Kazakhstan

ҚазақстанРеспубликасы (kasachisch cyrillic way of writing)
Qazaqstan Respublїkası (kasachisch latin way of writing)
Republic of Kazakhstan
Flagge Kasachstans
Wappen Kasachstans
(detail) (detail)
office language Kasachisch (national language), Russian
capital Astana
system of government Republic of
president Nursultan Nasarbajew
head of the government Danijal Achmetow (since May 2003)
minister of foreign affairs Qassymschomart Toqajew
surface 2.717.300 km ²
Number of inhabitants 15.143.700 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 5.57 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 2,001 US-$ (2004)
independence from the Soviet Union to 16. December 1991
currency Tenge
time belt UTC +4 to +6
national anthem Menin Kazakhstanym
Kfz characteristic KZ
Internet TLD .kz
preselection +7
Weltkarte, Kasachstan hervorgehoben
Karte von Kasachstan

Kazakhstan (kasachisch Қазақстан/Qasaqstan, in the new kasachischen latin writing Qazaqstan; Казахстан /Kazakhstan) a state is Russian in central Asia and - one regards the river the Urals as border between Europe and Asia - to a very smallPart in the outermost Eastern Europe. In Kazakhstan one sees oneself primarily in the center Eurasiens. Kazakhstan borders in the north and the west on Russia, in the southeast on the People's Republic of China, in the south on Kirgisistan, Usbekistan and Turkmenistan and in the southwest to the Kaspi sea.

Table of contents

geography

Kazakhstan is with its 2.717.300 km ² the ninth-largest country of the earth. It lies rather exactly in the center Eurasiens and pullsitself of the level of the Volga in the west up to the Altai in the east. The Tienschan - mountain course, the Aral Sea and the Kysylkum - desert forms the southern delimitation. Northward Kazakhstan without natural delimitation is enough into the westSiberian low country inside. The largestPart the country consists of levels (quilt and desert), in the northwest is the Mugodschar mountains, in the center the Kasachi threshold, while in the southeast mountains of the Tienschan up to 7.010 m rise.


landscapes

The relief of Kazakhstan is very various, whereby however the largest part of the territory consists of levels, low mountains and hills. The west of the country of Kaspi lower coined/shaped, a usually swampy area below the sea level, inThe east into the Ustjurt plateau over goes. West this plateau, on the Mangghystau peninsula, is the deepest place of Kazakhstan, Karagije lowering (- 132 m).

From the east becomes Kaspi lower by the southern Ausläufer of the Urals - mountains limits, to 656m high Mugodschar mountains. Southeast continues to lie around the Aral Sea Turani lower, also the largest deserts of the country closed, the Kysylkum, as well as the Aralkarakum. In the center from Kazakhstan is the Kasachi threshold (kasachisch Saryarka), an area with many medium sized (500 to 1,500 m) mountains and mountains like the Ulutau, the Kökschetau or the Karkaraly, coined/shaped by steppes and half deserts. In the northwest the Kasachi threshold of the Turgai plateau and in the north becomesfrom the westSiberian level limits. In these regions the landscape by fruitful steppes and forest steppes with many lakes and rivers are coined/shaped. In the east of the republic are with forests covered the mountain chains of the Altai, the Siberia of thatCentral Asian deserts separate. The highest mountain is the Belucha (4,506 m).

South for the Kasachi threshold is appropriate hunger-quilt (kasachisch Betpak Dala). South this quilts and the Balchaschsees lies a belt of deserts Mujunkum and in the past the fruitful filter current country. Completely in the south of Kazakhstan, at the borders to China and Kirgisistan, high mountains lie like the Dsungari Alatau, the Karatau and above all the Tienschan (Chinese: “Sky mountains”); the latter is one of the highest mountain chains of the earth. Partly ofForests and of glaciers covered mountains reach in particular in the neighbouring Kirgisistan 7,439 meters height. The highest mountain of Kazakhstan is convenient the Khan Tengri (7,010 m), in the extreme southeast.

there

are water resources in Kazakhstan some important rivers,are also navigable. They all flow however in the edge regions of the country, in the central part against it give it almost exclusively dischargeless steppe rivers, which drain in the high summer frequently, similarly as for example Australian brooks, there Creek mentioned.

The longest riversKazakhstan are Irtysch (4,248 km, of it 1,700 in Kazakhstan), Syrdarja (2.212/1.400 km), Zhajyk (rus. and dt. The Urals) (2.428/1.100 km) and Ili (1.001/815 km). Further important rivers are Ischim, Tobol, Emba, Sarysu (the longest dischargeless steppe river), Tschu, and Nura. Irtysch and Nura connects the most important channel of the country: the Irtysch Karaganda channel (500 km).

Kazakhstan is rich at lakes, particularly which concerns the north of the country. Generally speaking country gives it about 4,000 large and smallLakes, which are by the majority salt lakes. The largest lake of Kazakhstan is the Kaspi sea, which is large approximately 371,000 km ², about a quarter of its surface is allotted to Kazakhstan. The lake had rich nature reserves, for example in the form of fish; herealso the kind-protected Kaspi sea-seal lives.

The second largest lake is the Aral Sea, which threatens to drain. This process persists since 1975 and already to lasting damage to humans and nature led. In the meantime the lake has itself intwo parts divided. So far, however the reduction of the water surface admits in the last years very much slowed down.

The Balchaschsee ranks likewise among the lakes most meaning world-wide. It is 18,428 km ² largely and 620 km long. He listens completelyKazakhstan. Among the characteristics Balchaschs ranks that he consists as only lake of the earth to the half of sweet and to the other half of seawater.

In the mountains of the Altai the beautiful and nature-rich Saissansee lies. Further larger seas of Kazakhstanthe Siletinizsee is in the north, the Tengiz - and the Karakojynsee in the center and the Alakolsee in the west of the country. Touristisch importantly are the magnificent seas of Borowoje and Markakol.

The largest artificial lakes are the Kaptschagei and Buchtarma.

Kazakhstan one possesses

animal and plant world ways of its size and the expansion over many nature zones expressed rich pallet of Flora and fauna. In the north, where the steppes and forest steppes prevail, those together 28.5% of the surface of Kazakhstanconstitute, grow many grain plants, grasses, particularly frequently in steppes are feather/spring grass. Also many medically useful plants seem, so for instance to Adonis, Johanniskraut and valerian. Wermut is very common. Into the forest “islands” grow Birken, Espen, pastures, Johannisbeersträuche; furtherwest spruces; toward the west oak and lime tree. In the forests there are many berries. The typical inhabitants of this zone are rodents such as ground squirrel, Murmeltier, jumping mouse, squirrel. In addition, there are many hares, Hermeline, Dachse, wolves and foxes. In the forests isolate deer and deer live, in quilt the rare and protected Saiga - Antilope. There are birds particularly many, also water birds, there it in this region over 1.500 lakesgives. One can emphasize only some: Swans, eagle, Trappen (these are the largest birds of Kazakhstan, reach up to 16 kg weight), vulture, Kraniche, heron, ducks, geese, forest chickens, woodpeckers, lark u.v.a.

Over 14% of the territory extend Half deserts. Here one meets on clearly smaller diversity of species than in the steppes. Wermut, chamomiles , feather/spring grass is particularly frequent. Also hares, ground squirrels and jumping mice here one can still find, one meets everywhere on wolves and Korsak foxes, somewhat more rarelyon Saiga and Kropfgazelle. There are many lizards and queues such as Natter and Otter.

Wild ones are the largest nature zone of Kazakhstan - they cover 44% of its surface. There is usually sand deserts and gravel deserts. There prevailextreme climate conditions; cold weather in the winter reached up to -40° C, in the summer against it is hot it over +40° C. The temperature of the sand goes to to the mark from +70° C! Here only dry, kleinwüchsige plants with long growRoots. Riedgras, desert feather/spring grass, Wermut, Stachelbarsch are the most frequent. In the summer most plants at the sun burn. Rather common bushes are, particularly Saksaul. One meets large animals very rarely in the desert, it is mostly Antilopen and Saiga or Eber, which vegetieren close of the sources of water. One sees wolves and Schilfkater still rarer. The small animals such as hedgehog, turtles, jumping mice can adapt to the extreme conditions better. Common in the desert everywhere reptiles are like different Agamen andsome queues, altogether come into Kazakhstan approx. 50-60 differently reptiles forwards. In addition there are many Arachnids like the Malmignatte different Tarantelarten and furthermore scorpios.

In the enormous mountains of Tienschan, which are covered by spruce forests usually, one meets todaystill on the snow leopard - one of the national symbols of Kazakhstan. Also the Luchs is rather common, and in Altai there are many bears. We owe to a connection from the Arctic ocean to the Kaspi sea before the last ice age that at the Kaspi seathis very day large seal colonies to find are. The seal at the Kaspi sea represents the only except-polar kind of seal together with the Baikalrobbe.

natural resources

Kazakhstan is one of the raw material-richest countries of the earth. Of the 105 elements of the periodic systemseem to the Republic of 99 in the area.

Around the Kaspi sea lie large oil - and gas fields, which actually include the entire west of the country, particularly the areas of Mangghystau, Atyrau and Aqtöbe. Most important sources are Makat, Dossor, Usen, Karazhanbas. In addition one assumes oil deposits around the Aral Sea. Further, poorer oil and gas fields are there in the south of the republic, in the areas of Taras, Schymkent, Schesqasghan and Qysylorda.

A hard coal occurrence meaning world-wide is the basin of Qaraghandy. This region was one of the most important coal suppliers in the Soviet Union. Also the basins of Ekibatuz and Astana are long not yet exhausted.

In the area from Qostanai are rich occurrences of pure iron, howSarybaj. Over Schesqasghan and Balchasch lie the most important copper occurrences of the republic, and in the Altai - mountains gold is won. Productive manganese occurrences exist around Atasu and Shesdy close Sheskasgan. In the area of Aqtöbe nickel lies underground.

Approx. 300 kmsouth of Qostanai the once beautiful city Zitikara ( Dschetygara) lies. The gold here literally is under the houses. These are now torn off, in order to arrive at the gold.

Kazakhstan takes world-wide the first place at occurrences of the following raw materialson:Chrome, vanadium, bismuth, Fluor. Kazakhstan has one of the prominent places with the occurrences of uranium, iron, copper, coal, tungsten, lead, zinc and molybdenum.

climate

thatClimate is continental, D. h. after cold winters are called direct long summers follow.

population

Kazakhstan has approx. 15.143.700 inhabitants (July 2004). The average population density in Kazakhstan amounts to 5.57 inhabitants per square kilometer and is thereby one thatthe lowest world. The circles are most closely settled in the extreme south, around Almaty, Schymkent and Taras, as well as steppe regions in the north, areas of Astana, Petropawl, the north of the areas Qostanai and Qaraghandy; the right bankthe Irtysch. In addition it is to be still marked that the highest population density in Kazakhstan amounts to only 25 E/km ², lower than in Vorpommern.

nationalities

the population of Kazakhstan consists to 54% of Kasachen, a Turkvolk. Thoselargest minority are the Russians (30%). Further minorities of European origin are the Ukrainer (3.7%) and Kazakhstan German (2%). Among the turkvölkischen minorities the 332,017 Usbeken ( 2.5%) rank, 185,301 Uiguren (1.4%), 132,000 act arene (1.7%), 105,000 Mescheten, 41,847 Baschkiren and approx. 8,000 Tschuwa. Due to the efforts of the government to implement the Kasachi language as prevailing office language the number of members of the minorities decreased since the independence of the country, since some preferred it to emigrate. Inthe last years seems the trend to have slowed down.

languages

the prevailing language in Kazakhstan is still the Russian, which of 83,1% the inhabitant is controlled, although the role Kasachi,the 56% the inhabitant speak, by whom to efforts in the years after independence strongly was up to to the government. Prevail 8 years compulsory schooling. The rate of the illiterates is approximately as high with 2,5% as in Germany.

The private language association Qazaq tili (Kasachi language) enjoys today halfofficial status, there it the Kasachen since 1989/90 the intensified use of the own language and a RH-Turkisierung, D. h. the adjustment Kasachi to other Turksprachen to the heartputs and/or. operates.

the other half professes itself religions approximate half of the population - to a large extent the representatives of the Türkvölker - to the Christianity to the Sunni Islam . It concerns Russian-orthodox Christians to a large extent. Kazakhstan Germanprofess themselves usually to the EH gelism and protest anti-mash (to a large extent Lutheraner). Many Ukrainer as well as Poland and Litauer are catholics. In the cities there are municipalities of the witnesses Jehovas and Jews.

history

major item: History of Kazakhstan

work on []

Antiquity and the early Middle Ages

in the antiquity developed for later Kazakhstan different realms, the z in the area. T. World meaning reached. Most well-known the realms of the turkstämmigen Kangly, Scha t'o , are Kirgisen, Kimek and Naimanen, those above all the northern,southern and eastern Kazakhstan controlled. The south was formed particularly by the Turkish-coined/shaped realm of the Choresm Schah, which was also formally the areas of the turkstämmigen Karakhaniden and the Türgesch subject. Later west Kazakhstan was subordinate to the realms of the Kyptschaken and that Oghusen.

first Mongolian rule

in 13. Century was run over Kazakhstan by the Mongols Dschingis Khans and incorporated its realm: Large parts of today's Kazakhstan ranked among the Orda horde/hurdle. In the west of the country was thatArea of the golden horde/hurdle, while the south was formally controlled by the Khanat Tschagatai - in fact however the Khane of the red Nogaier horde/hurdle prevailed in southern Kazakhstan.

Uzbek rule

in 14./15. Century of Timurs conquests concerned, developed now the Uzbek and Kasachi Khanat .

second Mongolian rule

in 17./18. To century again Mongols broke in in Kazakhstan, where it occasionally a component of the westMongolian federation of the Oiratenformed. It was the time of the “large misfortune” for the Kasachen.

Russian rule

in the middle 18. Century took shelter later Kazakhstan gradually to the Russian Zarenreich. It came now there to the formation of the three“kasak kirgisischen hordes/hurdles”.

In 19. Century begins the kasachische resistance against the Russian rule: On the area of the former Kasachen Khanates now the Buqai horde/hurdle is justified, which wanted to repair the Khanat. But after times Kazakhstan becomes by general a buyer († 1882)subjected and thus subordinates the Generalgouvernement Turkestan.

Soviet rule

1917 proclaimed the kasachische national movement Alasch Orda the autonomy of Kazakhstan within a federal Russia. Since the Alasch Orda refused the acknowledgment of the seizure of power of the Bolsheviks, she turned out inConflict with the new Russian Soviet government. In the course of the Russian civil war was the area of today's Kazakhstan between the Bolsheviks, which contests Alasch Orda as well as Russian anticommunist groupings, whereby the alliances and balance of power changed several times.1919 finally became the areasubjected by the Soviets.

To 26. August 1920 was formed from the northern and central part of today's Kazakhstan the Kirgisi autonomous Soviet republic within the RSFSR. Their first capital became that today Russia belonging Orenburg. After the dissolutionthe ASSR Turkestan its 1924/1925 also today's southern Kazakhstan as well as the today's Karakalpakistan were attached. In April 1925 it was renamed into Kasachi autonomous Soviet republic. Orenburg was separated from the Kasachi ASSR and directly part of the RSFSR, new capital became 1925 first Qysylorda, 1929 then Alma Ata (today Almaty).

To 5. December 1936 was explained Kazakhstan as Kasachi CSSR as of the RSFSR separated independent union republic of the Soviet Union, during Karakalpakistan as autonomous republic to thatneighbouring Usbekistan was slammed shut.

independence

1990 explained its sovereignty to Kazakhstan within the USSR. Nursultan Nasarbajew became state head.

To 16. December 1991 explained the Republic of Kazakhstan their independence. Kasachisch became office language, the capital Alma Ata became in Almatyrenamed, the 16. December became national holiday. Nursultan Nasarbajew already was at the 1. December 1991 in the first direct elections selected to the president.

1992 created Kazakhstan as well as Usbekistan, Kirgisistan, Turkmenistan, Tadschikistan, Azerbaijan and Turkey the centralasiatic-Turkish summit.

1997 moved government and parliament from Almaty to Aqmola . Aqmola was proclaimed as official capital and renamed 1998 in Astana (“capital”). As reasons for this one led the better long-term growth prospects opposite Astanas in oneearthquake-endanger valley boiler convenient Almaty on. A further role might have played the more central situation of Astanas opposite the Almaty lain in the proximity of the kirgisischen border. Finally one assumes that one separatist tendencies of many ethnical minorities (v.a. Russians) populatedThe north of the country against to work wanted, in which one makes one more near at these areas city lain the capital.

politics

home policy

the home policy become to a large extent by the authoritarian government style of president Nursultan Nasarbajew andits family coined/shaped. The opposition is strongly limited.

After recent messages (new inhabitants of zurich newspaper of 14. February 2006, page 7) became the prominent kasachische opposition politician Altynbek Sarsenbajew as well as its bodyguard and the driver in the morning 13. February 2006shot. The corpses were found in the car Sarsenbajews nearby the Wirtschaftsmeptropole Almaty.

foreign policy

with regard to foreign policy varies Kazakhstan between close support at Russia - z. B. in the Eurasi Economic Community and the advice for collective security - on the one hand andEmanzipationsbestrebungen of Russia with close support to the USA on the other hand.

Memberships: UN and all UN organizations such as UNESCO; Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), advice for collective security, Eurasi Economic Community, GUS, organization of the Islamic conference (OIC), Economic CooperationOrganization (ECO), centralasiatic-Turkish summit.

Minister of foreign affairs is Qassymschomart Kemeluly Toqajew (ҚaсымжомaртКемелұлыТоқaев).

military

the Kasachi military budget amounts to 226 millions Usd. (Conditions 2002), which approx. 4% of the public expenditures constitute. The kasachische army has 63,000 men constantly underWeapons, as well as approx. 25,000 people liable for military service (the military service 31 months apply) to men starting from 18 years and amount to. Reserve troops are not held.

The army is divided into the three classical departments of army , Air Force and navy, whereby the navy due to thatsmall coastal line of Kazakhstan on 3.000 soldiers and 10 speedboats is limited.

The army proceeds over 41.000 soldiers, on 650 the main battle tanks of the type T-72, approx. 1.000 armored vehicles (among other things the BMP), 550 artillery cannons of the calibers of 122mm and152mm, as well as 150 mobile field howitzers and 170 rocket launchers distribute.

The Air Force maintains 19,000 soldiers. On it combat aircraft 7 Mig-21 jets , 32 MiG-31 , 35 MiG-29 , 41 MiG-27 , 42 Su-24 , 14 Su-25 , as well as 54 ultramodern distribute themselves Su-27. The moreover 42 combat helicopters of the type Mi-24, as well as 100 Transporthelicopter of the types Mi-6, Mi-8 , Mi17 and Mi-26 stand for the Air Force.

By the membership in the CIS Kazakhstan in the Kriegsfall is defended by Russia. Alsoif no Russian soldiers are stationed in the country, Russia the common navy of Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Russia and Kazakhstan befehligt.

administrative arrangement

Karte der Bezirke (Oblystar) Kasachstans
map of the districts (Oblystar) Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is into 14 areas (regions, kasach. Oblys, majority Oblystar) and 3 cities with special status (kasach. Qala) arranged. All designations indicated down are in kasachischer Transkription. Russian names, which applied to 1994 and admit under those the cities in Europe are, are indicated after the diagonal stroke. Therethese designations however no longer are official, should one to the new, kasachischen designations get accustomed.

Name of the area (dt.) name of the area (kasach.) capital
area west Kazakhstan БатысҚазақстаноблысы (Batys Qasaqstan oblysy) oral/Uralsk
area Atyrau Атырауоблысы (Atyrau oblysy) Atyrau/Gurjew
area Mangghystau Маңғыстауоблысы (Mangghystau oblysy) Aqtau/Schewtschenko
area Aqtöbe Ақтөбеоблысы (Aqtöbe oblysy) Aqtöbe/Aktjubinsk
area north Kazakhstan СолтүстікҚазақстаноблысы (Soltüstik Qasaqstan oblysy) Petropawl/Petropawlowsk
area Qostanai Қостанайоблысы (Qostanai oblysy) Qostanai/Kustanai
area Aqmola Ақмолаоблысы (Aqmola oblysy) Kökschetau/Koktschetaw
area Pawlodar Павлодароблысы (Pawlodar oblysy) Pawlodar/Pawlodar
area east Kazakhstan ШығысҚазақстаноблысы (Schyghys Qasaqstan oblysy) Öskemen/Ust Kamenogorsk
area Almaty Алматыоблысы (Almaty oblysy) Taldyqorghan/Taldy Kurgan
area south Kazakhstan ОңтүстікҚазақстаноблысы (Ongtüstik Qasaqstan oblysy) Schymkent/Tschimkent
area Schambyl Жамбылоблысы (Schambyl oblysy) Taras/Dschambul
area Qysylorda Қызылордаоблысы (Qysylorda oblysy) Qysylorda/Kysyl Orda
area Qaraghandy Қарағандыоблысы (Qaraghandy oblysy) Qaraghandy/Karaganda

of cities with special status:

  • Astana (Астанақаласы/Astana qalasy)
  • Almaty (Alma Ata) (Алматықаласы/Almaty qalasy)
  • Baiqongyr (Baikonur, formerly Leninsk) (Байқоңырқаласы/Baiqongyr qalasy)

after the administrative reform of 1997 the following areas were dissolved:

  • Area Turgai (Turgai/Arkalyk)
  • area Schesqasghan (Schesqasghan/Dscheskasgan)
  • Area Kökschetau (Kökschetau/Koktschetaw)
  • area Taldyqorghan (Taldyqorghan/Taldy Kurgan)
  • area Semei (Semei/Semipalatinsk).

See also: List of the cities in Kazakhstan

infrastructure

for traffic has the railway alsoThe most important meaning was away. The route network is 14,560 km long. The road system is developed average and covers 141,000 km, European standard corresponds only the Magistrale Astana - Almaty. In Atyrau and Aqtau are ports at the Kaspi sea. On Irtysch and Schajyq (the Urals) there is navigation. In Baiqongyr is the largest space station of the former Soviet Union. It was leased annually by Russia for 115 million dollar until 2050.

economics

General

Kazakhstan is a raw material-rich developing country. Oil and natural gas extraction as well as petroleum products form the basis for kasachischer economy. Into the 1990er years in the north of the Kaspi sea and in the kasachischen quilt the largest Erdölreserven of the last 30 years found. Expertestimate they on approximately nine billion barrel. The exploitation takes place with the help of foreign societies. They must deliver from the delivery between 40 to 50 per cent to the kasachischen state. However in the year 2002 approximately 360 million became in KazakhstanBarrel promoted in the value of 7 billion euro.

The economic growth of the last years (since 1999) amounted to on the average 9.3%. 2004 added the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (BruttoInlanProdukt) around 9,4%. In the 1. Half-year 2005 amounted to the economic growth in the comparison to the appropriatePeriod last year 9.1% (for the whole year on 8,8% prognosticates). Thus Kazakhstan in the region central Asia protrudes as model for a transformation economics and leaves all other countries of the region far behind itself.

raw materials

very well developed is alsothe metallurgical industry (black and non-ferrous metals) as well as their products. As source of energy hard coal has still great importance. In addition Kazakhstan possesses rich reserves at tin, uranium, lead, zinc, bauxite, iron, gold, silver, phosphorus, Manganese and other one.

production

in Kazakhstan besides chemical products (fertilizer, plastics), machines, equipment, textiles and food are manufactured. The most important industrial centres are Almaty, Qaraghandy, Schymkent, Pawlodar and Aqtöbe.

agriculture

Only one quarter of the national surface is agriculturally usable. Nevertheless Kazakhstan covers its need of grain owing to the fruitful steppe soils completely and sells the redundant existence to China. In the north Astana exists a agriculturally well opened area around the capital.Whereupon also the earlier Russian name of the city - Zelinograd - points new ground city. In the southern areas from Almaty to Schymkent fruits are cultivated. Of great importance one particularly for the inhabitants of the half desert and desert areas is the aminal husbandry.Mainly sheep are bred, rare goats, cows, horses. In Russian or German dominated regions is also pig breed common.

In the south the Aral Sea stands after extensive taking out water for the agricultural cultivation of the region before draining, which one the largest ecologicalDisasters of the today's time represents.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

general

literature

Kasachi kitchen

see Kasachi kitchen

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Kazakhstan - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 41°-55° N, 46°-87° O

 

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