Qatar

دولةقطر
Daulat Qatar (arab.)
State of Qatar
Flagge Katars
Wappen Katars
(Detail) (detail)
office language Arab
capital Doha
system of government monarchy
head of state Hamad is Chalifa aluminium Thani (since June 1995)
head of the government Abdullah is Chalifa aluminium Thani (since that 29. October 1996)
Crown Prince Tamim is Hamad aluminium Thani
surface 11,437 km ²
number of inhabitants 840,290 (July 2004)
airline: Qatar Airways
population density of 73 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 27,496 US-$ (2004)
independence from Great Britain at the 3. September 1971
currency Qatar Riyal
time belt UTC +3
Kfz characteristics Q
Internet TLD .qa
preselection +974
Lagekarte Katars
Karte Katars
Satellitenbild Katars

Qatar (arab.: قطر Qatar) is a state at Persian Gulf. The peninsula borders on Saudi Arabia and on Bahrain.

Table of contents

geography:

situation and size

Qatar are in the northeast of the Arab peninsula, because of Persian Gulf. Its neighbour states are Bahrain, Saudi Arabia as well as the united Arab emirates. The surface of the country amounts to 11437 km ². From the south northward those amounts toDistance 180 km, of the west eastward 80 km.

landscape

its topography is predominantly flat. Qatar is coined/shaped of Geröll-und gravel desert. In the southeast is the sea lagoon Khor Udaid. In the south high are up to 40 mTo find Sanddünen. In the west runs the hill chain of the Jebel Dukhan, whose highest point reaches about 110 m. The whole country is fenced of corral reefs.

climate

due to the proximity to Persian Gulf is all year round stifling the climate. Itis subtropical and hot. In the summer (May until Septembers) temperatures prevail between 35°C and 45°C, in the winter 25°C-35°C. The air humidity amounts to 80%.Qatar ranks among regen-und the water-poorest countries in the world.

cities

The largest cities are (census 1. March2004):Doha of 338,760 inhabitants, acre-Rayyan of 259,223 inhabitants, Umm Salal of 27,703 inhabitants, aluminium-Wakra of 25,905 inhabitants, aluminium-Haur of 17,642 inhabitants, ad-Dahira of 13,969 inhabitants and asch Schahhaniyya of 11,001 inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities in Qatar

population

about 60 per cent thatKatarer are Iranier or Indoiraner. The Islam is the prevailing religion (over 95%). Beside Arab Persian (Farsi) at most one speaks.

The population of Qatar sits down out approx. 140.000 to 180,000 Katarern and in addition approx. 750,000 immigrant workers together. The lattercome mainly from Islamic states such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Sudan, in addition, from hinduistischen states such as India and Nepal.

history

major item: History of Qatar

Qatar was inhabited during the Steinzeit by hunters and collecting tanks, but becamethe country due to the increasing drainage since that 5. Millenium v. Chr. leave from humans. In following thousands of years Qatar was only sporadically settled.628 followed the inhabitants of Qatar the prophet Muhammad and crossed to the Islam.In addition, in the future the country had a meaning because of the missing water hardly. Apart from sporadic commercial settlements at the coast, the country was inhabited only by Beduinen.

Around 1760 the kinships of the aluminium Thani and aluminium Chalifa moved. Between these kinships it came in the future to many struggles for power.1783 succeeded to the aluminium Chalifa the conquest of Bahrain, on which a majority of the trunk on the island established itself. End 18. Century turned out Qatar between thoseInterests of Persia, Oman and the Arabs of the Piratenküste. In this uncertain time the Klan of the aluminium Thani with its center Doha at the east coast of Qatar won the supremacy. The establishment of the aluminium-Thani-dynasty is dated on 1822.

1867 cameit again to a violent fight for the rule in Qatar between the aluminium Thani and the aluminium Chalifa of Bahrain.Great Britain intervened and forced a peace. In the following year was locked a protection contract between Qatar and Great Britain, whereby thatCountry under British influence turned out. This acknowledgment of the aluminium Thani led to a final separation from Qatar and the island Bahrain. In the second half 19. Century tried to intersperse the Osmanen their requirements on Qatar strengthened. Thus parts becamethe country occupies. Thereupon Qasim aluminium Thani turned around assistance to the Wahhabiten. Great Britain walked again (1913) around the osmanischen influence to switch off and the influence of the Wahabiten to prevent. 1916 had the last osmanischen troopsthe country leave.

In the future Great Britain implemented its political and economic influence strengthened. After 1930 the bead trade in the gulf broke down to a large extent by arising Japanese cultured pearls. This led the many Katarer to a heavy economic crisis, to the emigrationforced. However 1939 the first oil finds already took place, whereby the oil production became soon the new economical support leg of Qatar.

After the retreat of the British Qatar at the 1 proclaimed. September 1971 its independence and leaned thereby, like Bahrain, a connection to thoseCombined Arab emirates off. Also those of sheikh of Qatar accepted now the title of a Emirs. In the same year with the north field the largest gas field of the world was discovered. Already 1972 became Emir Ahmad ibn Ali by Chalifa ibn Hamad (1972 - 1995) fallen, in the future strengthened for the economic development of the country and the settlement of industry strove. The absolute rule of the dynasty remained existing however further. 1981 became with Oman, which combinedArab emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait the gulf co-operation advice based. 1995 were fallen Chalifa ibn Hamad however for his part by its son Hamad ibn Chalifa (since 1995), which began with the introduction of democratic reforms. Since 1998 Qatar is the seatthe headquarters of the US troops in the Near East and was also control center in the war of the USA against the Iraq in March 2003.

politics

1970 educate sheikh Chalifa are Hamad aluminium Thani the first government, in the subsequent year becomeindependence proclaimed and on the entry to the united Arab emirates does without. 1977 become Hamad are Chalifa aluminium Thani, which oldest son of the sheikh appointed the Crown Prince and Secretary of Defense, which lead the fate of the country since 1995 (seeabove under “history”).

To 30. April 2003 the inhabitants of Qatar of the first condition agreed since the independence from Great Britain.

Two bridge construction works are to reduce dependence on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The “friendship bridge in such a way specified” with a length of 45 km is Qatar with Bahrain connect. The second bridge is to make a connection to the united Arab emirates.

The ruling family forces the education of the population and with the fundamental education guidelines a trend-setting direction gave. The establishment of the Education town center and thoseDevelopment of the University OF Qatar in co-operation with different universities points a promising way.

economics:

The most important sources of income are oil, natural gas and fertilizer.

bead trade

the bead trade was since the Dilmunkultur 3200 v.Chr.,on Bahrin was resident and trade relations until India exhibited the most important source of income Qatars before the nature beads by cheap cultured pearls were replaced and many humans in it their basis of existence lost. Before it the bead trade had proper geboomt.

oil

But the rescue came, when 1938 were found to oil at the Jebel Dhukan for the first time. One year after began the commercial promotion, due to 2. World war however only 1949 left qatarisches oil the country. It came to a proper oil boom. 1961 stepped Qatarthe OPEC. Qatar was modernized strongly, it was catapulted quasi from the Middle Ages into the modern times. It took place a social paging. Crowds of immigrant workers reached the country, what to it led that the total population rose and the number thatForeigner in the country those the native ones exceeded. By the assumption of the oil companies by the state Qatar became 1972 the first small oil producing country at the gulf, which had one hundred per cent of its occurrences. By the rising oil prices Qatar became always enriches.The pro head income is very high. The total oil reserves become estimated on 3700 million barrel (1Barrel=159Liter).

natural gas

the wealth Qatars lies nevertheless in the natural gas sector. Qatar possesses the second largest Erdgasvorkommen of the earth to Russia. Under the sea-bottom is the NorthGas Field, which is with 380,000 billion Kubikfussreserven the largest nature gas field of the earth. Qatar possesses all in all sound indicated from QP (QatarPetrol): “900 quintillion Cubic meter gas”. Qatar has itself in the last years a role leading world-wide inthe gas processing compiles. There are two enterprises, which are represented in the gas business. The center of the gas industry is in the north the lain races to Laffan Industial town center. By the setting into service of a new liquefaction of natural gas plant the economic evacuation of the natural gas is possible. The principal clientsthose are GCC - states. Because of constant demand Qatar exports ever more natural gases. To 2012 Qatar invests among other things 50 billion US Dollar, in order to furnish then daily the world-wide highest natural gas promotion ratio.

further industries

further industries are Gross-undHeavy industry.

Most important points of view: Mesaid and race to Laffan


of building projects

at present develop several spectacular building projects, for example 400 hectares a large artificial island named “The Pearl “. This artificial island is 20 kilometers north the international airportof Qatar.

in

the last years Qatar sets further sectors of the economy ever more on the agriculture, also the fishery is a further sector of the economy. The most important ports are race to Laffan, where beside bulk and containers essentiallyGas is shipped, and Mesaid, where bulk material and bulk as well as oil are turned over. The port of the capital Doha becomes mainly from Dhaus (English: Dhows) started, those on the traditional routes Persian Gulf, however also to south India operate. A substantialCargo for these ships is fodder. A new small harbor facility in the bay of Doha makes also here the envelope possible of bulk and containers. The ports of aluminium-Chaur (northern Doha) and aluminium-Wakr (southern Doha) are essentially fishing ports with smallCoastal ship travel traffic. Acre-Ruwais at the north coast is a pure fishing port.

sport

2005 the west Asian Games in different sports facilities took place. 2006 is organized the Asian Games in Qatar. Motorcycle-world championship-run become in the newly built Motodrom north Doha accomplishes. InDoha takes place annually at the beginning of January the ATP Doha tennis tournament of the men. there Swiss Roger Federer triumphed to 2005 and 2006.

In the cycle racing the route OF Qatar with the prelude running Doha forms internationally GP at the end of January an important stationwith the Aufgalopp that wheel - professional, large of star as in this year the acting world champion Tom Boonen as well as the Milram - driver Alessandro Petacchi and Eric Zabel use this running gladly.

media

of the controversy Arab news stations aluminium-Dschazirahas his seat in Qatar. At English-language newspapers are read: “The Peninsula”, the “Gulf Time” and the “Khaleej Time” from Dubai. Increasingly also socialcritical articles are to be read, in which it concerns in particular the situation of the workers non-of Qatar.

End2005 were reported (message on heise.de) that the monopolyistic Qatar Telecom Qtel in the own data network audio and video communication services closes such as MSN of measuringclose, Yahoo of measuringclose or Google talc, which was also confirmed by a spokeswoman of the enterprise. Particularly explosivelyis this procedure, since about 80% are the inhabitant of Qatar foreigner (immigrant worker etc.), for whom this kind of communication represents the only payable one.

Flora and fauna

plants

Qatar a wildful country are there,there are only few drying plants, which adapted by water saving and large absorbencies optimally to conditions.

ashore

there are animals numerous small animals. Under the large animals, from which there are only few in free nature,the Oryxantilope is the most well-known. Waters Persian Gulf are very fish-rich. Sometimes even Pottwale are to find Delfine and the very rare sea-cows. At the north coast Laffan of oviposition beaches of Meeresschildkröten.Es are give about 30 native to the west of raceKinds of bird.

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Qatar - word origin, synonyms and translations



coordinates: 25° 16 ' N, 51° 13 ' O

 

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