Canton pc. Gallen
|canton pc. Gallen|
|rod bundle with hatchet|
|principal place:||Sank Gallen|
|surface:|| 2 ' 026 km ²|
|inhabitants:|| 457 ' 289 (2003)|
|population density:|| 233 Einw. /km ²|
|entry to the confederation:||1803|
|Website:||Canton pc. Gallen|
that Canton sank Gallen is a canton in the northeast of Switzerland.
Table of contents
of east Swiss canton borders at grey federations (s), Glarus (SW), Schwyz (SW), Zurich (W), Thurgau (N), the Bodensee (N) and in the east at Vorarlberg (Austria) and Liechtenstein. In addition it encloses the half cantons Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden
the canton is divided administratively into 89 municipalities, office language is German.
After the surface the canton reserves seat 6,the number of inhabitants after place of 5 under that altogether 26 Swiss cantons.
The highest mountain of the canton is the Ringelspitz with 3247 m over sea level, more well-known might however the Säntis (2502 m.ü. M) its. The largest pc. Galler lakes are the Bodensee, the Zurich lake and that Whale lake, all this however not exclusive on pc. Galler area lie. The largest lake exclusive on pc. Galler area is therefore the artificial lake Gigerwaldsee.
pc. Gallen had on the 1. January of 2004 457 ' 289 inhabitants. On the 1. January 2005 amounts to the population according to the Swiss federal statistics estimated on 459 ' 000 inhabitants.
In the last ten years the population of canton increased by 4.9%. The population hasin this time period particularly in the constituencies lake Gaster (8,6%), mountain (8,1%) and Rhine Valley (7,5%) increased, during it in the constituencies Toggenburg (0,0%) and pc. Gallen (1,6%) remained nearly alike.
From the total population 27% under 20 year old, 59% 21 - to 65-jährig, are 13% 66 - to 90-jährigand 0,4% over 90-jährig.
80% of the pc. Galler population are Swiss citizen. The foreigner portion amounts to thus 20%. These originate from the following nations (conditions 2000):
- Europe: former Yugoslavia: 8.6%; Italy: 3.4%; Germany: 1.8%; Turkey: 1.4%; Austria: 1.1%; Spain: 0.7%; remaining EuropeanCountries: 1.5%. Europe altogether (without Swiss): 18,5%
- overseas: Asia: 1.0%; Africa: 0.3%; America: 0.2%; Australia and Ozeanien: 0,015%
19,6% of the pc. Galler population (independent the nationality) are abroad born.
office language is German. Colloquial language is Swiss German. Due to thatexist to heterogeneous compilation of the canton by the Meditationsakte 1803 in the canton pc. Gallen different dialects, so among other things the Rhine valleys, the pc. Galler, the Toggenburger or the Sarganserländer dialect. The Rhine valleys dialect is related to the Liechtensteiner and the Vorarlberger dialect.
Until thatThe Middle Ages became in the southern areas of the canton pc. Gallen rätoromanisch spoken. For this reason are many geographical designations (localities, Weiler, mountains) in this area Roman origin. The there Swiss-German dialects have today still another Roman accent.
During the census 2000 88% gave to the pc.Galler on that their host language is German. Further languages: 2,8% slawische languages, 2,3% Italian. Other languages are far under-represent.
religions - denominations
there the canton pc. Gallen only 1803 from different territories created is, is konfessionell very heterogeneous it. Purely catholicis the northern prince country (once possession of the pc. Galler of prince abbott), but with exception of the traditionally reformed city pc. Gallen (once free realm city) as well as the southern parts of the canton (once subject areas of inside Switzerland), among other things the Sarganserland. The Toggenburg lain in the west is mixed, but predominantlyreformed, the Rhine Valley lain in the east is likewise mixed, but predominantly catholic (excluded in particular the reformed former zürcherische and glarnerische subject area from Sax and mountain).
52% are Roman catholic, 26% are Evangelist, 6% without denomination, 6% Islamic. Further 10% belong to other denominations.
condition and politics
the present canton condition dated from the year 2001.
legislative organ is the canton advice, that counts and by the people on a firm term of office by four years is selected 180 members. Over populars vote (mandatory referendum with constitutional amendments, fakultatives referendum with law changes, in addition people initiative) has also the people direct portion of the legislation. The tuning over a law 4 ' 000 voters can require to request in order to suggest a law require it the support by 6 ' 000 voters, and in order a constitutional amendment are 8 ' 000 votersnecessary. Finally 4 ' 000 voters can require a general quite-setting activity (unit initiative).
Allocation of seats in the canton advice after the elections of 2004 (in parentheses 2000 and 1996):
CVP 55 (62 - 66), SVP 45 (42 - 14), FR 35 (27 - 34), FDP 32 (40 -44), GP /Unabh ängige 10 (6 - 10), EVP/EDU 2 (2 - 2), AP/FPS 0 (0 10), Other one 1 (1 - 0).
the government has sieves equal members (government advice), those from the people on a firmTerm of office by four years to be selected.
The 2004/05 of acting government advice and their respective Departemente are:
- Building, Willi Hague (FDP)
- inside, Kathrin Hilber (FR)
- education, Hans Ulrich Stöckling (FDP)
- national economy, Josef cellar (CVP)
- finances, Peter Schönenberger (CVP)
- health, Heidi Hanselmann(FR)
- Law and police, Karin cellar Sutter (FDP)
the head of the provincial government for 2005/2006 are Willi Hague. Director/conductor of the state chancellery is undersecretary of state Martin Gehrer (CVP).
of courts on kantonaler level are the canton court, the court of cassation, the commercial court, the Administrative Court and that Insurance court; on regional level circle and labor courts insist; on local level the mediators.
the canton pc. knows municipalities as decentralized units. Gallen as normal case the political municipalities. See: Municipalities of the canton pc. Gallen
special municipalities are the local and the school municipalities, thoseit generally speaking canton does not give, furthermore the Evangelist-reformed and Roman-catholic Kirchgemeinden. The tasks of the earlier districts (see below) were transferred in the last years increasingly to other bodies; as institutions the districts were finally abolished with the new canton condition.
agency upnational level
at the Swiss national income has sank Gallen a portion of 5,3%, its financial power lies thereby with approximately80% of the Swiss average. The control load is with 1635 CHF per inhabitant (2002). Within the canton the control load is different. Thus Mörschwil exhibits a control load of 2798 CHF, while this is in stone SG about 784 CHF.
The canton pc. Gallen offers 237 ' 000 jobs(inclusive Partial time) on, i.e. per 100 inhabitant on average of 52 jobs.
major item: History of the canton pc. Gallen
the canton pc. Gallen became 1803 upon the request of the helvetischen delegate Karl Mueller Friedberg of Napoleoncreated. The area of the canton developed from the fusion remaining of the pieces of the helvetischen cantons Linth and Säntis remained less the restored cantons Glarus and Appenzell. This “bankrupt's estate” consisted of the following areas (after the size):
- So-called one. “Old person landscape” pc. Gallen, until 1798 central areathe former prince abbey pc. Gallen
- county Toggenburg, until 1798 of the prince abbotts of pc. Gallen governs
- county coffin to, to 1798 common rule of the confederation
- Vogtei Windegg with office Gams, to 1798 common rule of the confederation
- Vogtei Rhine Valley, to 1798 common rule the confederation
- county Uznach, to 1798 common rule of the confederation
- county mountain, until 1798 a subject area of the canton Glarus
- rule Sax, to 1798 subject area of the canton Zurich
- Rapperswil, to 1798 common rule of the confederation
the again formed canton pc. Gallen steppedtogether with the other new cantons Thurgau, Waadt, Aargau, grey federations and Tessin than equal federal member of the Swiss Confederation. Briefly on the pc. gallischen territory of formed helvetischen cantons Linth and Säntis were dissolved.
The recent canton gave itself 1803 and 1814the first canton conditions and knew itself in the nachnapoleonischen time in relation to territorial requirements ehem. Prince abbott of pc. Gallen, Pankraz Forster, on the one hand and in relation to separatist canton parts on the other hand maintain.
In the condition from 1814 affairs became such as church due to the konfessionellen heterogeneity of the canton, before andSchool things not to the state, but the two (catholic and reformed) so-called “canton parts” surrenders, so that beside the general legislative large advice (today canton advice) also catholic and a reformed large advice was introduced (konfessioneller dualism).
1831 were introduced a representative-democratic condition, alsothe “people veto “already first directdemocratic courses exhibited and the past oligarchische regime replaced. 1861 took over the state after violent disputes the church public education. The strong Konfessionalisierung of the canton coined/shaped pc. Gallen however still far to in 20. Century inside. 1875 became that“People veto” by the fakultative referendum (a language right of the people against laws) replaces.
In the new condition of 1890 with the introduction of the people initiative (right of the people to suggest laws), the easement referendum and the people choice of the government advice the people rights were modernized. This Basic Law applied, with manyChanges, up to the decree of the today's condition of 2001, which summarized primarily the numerous constitutional innovations of the past hundred years and which reorganization of the canton sealed.
coat of arms
the coat of arms St.Gallens shows rod bundles with hatchet (also Liktorenbündel and/or. lat. Fasces mentioned). One finds the origin of this bundle in the Roman realm. Liktoren carried an official high with a hatchet for rod bundles ahead. The bundles was considered as symbol of the court force.
The revolutionary to France transferred their symbols. The Helveti republic took over that beside the Trikolore alsoRod bundle. The national figure of France, Marianne, was replaced however by Helvetia.
After Napoleon Bonaparte the canton pc. Gallen based, the rod bundles was taken over and shows today, under which circumstances the canton was created. Originally the pc. had. Galler rod bundle of eight staffs for the eight formerDistricts of the canton, today are it symbolically only five staffs.
To the canton colors: Green was considered as the color of the liberty. This is visible also in the coats of arms that likewise 1803 created cantons Thurgau, Waadt and that 1815 created canton new castle. White served as colorthe innocence.
cities and places
conditions numbers of inhabitants: 1. January of 2004
municipalities over 10 ' 000 inhabitants
- sank Gallen (70 ' 627 E.)
- Jona (17 ' 510 E.)
- Gossau (17 ' 036 E.)
- Wil (16 ' 745 E.)
- Uzwil (12 ' 085 E.)
- old places (10 ' 515 E.)
- book (10 ' 352 E.)
further one well-known localities
- Rorschach (8591 E.)
- to Wattwil (8192 E.)
- Rapperswil (7532 E.)
- bath Ragaz (4979 E.)
- coffin to (4927 E.)
- the game house (1246 E.)
for further municipalities see: Municipalities of the canton pc. Gallen
- Pc. Gallen with 113 ' 364 inhabitants (pc. Gallen, Eggersriet, Joke brook, Häggenschwil, Muolen, Waldkirch, Andwil SG, Gossau SG and Gaiserwald)
- Rorschach with 39 ' 583 inhabitants (Mörschwil, gold oh, stone oh, mountain, doing brook, Untereggen, Rorschacherberg, Rorschach and Thal)
- Rhine Valley with 62 ' 964 inhabitants (Rhine-hit a corner, Pc. Margrethen, outer one, Berne-hit a corner, bellows oh, Diepoldsau, Widnau, Rebstein, Marbach, old places, calibration mountain, upperguessed/advised and Rüthi)
- Sarganserland with 35 ' 652Inhabitants (coffin to, Vilters Wangs, bath Ragaz, Pfäfers, Mels, Flums, whale city and Quarten)
- lake Gaster with 58 ' 992 inhabitants (Amden, Weesen, Schänis, Benken, Kaltbrunn, Rieden, Gommiswald, Ernetschwil, Uznach, Schmerikon, Rapperswil and Jona (starting from 2007 Rapperswil Jona), ash brook, Goldingen and pc. Gallenkappel)
- Toggenburg with 45 ' 449 inhabitants (game house, alto pc. Johann, stone, Nesslau Krummenau, Ebnat Kappel, Wattwil, clearing paste, Oberhelfenschwil, Brunnadern, Hemberg, pc. Peter cell, Krinau, Bütschwil, Lütisburg, Mosnang, Kirchberg, Mogelsberg and Ganterschwil)
- Wil with 67 ' 680 inhabitants (Jonschwil, Oberuzwil, Uzwil, Flawil, Degersheim, Wil, Bronschhofen, Zuzwil, Oberbüren, Niederbüren and Niederhelfenschwil)
pc. Gallen in other languages:
German: Sank Gallen; French: Saint Gall; Italian: San Gallo; Bündnerromanisch: Son Gagl/Sogn Gagl; English: Sank Gallen (sometimes: Saint Gall); Czech: Svatý Havel; Portuguese: São Galo; Swiss-German: Sangallä; Latin: Sangallum; Romanian: Sfântul Gall; Japanese: ザンクト ・ ガレン
pc. Galler history 2003 in 9Volumes. Pc. Gallen 2003.
portal: Pc. Gallen: The portal pc. Gallen offers an overview to the articles over the city and the canton pc. Gallen.
Web on the left of
- official Website of the canton pc. Gallen
- official statistics of the federal office forStatistics
- geo portal - GIS information system canton pc. Gallen
Aargau | Appenzell Ausserrhoden | Appenzell Innerrhoden | Basel landscape | Basel city | Berne | Fribourg | Geneva | Glarus | Grey federations | Law | Luzern | New castle | Nidwalden | Obwalden | Create-live | Schwyz | Solothurn | Pc. Gallen | Tessin | Thurgau | Uri | Waadt | Whale-read | Course | Zurich