/or. the precipitation, is particularly coined/shaped by the trade winds. Due to the height of the trade winds (off approx. 600/700 to 1700 meters height over NN) gives it serious precipitation differences on the individual islands. Islands such as z.B.Lanzarote hardly exhibit collections, which reach this height. The trade wind with its humidity blows directly over this island away.
As other example La Gomera may serve. Gomera rises clearly into the zone of the trade winds. To thatSlopes due to its height the wet forest in such a way specified was formed Gomeras. The anflutenden trade winds ascend here and condense as fog or also rain out (upward gradient rains). 70% of the water on Gomera originate in such a way from the wet forestand/or. the wet forest region. The lichens - and MOO vegetation of the wet forests (see picture) is a redsames example of precipitation over the fog.
to 26. November 2005 appointed Pope Benedikt XVI. Francisco Cases Andreu to the new bishop thatKanari islands. He became the successor on the same day of bishop Ramón Echarren Ystúriz withdrawn for age reasons.
- Joachim Pott, Joachim Hüppe, Wolfredo Wildpret de la Torre: ThoseKanari islands. Nature and culture landscapes. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-8001-3284-2 (representation of the Geobotanik ) Peter
- Schönfelder, Ingrid beautiful fields rich-illustrated: The cosmos Kanarenflora. Over 850 kinds of the Kanarenflora and 48 tropical ornamental shrubs. Franckh cosmos, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3440060373
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coordinates: 28° 32 ' 11 " N, 15° 43 ' 17 " W