the Kartäuser (lat. Ordo Cartusiensis, briefly: OCart) are a catholic half Eremiten - medal, which decreases/goes back to the holy Bruno of Cologne. Their Wahlspruch is: Stat crux dum volvitur orbis (the crossis certain, while the world turns).
Table of contents
1084 pulled itself the holy Bruno, the founder of the Kartäuserordens,with six companions after La Chartreuse, a lonely mountain area with Grenoble in France, back. The country was put to them by the holy Hugo, the bishop at that time von Grenoble, due to a vision at the disposal. He had seen in the dream,as sieve themselves in La Chartreuse stars established. Bruno and its companions built themselves small Eremitagen, the common rooms necessary for a monastery and a church. All areas were connected by a cloister. Soon them further men closedon, the community grew and for La Grande Chartreuse, the large Kartause, the nut/mother monastery of the Kartäuserordens, developed and gave for the medal its name. Bruno did not write a medal rule. The way of life of the first a settlers should be taken over simply by all future.Only after also in other countries men of the way of life of the holy Bruno followed, the life habits of the Kartäuser had to be laid down in writing. Thus the holy Guigo de Chastel, that wrote 1127 from 1109 to 1136 as Prior the large one Kartause led, which Consuetudines Cartusiae, which form life habits of the Kartäuser, which modify in few points, this very day the life rule of the medal. 1133 became the rule of Pope Innozenz II. approbiert. 1170 became the community of Pope Alexander III.asMedal recognition.
1145 united for the first time women, whom the way of life of the Kartäuser took over, and created thereby the female branch of the medal.
Despite strict life practice the medal spread at first rapidly. Thus there were in 12. Century 36 Kartausen, in 13. Century 69, in 14. Century 175 and in 15. Century 220. Its bloom time had the medal in the late Middle Ages at present the Mystik. The movement of the Devotio had a special influence on the development of the medalmoderna, in whose course the phenomenon of the Stadtkartausen arose. Kartausen based up to that time into remote areas, now however came it to reestablishments in cities, for example in London and Cologne. Stadtkartausen became centers of the human.
In 16. Century used a stagnation; the number of the Kartäusermönche and - nuns falls since this time continuously until today. In England the Kartäuser under king became Heinrich VIII.pursued, since they refused itself recognizing it as head of the church of England.In particular against the monks of the Londoner Kartause the king proceeded brutally. In the course of the clearing-up the use of the kontemplativen Kartäuser was placed in question and many Kartausen was waived, for example 1782 among emperors Joseph II.
In Germany became with that Secularization all Kartausen waived. 1869 were created in Unterrath with Duesseldorf the Kartause Maria Hain as new Kartause on German soil. In the course of the culture fight all monks not realm-belonging from the realm area were proven, the Kartause could howevercontinue to exist. At the time of the national socialism the Kartause Maria Hain was not waived; their usefulness was recognized because of the extensive arm welfare service. In the large Kartause at present the national socialism resistance fighters were hidden.
Today the Kartäuserorden is the only medal, thatthe high-medieval ideal of a strictly kontemplativen life into the present kept. Other kontemplative medals such as Benediktiner and Cistercians opened in the course of their history of the world and tasks particularly within the ranges Seelsorge and teachingstaken over.
At present the Kartäuser counts 19 man monasteries with approximately 400 monks and 5 woman monasteries with approximately 75 nuns in Europe, America and Asia. In the German-speaking countries there is a man monastery of the Kartäuser, the Kartause Marienau, in Bath pepper oh, Baden-Wuerttemberg. She is inhabited since 1964 by monks. It was created as substitution of the 1869 established Kartause Maria Hain with Duesseldorf, since the Kartäuser had to withdraw itself because of the expanding large city from there.
„our effort and our appointment consist primarily of finding in the silence and in the isolation God. “(Statutes 12.1). The search for God in silence and isolation is common all Kartäusern. Depending upon suitability and personal mentality livesthe individual Kartäuser its appointment. The Kartäuser differentiates therefore three kinds from monks:
- Priest monks (lat. Patres), also choir monks or because of the cells arranged around the large cloister, them inhabit also cloister and/or. Cell monks mentioned,
- brother monks (lat. Fratres conversi), also layman brothers or Konversen mentioned, and
the Patres live built small little houses with garden into around the large cloister. The little houses consist of fourAreas: When entering the Pater arrives to the cell first into a Vorraum, which connects the little house with the cloister. This area is called Ava Maria, an area with a Marienaltar, in that the Pater when entering and leaving the little housea Ave Maria prays. The main area is the Cubiculum with a workbench, a table to the meal, a small Oratorium, a wardrobe, a bed and a furnace. The little houses are heated over a wood furnace, for that the Pater that Wood chops. The Patres sleeps on a straw bed. The wet cells of the Kartäuser have traditionally only cold water. Also a handicraft area belongs to the little house, in which the Pater chops the wood for its furnace and follows to its manual work. The little housesare traditionally zweigeschossig, however when modern establishments are also single-storey built.
routine of the day
the routine of the day of a Paters begins around 22:40 clock. After four-hour sleep he assists the first time up and begins the Offizium,, after the Psalm word exists the Kartäusern still from eight prayer times ( Matutin, Laudes, prime, third , Sext, Non, Vesper and Komplet): „Seven times on day I sing your praise and rise at night I,in order to praise you. “(see. Psalm 119.62,164). Gebetet becomes both the canonical Offizium as well as the Marienoffizium, partly alone in the cell, partly together with the other monks in the chapel. Against 01:30 clock is the Nachtoffizium, out Matutin and Laudes exist and by all together in the chapel gebetet, are terminated and to the Pater put to a second, four-hour sleep to bed. Around 05:40 clock he rises for the second time. Then a further standsPart the Offiziums as well as view time on. Around 07:00 all Patres in the chapel meets clock to the 15-minütigen Anbetung and following convention fair. Afterwards the Patres, everyone celebrates for itself, in small chapels quiet fairs, if necessary. with a Novizen as a Ministrant. In the further process of the daily alternate prayer (altogether about 8 hours), study and manual work . Night rest is at the latest around 19:00 clock. The Patres eats except on Sunday, on which the lunch takes place together in the refectory, however. Breakfastthere are not noon and dinners for the Patres traditionally, only. In the winter term, from cross increase to Karsamstag, there is only at noon a warm meal and in the evening something bread and a beverage. A common Rekreation gives it only Sundays. Weeklya common four-hour walk (spatiamentum) takes place the Patres.
the training as the Pater takes at least seven years. Who wants to occur as Pater the medal, at least 20 years must be old and oneGraduation, that to the higher education entitled, in the German-speaking countries thus Abitur and/or. Matura. Besides it must have been able to sing knowledge in latin and. Both it can acquire itself in addition, still after its entrance into the medal. Beside theseoutward conditions consider the Kartäuser above all the internal attitude of a candidate important. Who would like to occur the medal, must be able itself to identify with its Spiritualität. A prospective customer spends first one Probezeit (postulate) from three to twelveMonths in the Kartause. In this time it is to learn the habits of the monks to know and examine whether it is suitable for their way of life. Turned around also the medal examines in this time whether the candidate for the Kartäuserleben is suitable.If the postulate is terminated and if the candidate decides to remain, then by the Patres it is co-ordinated, traditionally with black and white beans whether the candidate may remain. If the Patres is correct for the candidate, then his admission follows in the Noviziatand its coating, D. h. Clothing with the monk garb, consisting of a naturfarbenen Tunika and a Skapulier with hood in same color. For the duration of the Noviziats the Novize carries a black coat over its Habit outside of its cell in addition. The Noviziat takes two years, whereby the Novize begins at the second Noviziatsjahr with the medal-internal study of theology. After completion of the Noviziats the candidate must decide again whether he wants to go the way in the medal further andthe Patres co-ordinates again on its remaining. If the monk remains in the medal, then it puts the Ordensgelübde down now for three years (Profess) and commits themselves thereby for three years at the medals. It becomes a Jungprofesse.These Gelübde are then renewed for further two years. If thereafter medals and monk decide for each other, the monk puts the solemn Profess down and commits themselves thereby lifelong at the medals. All choir monks become traditional with the Kartäusernto priests geweiht. „The cell monk becomes after the model Christi priest and victim, God at the same time the lovely Wohlgeruch, and by the community with the victim of the gentleman he receives portion of the unfathomable wealth of his heart. “(Statutes 3.8) if afterthe decision of the Priors the time that the monk receives the consecrations, this first the Diakonenweihe and at the earliest six months came after the Priesterweihe are donated.
beside the Patres live brother monks in the Kartausen also.„The brothers have their own form of the lonely life. They provide by their work for the needs of the house, which are entrusted to them in special way. Owing to the assistance of the brothers itself the cell monks the free silence of the cell can hang-evenly “(statutes 11.5). While the Patres dedicates itself primarily to the prayer, the manual work is more strongly stressed with the brothers. Patres and brothers complement each other in their ways of life mutually. The Patres could not get along without the brothers, who supply her, andthe brothers could not get along without the Patres, which donate the Sakramente to them and care for them seelsorgerisch.
The brother monks live separately from the Patres in their own building. Traditionally the brothers do not have own house, but only one room, thatcorresponds to the Cubiculum of the Patres. During the day the brothers leave their cell, in order to work in their workshops (Oboedienzen) or other fields of activity (gate, monastery administration , vestry). So that the brothers can fulfill their tasks, apply to them lessrules. Like that the daily Offizium is not as extensive as that the Patres. Also less strict chamfering rules apply to it. Thus there is breakfast for the brothers also. In addition the examination regulations for it are less strict. Primarily the brotherssettles all necessary one in the surrounding cities.
Mainly the brothers provide by their activities relating to crafts for the maintenance of the Kartausen. The Kartäuser for its animal and plant breeding (Kartäuserpferde, Kartäuserrosen) is famous. The Karthäuser carnations are likewise designated after the medal. Main source of incomethe medal is the well-known Kartäuserlikör Chartreuse, which is made in its own factory in Voiron (the close large Kartause) of a mixture of 130 herbs and sold from there into all world.
Who as a brother into a Kartauseto occur, must at least 20 years would like be old and have an final professional training, preferably a relating to crafts. The training way is similarly that the Patres. After the postulate, which lasts 3 to 12 months, the coating and the admission take place in the Noviziat,two years takes. Afterwards the brother puts his first Profess for three years and to it afterwards a further Profess down on two years. If it decides to remain oneself after this time, it commits itself in the eternal Profess foralways to the medal.
the Donaten have the same field as the brothers. They differ from them by the fact that they do not commit themselves with Gelübden at the medals, but with it a Donationsvertrag lock. Donatenhave the same training way as the brothers. After the first Noviziatsjahr, a Brudernovize can decide to become Donate. Instead of the temporal Professen on first three and then again two years, the Donate puts a temporal Donation on threeand then two years off. The eternal Donation follows, if the Donate liked to remain in the medal.
In the monastery live the Donaten in personal poverty, however they can have own possession outside of the monastery and freelythese have. In the organization of their routine of the day they are freer as the brothers and can get easements also otherwise granted.
1145 there are nuns also Kartäuserinnen. First their way of life still differed from that thatMonks. Regarding isolation and chamfered was not as strict the life of the sisters as that of the monks. Thus the nuns lived not in own little houses, but in separated rooms. They took the meal daily together and a common Rekreationit gave not only once in the week, but daily. Now the desire arose to live the Kartäuserideal more authentically with the Kartäusernonnen. Thus it came into the 1970er - years to the establishment of two woman Mrs., the one adapted to a large extent to the monksLives to lead wanted.1971 were referred the Kartause Beauregard ( with Voiron the close large Kartause) by sisters. 1977 came Kartäuserinnen into the Kartause Vedana (Italy), which so far by Kartäusermönchen was inhabited, by them however because of lack of recruits to be given uphad.1978 moved the community grown in the meantime from Beauregard into the again built Kartause Reillanne in the strike Provance. Today the medal counts altogether five woman conventions, of it ever two in France and Italy as well as one in Spain. In South Korea, where 2004 a Kartause were referred by monks, is also a woman convention in planning.
Also with the nuns gives three kinds of monastery members: Choir nuns, Konversschwestern and Donatinnen. The task distribution is in principle the same as with thatMonks. When desired the sisters receive the Jungfrauenweihe. The choir nuns perform sewing work or Paramentenstickerei in their cells as manual work primarily. The nun monasteries of a Priorin are led. The medal garb is like that of the monks natural colors. Over it the nuns carrya black veil. In addition in the Kartausen of the sisters in one own Gebäudetrakt live somewhat apart from the nuns three Kartäusermönche, two Patres and a brother. The Patres, those in the woman Mrs. the position of a Vikars and a Coadjutorstake, are responsible for the Seelsorge and Sakramentenspendung in the monastery. The brother helps the Konversschwestern with the resulting work.
With the building of the Kartause Reillanne lately in the medal according to become consideration, also the brothers became and/or. KonversschwesternLittle houses with garden to build, those the promotion of the isolation more beneficially are converted than simple rooms. The experiences with this innovation are good and so could them soon the medal-far standard become.
highest organ of the Kartäuserordensis the general chapter, which is held every two years in the large Kartause and of the Prioren of the individual houses consists. This is to a certain extent the legislation of the medal. Of their a committee becomes, the so-called. Definitorium, selected, from eightMonks exists and to a certain extent the executive represents. During the general chapter all important affairs of the medal are to be regulated. In the time between two general chapters the medal is led by the Prior of the large Kartause, the Reverendus Pater, that, although itthe whole medal manages, only by the monks of the large Kartause one selects. As upper of an a settler medal it is subject to particularly strict examination rules and never leaves during its term of office the large Kartause. So it is for it not possibly, for example toTo travel holy chair to Rome and to represent the medal there. This takes over instead to it particularly a representative Pater.
The individual Kartausen is led by a Prior, which is selected by the monks of the respective house on two years.The deputy of the Priors is the Vikar. A power of attorney gate is responsible for finances. The Novizenmeister (Magister) is responsible for the training of the Paternovizen. The training of the brother and Donatennovizen normally takes over the Vikar.
To the preservation of the klösterlichen disciplineeach Kartause is visitiert every two years by two Prioren of other Kartausen.
The well-known saying Pope Innozenz' XI. Cartusia numquam reformata, quia numquam deformata (the Kartause was never reformed, there they were never distorted) points to the loyalty of the Kartäuserto their origins. However also the Kartäuserorden in the course of the time changes in its rules experienced. So for example 1917 the Beichte prescribed up to then had to be abolished with the Prior in adjustment to the church right. After second VatikaniCouncil at the beginning of the 1970er years „the renewed statutes of the Kartäuserordens were drawn up “. These were changed again last 1983, again in adjustment in the church right, and 1987.
basis of the Spiritualität of the Kartäuser is a lifein the expectation of the Wiederkunft Christi. Withdrawn in the isolation they worry themselves only to lead Christ to fallen and a life after the gospel in the follow-up Christi. Their Spiritualität can be summarized in the sentence: „To the praise thatGlory of God has Christ, which word of the father, by whom holy spirit chooses humans from the outset, in order to lead and combine in intimate love with itself it into the isolation. “(Statutes 1.1). A special value in the Spiritualitätthe Kartäuser takes the Jesusgebet .
Of the Kartäuser are characteristic their silence, their isolation and their prayer. The isolation of the Kartäuser means separation from the world, which is characterised in particular by the fact that they do without each Apostolat.They do not have a direct entrance to mass media. Only the Prior reads daily the newspaper and informs the monks about highlights. Visitors are not certified, annual except members of the coming unit RK members, those for two days into the Kartause to attendanceto come and prospective customers may. The life of the Kartäuser is mainly dedicated to the prayer. According to their way of life they have their own Liturgie, which is adapted to its way of life.
The Kartäuser is vegetarians. Strict chamfering times determine their life, then becomes for exampleeach Friday with water and bread gefastet. Breakfast does not give it traditionally with the Kartäusern, with the Kartäuserinnen is it however usually, in the morning after the fair a little thing, normally something bread and a beverage to take to itself. FirstMeal of the daily is the lunch. In the summer half-year, from Easter to cross increase, it in addition a warm dinner gives. In the winter term however the Kartäuser is content in the evening with something bread and a beverage.
All Kartausen is Maria, the mouldSingularis Cartusensium, which geweiht singular nut/mother of the Kartäuser, which are highest Patronin of the medal and take a special place in the Spiritualität of the Kartäuser. You to honouring are celebrated daily a Votivmesse, apart from the canonical hour prayer also the Marienbreviergebetet and three times daily the angel of the gentleman rezitiert. Second medal patron is the Hl. Johannes of the Täufer.
By its way of life the Kartäuser wants to give a certification to the world; they regard their consistently lived faith as the best lecture,it gives. They regard their lives also as deputy service for those, those not to pray to want or not be able and would like representatively penalty out of those, all those to carry, which are not aware of their sins.
Inevitably a way of life encounters, like it the Kartäuser leads, criticism. One accuses to them to isolate themselves from the world and to lock its eyes before the problems of its fellow men. Proponents of the way of life of the Kartäuser can argumentatively hardly disprove this criticism,it attacks nevertheless the basic principle of all kontemplativen medals, which is hardly comprehensible without faith.
Kartausen in the German-speaking countries
are listed here only Kartausen of the German-speaking countries. An international list offers the article Kartause.
- Kartause of ear-LG0-ok (gone down regarding the reformation)
- Kartause Buxheim (waived)
- Kartause Christian garden (today local part of Ederheim) with Nördlingen (waived)
- Kartause Mainz (waived)
- Kartause Trier (waived)
- Karthause Koblenz (waived)
- Kartause Cologne (waived; today Evangelist parish church)
- Kartause Maria Hain with Duesseldorf(shifted after bath pepper oh, see to Marienau)
- Kartause Marienau (existing)
- Kartause Nuremberg (waived)
- Kartause Tückelhausen (waived)
- Kartause Xanten (waived)
- Kartause Prüll (Regensburg) (waived 1803, today hospital church district clinical center)
- Kartause Aggsbach in Aggsbach village (waived)
- Kartause Gaming in Gaming (waived)
- Kartause wall brook (waived)
- Kartause Ittingen (1848 waived)
- Kartause La Valsainte (existing)
- Kartause pc. Margarethental (waived)
the former Kartause Gaming today.
Former Cologne Kartause. Today Evangelist parish church.
to medal history
- Karl S. Franc:History of the Christian Mönchtums. Prime US publishing house, Darmstadt 1996 ISBN 3-89678-500-1
- David Knowles: History of the Christian Mönchtums. Benediktiner, Cistercian, Kartäuser. Kindler, Munich of 1969
- monks of the Kartause Marienau (Hrsg.): Kartause Marienau. Fine-art publishing house Josef finch, lime tree mountain 2004 ISBN 3-89870-184-0
- Light courage Zschoch: The Christianity in the high and the late Middle Ages. Of the church reform of the 11. Century to the reform movement 15. Century. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Goettingen 2004 ISBN 3-8252-2520-8
over the holy Bruno
- Gerardo Posada: The holy Bruno, fatherthe Kartäuser. A son of the city Cologne. Vienna and, Cologne 1987 ISBN 3-87909-157-9
to the Ordensspiritualität
- Martin Beer: Dionysius' of the Kartäusers theory of desiderium naturale of humans after God-look. Hueber, Munich 1963
- Willibald bad ones: On lonely roadto God. The secret of the Kartäuser. Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 1987 ISBN 3-451-20997-7
- Norbert Brox among other things (Hrsg.): Early Kartäuserbriefe. 3. Edition. Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 2002 ISBN 3-451-22220-5
- Gabriel DiLorenzi (Hrsg.): God look. More genuinly, peppering castle 1996 ISBN 3-429-01758-0
- Augustin Guillerand: InFace of God. Prayer experiences of a Kartäusermönchs. More genuinly, peppering castle 1989 ISBN 3-429-01231-7
- Rudi Holzberger: Kartäuser. The alternatives of Marienau. In: GEO 3/1987, S. 36-54
- Robin B. LOCK-hard: Message of the silence. The hidden life of the Kartäuser. More genuinly, peppering castle 1992 ISBN 3-429-01087-X
- S. EHSingletary (Hrsg.):Where the desert erblüht. From the wealth of experience of an a settler monk. Publishing house new city, Munich 2004. ISBN 3-879-96632-X
- Wolfgan Riehle (Hrsg.): The book mentioned by the mystischen meditation: The cloud ignorance. Where the soul with God unites.7. Edition. Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 2004.ISBN 3-894-11292-1
- Robert Serrou, Kartäuser. Of the life in the desert. More genuinly, peppering castle 2002 ISBN 3-429-01944-3
the large silence 
Web on the left of
|Commons: Category: Carthusian Monasteries - pictures, videos and/orAudio files|
|Wiktionary: Kartäuser - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- http://www.chartreux.org - side of the Kartäuserordens.
- http://www.parkminster.org.uk - sp Hugh's Charterhouse (English).
- http://www.auladei.es - Cartuja de Aula Dei (Spanish).
- http://www.cartuja.org - Cartuja de Miraflores (Spanish).
- http://www.kartuzija-pleterje.si - Kartuzija Pleterje (multilingual, also German).
- http://www.vedana.certosini.info- Chartreuse de Vedana (French).
- http://selignac.chartreux.org - Centre laïque de Vie Cartusienne: La Communauté sp Bruno de Sélignac (multilingual)
- http://www.heimatdienst-buxheim.de/Kartauser/kartauser.html - medal history and Kartause Buxheim.
- http://www.certosini.info - Museo della Certosa di Serra San Bruno (Italian).
- http://www.angelfire.com/nv2/monastic2/Carthusian/home.html - extensive one private web pagewith information and pictures (English).
- http://www.chartreuse.fr - information to the Kartäuserlikör (multilingual).
- http://www.chartreuse.de - information to the Kartäuserlikör (German).
- http://www.kartause.ch - web page of the Kartause Ittingen (Switzerland)
- http://www.kartause.net - web page of the association of the friends of the Kartause Aggsbach with information to the Kartause Aggsbach (waived)
- http://www.kartuzi.pl - side of the Kartäuserordens (Polish).
- http://www.die-grosse-stille.de - web page of a documentary film over the life in the nut/mother monastery “La Grande Chartreuse” (direction: Philip Gröning, D 2005, 162 min.)
monk medals: Benediktiner | Kamaldulenser | Kartäuser | Trappisten | Cistercian
Regularkanoniker: Augustiner choir gentlemen | Prämonstratenser
begging medal: Dominikaner | Franziskaner | Kapuziner
knight medal: German medal | Malteserorden | Templerorden
Regularkleriker: Dehonianer | Jesuiten | Legionäre Christi
Klerikale Kongregationen: Steyler of mission acres