Karl IX. (France)
Karl IX (* 27. June 1550 in Saint Germain EN Laye; † 30. May 1574 in Vincennes, king of France 1560 - 1574. Karl IX. the second son of Heinrich was II. of France and its wife Katharina of Medici. ItsReign is dominated of civil wars and the spectacular massacre at the French Protestanten in the Bartholomäusnacht.
table of contents
first Huguenot war
Karl IX. Franz II. followed its brother. to 5. December 1560 on the throne, first under the guardianship of its nut/mother Katharina of Medici. Under its older brother Franz' II dominated the French policy the duke Franz ofGuise, whose niece was the wife of the king, queen of Scotland and potential catholic queen of England, Maria Stuart. In order to limit the power of the Guise, strengthened Katharina of Medici the power of the Protestant Nebenlinie of the king house, the Bourbonen, (after the Valoiseven) höchstrangigen French aristocracy dynasty. Maria prepared a moderate religious tolerance edict. Franz of Guise reacted to it with the blood bath of Vassy at the French Protestanten, the so-called Huguenot, organized by it, who to the first Huguenot war 1562 - 1563 led: Distribution of the port Le Havreat England by the pressed Huguenots, devastation of normandy (special of Rouen), murder of the victorious catholic Führeres Franz of Guise 1563 by a Huguenot from the attendants of admiral Coligny. In the edict of Amboise 1563 the king granted closed freedom of religion to the Huguenot outside of that, On it however Le Havre can recover cities (and breaks thereby with the repressive religion politics of its predecessors).
second and third Huguenot war
in the following years traveled Katharina of Medici with the king under age by Southern France, but missed its goal, France behind their sonto one. A dynastisches meeting with their to Spain with Philipp II. traumatisierte if the Huguenots married daughter again, the Spaniards did not hold 1565 however from the destruction of the French huguenot colony in Florida. Also the Portuguese destroy the French huguenot colony in Rio deJaneiro in Brazil.
The Spaniards established a terror regime in the united Netherlands to 1567. The Huguenots assumed a anti-Protestant Komplott and reacted with the offensive second Huguenot war 1567 - 1568, with which they used and their position improve could Protestant foreign troops. In Third Huguenot war 1568 - 1570 lost the Huguenots these profits: In peacetime of pc. Germaine EN Laye was confirmed into for instance the edict by Amboise. Admiral Coligny became leader of the Huguenots, Heinrich of Guise leader of the catholic party.
Bartholomäusnacht and fourth Huguenot war
the admiraland Protestant army leaders de Coligny a anti-Spanish policy, which the united Netherlands release from the Spanish rule, publicised, whom the freedom of religion should win Protestant faith comrade in the Netherlands and break the Spanish-Portuguese monopoly on colonies in America. It won the support for this program of theyoung king, who wants to separate at Spain throat and from the dominance of the nut/mother. Relating to domestic affairs admiral Coligny wanted to establish the Huguenots as the party, which represents most consistently the national French interests. The national reconciliation should finally by the marriage between Margarete of Valois (Margot), the sister of the king, and the 20-year old Heinrich of Navarra from the house Bourbon, the later Heinrich IV. (France), to be sealed. The life-merry Margarete could not expect better marriage more.
During the wedding celebrations in August 1572 an attempted assassination on admiral failedde Coligny, and Katharina of Medici and the king leave to the wedding to of Paris flowed Huguenots niedermetzeln: So-called blood wedding or Bartholomäusnacht. The massacres expanded also on other cities, about 30,000 Huguenots lost their life. The caught Heinrich of Navarra hadto the catholicism, becomes gradual as now the oldest male Bourbone the leader of the Huguenots converts. In the following fourth Huguenot war the leaderless Huguenots were back-pushed on few bases in southwest and Southern France, particularly on the port La Rochelle at the Atlantic. They attained only therefore a bearablePeace, because the brother of the king should be selected to the king by Poland; in Poland at that time religious tolerance prevailed, and a certain measure of religious tolerance also in France was therefore necessary.
with Elizabeth of Austria:
with Marie Touchet:
- Charles, duke of Angoulême (* 28. April 1573, † 1650)
succession to the throne
Karl IX. a daughter was Maximilians II. since 1570 with Elizabeth of Austria., marries,but no son rose from the marriage. Thus after his early death 1574 its brother Heinrich III. followed it., which preferred the French crown of the Polish crown.
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|SHORT DESCRIPTION||king of France 1560 - 1575|
|DATE OF BIRTH||27. June 1550|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Saint Germain EN Laye|
|DYING DATE||30. May 1575|