Karpaten

Topographie der Südostkarpaten
topography of the Südostkarpaten
Tatra - Czarny Staw Poland
Westkarpaten - Tatra - the valley “Dolina 5 Stawow”, Poland
Westkarpaten - Tatra - sea August point (“Rysy”), Poland
Westkarpaten - Tatra - sea eye (“Morskie Oko”), Poland
Waldkarpaten - Bieszczady - mountain brook Wetlina (“Sine Wiry”), Poland
Romanian Karpaten


The Karpaten (in former times: Karpathen, tschech., slowak. polarize and. Karpaty, ukrain. Карпати [Karpaty], rumän. Carpaţi, ungar. Kárpátok) are high mountains in Central Europe, Eastern Europe and South-east Europe. They form over 1.300 km are enough, 100 - 350 km broad, to the west for open elbow, that with Bratislava (press castle) and with Vienna as continuation of the alps begins and to the Porta Orientalis in Romania and/or at the iron gate ends.

Highest mountain of the Karpaten is with 2.665 m over the sea level of the Gerlachovský štít in the high Tatra - at the same time also the highest mountain of the Slowakei. Beside the alps the Karpaten forms the determining thingMountain system in Europe. Have portion of the Karpaten Austria, Tschechien, the Slowakei, Hungary, Poland, the Ukraine, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro.

Table of contents

name

the name Karpaten is before-Roman origin, the origin is disputed. To the suggestions belong that indogermanische kar (praise) and/or the Albanian karpe (rock) and * sker/ker (cut). The form Karpaten becomes in Greek (ó Karpátes oros [so with Ptolemäus, 2. Century n. Chr.], tó Karpafon oros), Roman (Carpates of montes, Carpatae) and central latin texts (Carpati of montes, Alpes Bastarnicae [Tabula Peutingeriana]) mentioned and was for the people of the Karpen (2. Century n. Chr.) eastern the Ostkarpaten name-giving. Since the name of before-Roman origin is, are older opinions that thatName derived from the slawischen word chrb (mountain comb) is wrong.

In the Roman time the Karpaten was called after the Sarmaten also Montes Sarmatici. In official documents of the Kingdom of Hungary from that 13. and 14. Century the Karpaten becamewhen Thorchal , calls Tarczal or Montes Nivium.

arrangement

the Karpaten were divided - similarly the alps - into different parts. Two arrangements are usual: on the one hand horizontal, on the other hand vertically.

horizontal arrangement

thisarises due to the age, the kind of rock and the kind of surface.

  • Exterior the Karpaten pull themselves from Vienna and from Bratislava over the border area between Tschechien and the Slowakei, then over the border area between the Slowakei and Poland (above thatGebrige Fatra, Tatra, Vihorlat), then over most Waldkarpaten, over parts of Romania up to a place north of Bucharest. Highest mountain is Babia Gora (woman Mrs.) (1,725 m).
  • The internal Karpaten corresponds to the remaining Karpaten. Simplifying can one say that the internal Karpaten covers the highest parts of the Karpaten (Tatra, low Tatra, Slowaki ore mountains, bend, Rodnaer mountains, Retezatgebirge, Munţii Paringului, Harghita - mountains and so on). The internal Karpaten becomes inthe Mittelslowaki block in the north, the Ostkarpati block and Südkarpati block in the southeast, which isolated Bihor massif in the Apusenigebirge as well as divided into the volcanic mountains. The volcanic mountains (Vihorlat, bend, Munţii Calimani, Gurghiuer mountains, Harghita mountains and so on), those the internaland recent part of the Karpatenbogens form, as an independent group (the “internal” Karpaten) are often separated.

vertical arrangement

this is based on geological-tectonic, physiographischen and rough morphographischen criteria:

  • Westkarpaten. These correspond to a large extent to the area of the Slowakei andthe adjacent areas of Austria (most northeast Austria starting from the Viennese basin), Tschechiens (eastern Mähren), Poland (southern Poland, region small Poland) as well as Hungary (northern Hungary). The border to the Waldkarpaten (Ostkarpaten in the broader sense) runs in the northeast of the Slowakei aboutalong the line Bardejov - Michalovce. The highest part of the Westkarpaten and the entire Karpaten at the same time is the Tatra (Gerlsdorfer point with 2.655 m ü.NN.). (Exterior) the Westkarpaten covers also a series of mountains, those traditionally the name Beskidencarry. The low Beskiden (sports club: Nízke Beskydy, pl:Beskid Niski) in the Ostslowakei and in Poland belong however already to (exterior) the Ostkarpaten.
  • Südostkarpaten (also: Ostkarpaten in the broadest sense):
    • Ostkarpaten in the broader sense: These consist geomorphologically of the Ostbeskiden(Low Beskiden + Bieszczady + Bukovské vrchy + the Lemberg - area in the Ukraine), the Ukrainian Karpaten (sports club: Ukrajinské Karpaty, ua: Ukrajins'ki Karpaty) and the Ostkarpaten strictly speaking. The designations of the individual main parts of the Ostkarpaten are quite disputed.The Ostbeskiden and the Ukrainian Karpaten become in the German linguistic area rather freely also as Waldkarpaten (sports club: Poloniny, ua: Lisysti Karpaty) designates. Sometimes however the Waldkarpaten is equated also with the Ukrainian Karpaten or however with the Ostbeskiden, whereby with thatOstbeskiden the additional problem develops that these are not exactly abgegegrenzt (see under Beskiden). In former times, but frequently also today still, even the entire Ostkarpaten in the broader sense than Waldkarpaten is designated. One follows - as in the today'sGeography spreads - the first partitioning managing specified, then the following organization of the Ostkarpaten in the broader sense results:
      • Waldkarpaten: The Waldkarpaten lies in the east slowakei (see above), in Poland, the Ukraine as well as a small piece in Romania. They end at the Prisloppass in Romania. Their highest collection is the Hoverla (Gowerla, 2,060 m) in the Ukraine, at the same time the highest mountain of the Ukraine.
      • Ostkarpaten strictly speaking: These lie completely on the area of Romania, between the Prisloppassand the Predealpass. With the Pietros they reach 2,305 M. Many mountain courses are volcanic (see above under internal Karpaten).
    • Südkarpaten (also: Transsilvani alps, filter citizen alps): They follow from the Predealpass to the west. They are in Romaniaand to the smaller part in Serbia. They reach with the Moldoveanu 2544 meters height. Most important mountains are that Fogara mountains and the Retezatgebirge particularly rich at mountain lakes. The Banater mountains is the last mountain course in the west. Romania marksthe Banater mountains and the Westsiebenbürgi mountains as Westkarpaten (Carpaţii Occidentali).

Flora and fauna

the lower situations of the Karpaten are wooded. The forest border varies between 1.150 m and 1,900 M. The vegetation and the animal world resemble toPart those of the alps.

The Romanian Karpaten covers the largest still existing, closed forest area of Europe. More than one third all in Europe large robbery animals still living in the wild - brown bears, wolves and Luchse - are here resident.

most important riverswith respective countries their source

in Austria and Tschechien:

in Poland:

in the Slowakei:

in the Ukraine:

in Hungary

in Romania

tourism

contrary to the alps- with exception of the Tatra - the Karpaten is not yet very strongly coined/shaped of the tourism.

larger cities

literature

  • briefly Scharr (Hrsg.): The Karpaten. Balthasar Hacquet and the “forgotten” mountains in Europe. Study publishing house. Innsbruck, Vienna, Bozen. 2005. 332 sides. ISBN 3-706-51952-6
  • Urs Beat Brändli, Jaroslaw Dowhanytsch (talk.): Jungles in the center of Europe. A nature leader by the Karpaten Biosphärenreservat in the Ukraine.Swiss federal research institute WSL,Birmensdorf; Karpaten Biosphärenreservat, Rachiw. Publishing house head. Berne, Stuttgart, Vienna. 2003. 192 sides. ISBN 3-258-06695-7
  • Henning black: Romanian Karpaten. Moving leader. Edition Aragon. 1995. ISBN 3-895-35043-5
  • Michael Schneeberger, franc Michael is enough: The Romanian Waldkarpaten. Maramures, Viseu de Sus and a excursioninto the Bukowina. Publishing house Schelzky & jeep. 1998. ISBN 3-895-41139-6
  • Rainer Slotta, peoples Wollmann, ion Dordea: The gold of the Karpaten - Rosia Montana and its mining industry to the exhibition in the German mining industry museum of 27. October 2002 up to 05. May2003. German mining industry museum. Bochum. 2003. ISBN 3-921-53395-3

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