Canton new castle
|canton new castle|
|principal place:||New castle|
|surface:|| 803 km ²|
|inhabitants:|| 167 ' 500 (2004)|
|population density:|| 209 Einw. /km ²|
|entry to the confederation:||1815|
|Website:||Canton new castle|
the canton new castle a canton is in the west of Switzerland.
Table of contents
the canton is appropriate in the geographical region Swiss of the Juras in the französischsprachigen Western part of Switzerland and can be divided into four large regions. Along the new citizen lake pulls itself a flat bank strip, “le suffer-orally” mentioned. The capital of the same name new castle lie toLakeshore. North of it, limited by the Chaumont, the Val de Ruz lies.
To the west of new castle, still in the lakeshore level, is the washing land cone at the delta of the Areuse. The valley narrows itself further west into a narrow ravineand then Val de Travers opens to the high valley. Between the Val de Travers and the new citizen lake is the chain of the Chasseron, which is however mostly on the area of the canton Waadt. The salient rock boiler of the Creux you Van forms the eastern end of this mountain range.
North the Val de Travers and the Val de Ruz pulls itself over the entire length of the canton a mountain range, which completely achieves its highest point in the east with the Chasseral.The most important passport transition is the Vue of the Alpes. Behind it are the Vallée of the Ponts and the high valley of La Chaux de fund. The ravine of the Doubs with the Lac of the Brenets forms a part of the border to France.
Ur and early history
archaeological finds placing certification of the fact that the area was settled by Megalithkulturen and celtic trunks already along the new citizen lake and the law south foot centuries before the Romans. After the spectacularFind of the “gold of the Helvetier “in the new citizen suburb La Tène was designated even one epoch of the celtic culture to the discovery site (La-Tène-time).
On height of the A5-Tunnels in Hauterive, east of new castle (Neuchatel), is the park “Laténium”,to the place of the “Musée CAN-tonally d´archéologie” stepped and latenezeitliche finds shows. The Pré de Riva, a further archaeological park is to only about 26 km on the southern side of the lake, far away in the canton Freiburg. It is thosereconstructed settlement of building of stakes of Gletterens, with Vallon.
the Middle Ages
in the Middle Ages develop many small towns and settlements in the two high valleys Val de Ruz and Val de Travers, in addition, along the lake, with for this time the characteristicChurches and castles, of those most from that 12. and 13. Century come.
under the protection of Berne, which exercised a kind of arbitral force over new castle, admit themselves underthe influence of the Reformators Guillaume Farel 1530 most municipalities of the counties Neuchâtel and Valangin for reformation. Only Cressier and Le Landeron remain catholic. During confusions of the reformation the thinly settled new citizens become mountain regions the refuge of many outFrance of fled Protestant families (Huguenots).
1707 dies Marie de Nemours and Friedrich I. from Prussia prince of Neuchâtel becomes in personnel union. The Prussian kings govern the principality from now on by governors, the theirSeat either in the lock of Neuchâtel or in Berlin have. As in completely Europe large emergency and hundreds of families prevail leave the region, in order to establish itself in Prussia depopulated by the plague also in new castle. At the end of of 1763 comes Jean Jacques Rousseau on the escape before pursuit by the catholic church in France and by the Protestant gentlemen in Geneva and in the canton Berne after Neuchâtel, where it the governor George Keith in coordination with the Prussian king Friedrich II. in Môtiers asylum grants. 1765 are forced Rousseau however on pressure of the Neuchâteller minister company, the Vénérable Classe ou Compagnie of the Pasteurs to leave the country. 1774 presents the brothers Jacquet Droz the three automats built by them to the being astonishedPublic.
the Nachwellen of the French revolution slosh also after new castle over and in the year 1792 proclaims new castle to be “mainly Swiss”. It goes as canton under the allegedly protecting coat of the confederation. 1794 becomeLa Chaux de fund by a fire nearly completely destroys. The reconstruction of the city on the drawing board planned with the goal of avoiding future conflagrations. As a result of the French revolution the family of the German writer and democrat George Forster refuge findsin Neuchâtel. His Mrs. Therese Forster geb. Heyne lives in Bôle and married after Forsters death Ludwig Ferdinand Huber. It belongs to the circle around the authoress and Salonière Isabelle de Charrière in Colombier.
1798 is taken new castle and Switzerland by the revolutionary French troops and 1805 leaves Friedrich William III. of Prussia the Principality of new castle at Napoléon. This uses his field marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier as prince of new castle. Already 1813new castle is occupied again by strange troops and Friedrich William III. from Prussia announces his requirement on the territory. By the Viennese congress 1815 is recognized new castle as “Swiss canton and Prussian principality”.
economics and industrialization
With the Huguenots kommem the early watch-and-clock-making industry and automation technology into the country. These bring also the Spitzenklöpplerei after Neuchâtel. In 18. Katz and jerk and the production of printed on material wallpapers the most important export articles of the neuchâteller industry developed again represent century . 1826 the Chocolatier Philippe search pool of broadcasting corporations lets its first chocolate factory in the new citizen suburb Serrières build and justifies thereby the well-known mark search pool of broadcasting corporations. 1833 are practically completely destroyed the city Le Locle by a conflagration and after the model of La Chaux de fundagain developed. One year later is opened in the city new castle the first academy and 1839 are shifted the torrent Seyon, which inundated the city new castle again and again, into pipes and led around the city. 1843 become in LaChaux de fund the first synagog of the canton opens.
in the year
1831 Neuchâteller democrat an attempt already undertook republican condition to fall the Ancien Régime restored after the Viennese congress. The rebellion was struck down however with the help of troopsand it succeeded to the governor Ernst von Pfuel first to keep the old order upright. At the 1. March 1848 revolts the new citizens population under the guidance of republicans from Le Locle and La Chaux de fund against the Prussian monarchs. The mountain inhabitantsmarch from La Chaux de funds over the Vue of the Alpes after Valangin and take the there castle. With the conquered cannons they threaten the city new castle. To 30. April gives itself the population a republican condition, and new castlecalls itself from now on “République et CAN clay/tone de Neuchâtel”.
after 1856 a royalistischer Putsch is struck down and Swiss federal troops threatens into new castle to march, a military exchange between Prussia and Switzerland. Under switching of Napoleon III. and Henri Dufour is peacefully settled the controversy and the Prussian king done in the contract of Paris finally without its requirement, may lead however the title “prince of new castle” further. In response Swiss of federal organs grant the rebel an amnesty. In the same year the first railroad line of the canton between Le Locle and La Chaux de fund is inaugurated.
the Absinth in Switzerland is forbidden to Absinthverbot and establishment of university. The Val de Travers loses thereby one its most importantBranches of industry. The family Pernod leaves Switzerland and again develops its factories in the French Pontarlier. 1910 become the Académie the Université de Neuchâtel.
cities and places
capital of the canton is new castle. Size of city is however La Chaux de fund, the well-known clock city in the midst of new citizens the Juras, which counts 37 ' 287 inhabitants (2004). With 31 ' 872 inhabitants new castle follows only in second place. Third biggest city of the canton is with 10 ' 351 inhabitants Le Locle.
Further larger municipalities are:
- Peseux, 5609 inhabitants (2004)
- to Boudry, 5008 inhabitants (2004)
- Colombier, 5029 inhabitants (2004)
for the complete list of the 62 new citizens municipalities see: Municipalities of the canton new castle
the canton is in six Office districts and four geographical regions arranged:
- Le suffer-orally (districts (Districts): Neuchâtel and Boudry)
- Val de Ruz
- Val de Travers
- Montagnes Neuchâteloises (office districts La-Chaux-de-funds and Le Locle)
see also: Districts of the canton new castle
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