Table of contents
capital in the political economy
One differentiates between the following “capitals” of a national economy:
it possesses - like other economic goods - the characteristic of the scarceness. From the characteristic of the scarceness the interest on capital develops. ThatInterest on capital is the use fee of the capital. The scarceness of the capital can have been natural origin or produce artificially. The capital is passed on only against a use fee, the interest on capital. The owner of non--capital must exchange work for the interest on capital. Is this exchange relationshipdisturbed, economic crises develop. The owner of capital can also refuse the use of its capital. It can require a too high use fee or refuse the use completely.
There capital (see below) fortunes is economical, can it at the market on the offer sidein few hands or in only one hand concentrated its (“Kapitalkonzentration”), appears then thus as oligopoly or even monopoly . This favorable position can be understood as an additional “capital”.
capital in the economical Gesamtrechnung (VGR)
inthe VGR is usually spoken of the fortune, less of capital (z. B. Net assets, fixed assets, in addition, capital stick, gross and net financial resources). If one looks for overall economic data over “capital”, one must thus in the VGR afterData over “fortunes” look for.
capital in the marxism
with Karl Marx is capital an amount of money G, which is invested, in order to back-get more moneys G'. Contrary to the political economy thus capital is not with Marx a factor of production,this would correspond to means of production, but a certain value, that with the goal is invested of obtaining increase in value.
The capital formula after Marx is:
money G is invested in goods W. ThoseGoods W are used in the production process P as means of production and paid human work, in order to create new goods W'. The points are to represent that the circulation process of the goods is interrupted here. By the human work thereby the value becomes thatGoods W keep added and an additional value. A new value is added, since the human work more value creates, than the owner of the worker, who hired hand receives, for his worker as wages paid off. Thus the value is thatGoods W' more highly than the value of W and the goods W' are sold for the equivalent in money G'.
The capital goes through thus different forms, it goes through different metamorphosis :
- G available capital
- W goods capital
- P productive capital
- W' goods capital
- G' available capital
for the profit p applies: p = G' - G
and for the profit rate p' applies:
In the capitalism analysis of Karl Marx capital also “run work “one calls, ifone on the fact takes off that capital the value of means of production such as building, machines, materials etc. is. The value of these means of production determines itself like the value of all goods in accordance with the work value teachings according to too their production necessary work time. To that extent one can of“more run”, “dead” etc. Work speak, which is in these means of production in it.
“Lohnarbeit creates capital, i.e. it creates property, which exploits and only on this condition increase can the Lohnarbeit that it produces new Lohnarbeit, around it again to exploit ". Marx'Hauptwerk the capital is probably the most famous to the political economics.
Principal one is a joint product and privately acquired in capitalism. The Lohnarbeit is the basis of capital. The Lohnarbeit creates increase in value, this divides on into individual Konsumtionsfondsthe capitalists and into a so-called. Accumulation fund. Principal one is thus both: “A part of the increase in value of the capitalist used accumulated as Revenue verzehrt, another part than capital or. “(The capital, Bd. I 7. Absch. Accumulation process of the capital) althoughthe capital by humans is made, the product of human work is, seems it nevertheless opposite humans own forces to have, similarly as a Fetisch opposite humans, who believe in it, special forces exhibits. Marx speaks therefore of Kapitalfetisch beside the money and Warenfetisch.
In detail Marx differentiates still
as well as different compositions of the capital:
- technical composition of the capital.
- Value composition of the capital
A further distinction of different kinds of capital:
- Industrial capital (profit of the industrial capital)
- commercial capital (profit of the commercial capital)
- financial capital
- available capital, capital bearing interests(Interest as part of the increase in value)
- fictitious capital
important tendencies of the capital are with Marx
capital in the management economics
in the closer economical sense is „capital “a werthaltige thing, those for the enlargement of its ownWorth is used (money buys work and means of production, in order to sell the product with profit ; to set or it as credit assigned around an identical business on). In the balance it becomes accordingly upthe credit side books.
One can therefore divide principal ones into:
- Available capital (cash or Buchgeld)
- special capital also goods mentioned (for example machines, apples, telephones)
- claim to capital (for example demands, proof of indebtness, credits, shares, derivatives)
human capital takesa privileged position. From economic view is human capital:
- theoretically not increasable special capital (the Vermehrung of humans hardly obeys economic needs)
- practically increasable special capital (the number of humans is at present much larger than the economic need according to it. The value of theHuman capital often only by education is produced and is with the strength of the education increasable.) social capital
therefore represents in newer economiceconomics views an advancement of the human capital concept, there it the informal and institutionalized relations between the participants than carriers ofPrincipal one regards.
From the capital to to differentiate are the real property, thus the order above ground and soil as well as there degradable raw materials: Here no value, but the need to business factory sites, field, dwelling, mining industry, etc. becomes larger. used around one To raise interest for the use.
The fact that one can classify some capital under claim to capital, is very dangerous. If capital = claim to capital is, then this knows again claim to claim to capital and thatagain claim to claim to claim to capital etc. its, so that this “claim chain” can end in itself. In this case the value of this capital, but only of the discretion that depends however not longer on outside factorsevaluating market participant.
A further capital term in the closer economic sense is the buchhalterische capital term, which seizes the special computational collection of the capital. The static view of balance interprets the balance as a balance on capital account. The passive side shows the own and outside capital (central origin), duringthe assets side the pieces of property, in which the capital is put on and which represent covering for the capital, points out (utilization of funds).
these writing up reach capital term
in the sociology in the multidimensional culture sociology of Pierre Bourdieu into the economic senseonly insufficiently. Because here capital resources of objective and subjective structures and a fundamental order principle of the social world is simultaneous as well as within this framework a means for the characterisation of individual power. In the scientific literature the term becomes also asMetaphor for social power of groups and/or. Persons uses.
The allocation of the society in classes is defined along the order over different capital places. Bourdieu differentiates: economic capital, cultural capital, social capital and symbolic capital. Symbolic capital is to compare at the earliest with in former times immanent term prestige. Shortened it concerns here the reflection of all other capital forms in a distinktiven life-style. The symbolic capital obtains its value by the acknowledgment of the capital (its different forms)in the social field.
Cultural and social capital it can by expenditure by economic capital be acquired with which a primary function is assigned to the economic capital. But depending upon the positioning of a person and/or a class in the specific social field and/or social area is also the meanings of the respective capital form different. For example the cultural capital takes a central value in the universitären field.
further word meanings
the conception of “capital” is old and originates from the emergence of the cattle breedingin the new stone time (in the Neolithikum). The word is latin of origin (caput for “head”), so today still: This herd of sheep has approximately hundred heads. The capital in the today's sense becomes on latin summa capitalis, on the principal sum, led back (whereby principal sum is again a literal translation from latin).
In all other respects “capital” (when characteristic word “principal”) is colloquially often used as metaphor, so for instance
- Thatwas a principal error.
- Your capital is their undauntedness
- with the globalization its best capital is lost to the enterprises: the loyalty of their managers and staffs.
|Wiktionary: Principal - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Karl Marx, the capital, capitalism
- nature capital, financial capital
- social capital, social capital
- restaurant capital
- capital controversy
- Pierre Bourdieu
- human capital
- capital stock
- capital stock
- Heinz j. Bontrup: Work, capital and state. - Final speeches for a democratic economy. PapyRossa publishing houseCologne. Third edition 2005.ISBN 3-89438-326-7
- Heinz j. Bontrup: Political economy. Bases of the micro and Makroökonomie, Oldenbourg publishing house. Second edition, Munich, Vienna 2004. ISBN 3-486-57576-7
- Heinz j. Bontrup: Wages and profit. Oldenbourg publishing house. Munich, Vienna 2000. ISBN 3-486-25164-3
Web on the left of
fictitious capital in the culture-critical encyclopedia