Kastilien

Kastilien is the central landscape of Spain with the autonomous regions Castilla la Mancha, Castilla y León and Madrid.

After this landscape the largest state people of Spain - the Kastilier - and their language Kastilisch is designated. InKastilien used discussion has a similar status as in Germany of hannoversches high German, while for example Andalusian is regarded as dialect. The whole of all dialects is called Spanish. The kastilische sheath mountains north of Madrid divide the landscape directly into thatnorthern Altkastilien and the southern Neukastilien, also the Mancha (of Arab: aluminium-manscha, dry country) covers.

history

Kastilien, the old Bardulien, the area of the upper Ebro, stood for 8 since that. Century underthe rule of the kings of Asturien and León, which let the country administer by native counts.

The counts von Burgos split themselves off around 925 the kingdom León. After the many castles (Spanish castillo) in their area (inFight against the Mauren) they called its country Kastilien.

Ferdinand González becomes in 10. Century as a first count von Kastilien. By rebellions against the kings Ramiro II. (931 - 950), Ordoño III. (950 - 957) and Sancho I. (957 - 966) it sought to reach the independence of its country from León to, although futile.

Its son García Fernandez prevailed also up to the year 1000 nearly independently. Its son and successor Sancho left thoseRule his son, the count García and after its murder 1026 went it on Sanchos son-in-law, who king Sancho Mayor of Navarra over, with whose death in the year 1035 its son inherited Ferdinand Kastilien.

These defeated at the Carrion 1037 itsBrother-in-law, the king Bermndo III.of León, which fell in the battle and on that completely León combined Kastilien, which climbed more under Ferdinands welfare service and reasonable government ever to luck and power with its past rule to the kingdom. It struckin the battle of Atapuerta 1054 an attack of its envious brother Garcias of Navarra back; combined the navarresische area on the right Ebroufer with Kastilien and extended by lucky fights with the Arabs the borders of its realm considerably to the south.

With its death 1067 it divided its realm among its three sons, from those Sancho II. Kastilien, Alfons León and Asturien as well as García Galicien received. Meanwhile Sancho II. (1067 - 1072) sold its brothers; after cowardly Meuchelmord (notproven) its brother Alfons VI. seized. (1072 - 1109) of the realm and 1076 with Aragonien divided into the Kingdom of Navarra. It governed with wisdom and Kraft and led victorious wars against the Mauren in the coursethe Reconquista (back conquest). In the unfortunate battle with Ucles it lost 1080 its only son Sancho. Under it the Roman-hierarchical church system was justified also in Kastilien.

Its daughter Urraca (1109 - 1126 queen v. León Castilla) was successor to the throne. It ground itselfwhen desired the father with Alfons I. from Aragonien, but the combination of both realms to a kingdom Hispanien did not do to the benediction. After a bloody civil war, from Portugal 1139 as independent nation steps out, separated the kingdoms again.Owing to the assistance of the kastilischen aristocracy the “queen of Spain”, Urraca , its son Alfons VII. could. Raimundez the kingdom receive.

Kastilien with León and Galicien became the area Alfons VII. (1127 - 1157), which the title one“Assumed emperor of Spain” and courageously against the Arabs fenced. Among its sons and successors the kastilische realm was torn up, as León, Galicien, Asturien and Navarra made themselves independent.

In Kastilien VII. followed after Alfons. Alfons VIII., the noble one (1157 - 1214). This left the crown to its eleven-year old son Heinrich I., however already the 1217 had an accident.

Now again violent civil wars broke out , until 1230 by a contract Ferdinand III., Son of Heinrichs sister Berengaria andthe king Alfons IX. of León, when king was recognized of Kastilien and León and determined with the fact that both states in the future a only one, indivisible realm to form, the succession on the oldest son and in the absence of male inheriting on thosefemale line to turn into should. Ferdinand III., the holy one (1230 - 1252), was just as wise regent as courageous field gentleman; it conquered 1236 Córdoba, 1248 Sevilla and brought the country up to the south coast under kastilische rule,even Granada in leaning dependence on Kastilien.

Followed it 1252 - 1284 its oldest son, Alfons X., the way, which supported arts and sciences with large generosity. He oppressed however the country with new taxes and excited by the fact that hethe sons of its erstgebornen son Ferdinand of the throne and his second son Sancho to the successor excluded intended, a throne controversy, in which in particular France took part and which weakened Kastiliens power importantly, the people of wild ores and the aristocracy for defiance andOver elevation tempts. Under Sancho IV. (1284 - 1295) an indignation of the powerful noblemen already broke out. Against the Ferdinand under age IV. (1295 - 1312), whose was doubted legitimate birth, rose several Prätendenten and also thoseNeighbour realms sought themselves to increase at expense Kastiliens; but its nut/mother María de Molina, who led the regency, knew to overcome these dangers by wisdom and steadfastness. New disputes broke out, as after Ferdinands the crown to sudden death onits two-year son Alfons XI. (1312 - 1350) fell; the realm was completely wrecked by these internal fights.

Only 1335 succeeded it to Alfons to become by cruelty and Hinterlist, the indignations gentleman and by the grant that To win Alcavala (a tax) an independent position. It conquered on it 1344 Algeciras and died during the FE storage of Gibraltar 1350.

It Peter the cruel one ( 1350 - 1369) followed, that by its atrocities a collection of its half brotherHeinrich of Trastámara arranged and 1369 by this with Montiel was struck and killed.

Heinrich II. (1369 - 1379) maintained the throne against Peter's son-in-law Johann of Lancaster (John OF Gaunt) and acquired Vizcaya.

Its son Johann I. (1379 - 1390) war with Portugal and England , around the possession of its throne, but 1387 in the contract of Bayonne with the house Lancaster and 1389 with Portugal led. The eleven-year old Heinrich III. followed it. (1390 - 1406), whose arranged minority disputes over the realm administration, which wrecked the country terribly. There the young 14-jährige explained itself king 1393 for of age, ground themselves with Katharine of Lancaster and led the government andthis with large energy. Under it 1402 became the Kanari islands recently discovered.

By the marriage of the catholic kings in the year 1479 of Isabella I. of Kastilien and Fernando II. Kastilien was politically combined by Aragón with Aragonien. In economic regardthe kingdoms stood however far back at backs: Aragón was aligned more to the Mediterranean, while for Kastilien already the Atlantic ocean had greater importance. Conquest America took place therefore in the name of the crown from Kastilien - those were theoreticalSubjects of the crown of Aragón in Spanish America foreigner.

quotation

Kastilien made Spain, and Kastilien destroys it. - José Ortega y gas set (structure and decay of Spain, 1921)

Web on the left of

see also: Kastilier

 

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