Disaster of Tschernobyl
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the disaster of Tschernobyl occurred to 26. April 1986 in the nuclear power station Tschernobyl close of the city Prypjat, Ukraine (at that time Soviet Union) as consequence of a core melt-through and an explosion in the nuclear reactor TschornobylBlock 4. The course of events of the accident is clarified until today in all technical details not free of doubts. It is considered as the secondaryheaviest nuclear average after from Majak and was one of the largest environment disasters at all.
Admits is under this disasterthe Russian name of the neighbour city Tschernobyl, since Russian was at the time of the disaster principal office language. The today official Ukrainian name of the city reads Tschornobyl. Also the English ways of writing Chernobyl are isolated and/or. Chornobyl uses.
Operating error and lack of the constructionthe reactor released the largest accident (GAU), which can be accepted. Large quantities of radioactive subject were hurled into air and distributed themselves mainly over the region northeast from Tschornobyl, in addition, over many regions of Europe. The accident ledwith a not exactly well-known number from humans to death. Several thousand humans suffer from cancer, which is attributed to the radiation. Also when other illnesses the radiation than a probable cause is regarded. In addition come psychological, social, ecological and economicDamage. Over the long-term sequences which can be expected a controversy exists also among scientists for years.
After the disaster hundredthousands of aid, so-called “liquidators” had established, a provisional concrete coat around the reactor exploded, which tore in the meantime in many places and to collapse threatens.With foreign financial assistance therefore a new sleeve is to be built in the coming years.
the disaster from Tschernobyl becomes large parts the weaknesses of theType of reactor attributed, which was used there. These made it very uncertain with the enterprise in low capacity ranges.
One of the substantial differences between the type of reactor RBMK used in Tschornobyl and most reactors of western design is that in the latter cooling waterat the same time as moderator functions. If it comes with one of the typical western reactors to the evaporation of the cooling agent, at the same time the moderator achievement and thus neutron multiplication are reduced, so that reactivity is reduced accordingly. With the Tschornobyl type however the presentation achievement of the graphite is constantand an evaporation of the cooling water continues to increase reactivity.
With the enterprise in low capacity ranges thereby the emergency shut-down could lead to the fact that reactivity got out of control. It worked then as accelerotor pedal as brake.
For this reason must before onePermission of modern reactors proven its that their steam bubble coefficient remains always negative. In the meantime at other reactors of the RBMK type improvements were made (higher uranium enrichment, more Kontrollstäbe), which the steam bubble coefficients into ranges bring, in which it also with low achievements remains controllable.Thus however some the original Design goals of the type were expenditure-levered.
Further weakness in the construction of the nuclear power station in Tschornobyl was that it was not embedded like most modern reactors into a solid reactor containment (Containment), even if is unclear,whether such Containment would have withstood the force of the explosions with this misfortune. So large quantities of radioactive substances could escape into the atmosphere.
As a cause are considered beside these design-conditioned characteristics of the nuclear reactor (RBMK -1000) and its enterprise inan inadmissible capacity range experience and authority of the personnel also lacking as well as the injury of operational procedures. In this connection was paradoxically the manually introduced reactor reactor trip scram of the trips of the disaster.
there nuclear power stations river do not only produce, butalso uses (for example for the enterprise of the Kühlpumpen, measuring and display technology) and it takes, must these from the net be guaranteed that with a total power failure sufficient electrical achievement is available, in order to switch the reactor off surely.
In a lining up Experiment should be examined whether the achievement of the turbine running out slowly during the disconnection can bridge the time up to starting Diesel generators (about 40-60 seconds). An earlier attempt in the block 3 of the power station had failed before, because the tensiontoo fast dropped. Now the attempt with an improved voltage regulator should be repeated. One accomplished this renewed attempt during a routine disconnection of the reactor.
25. April 1986, 1:00: As the first step the achievement of the reactor of their nominal value should with 3,200 megawatts thermally (=MWth) to 1.000 MWth to be reduced, as usual during a rule disconnection. Around 13:05 on instruction of the load divider in Kiew the achievement was stabilized with 1.600 MWth.
23:10: The achievement was continued to lower. After the changing shift over24:00 switched the new crew around 00:28 with 500 MWth the automatic reactor power regulation. Due to a control error, due to which the desired value for the total output regulation was apparent not stopped correctly, or due to a technical defect the achievement continued to sink toon only about 30 MW.
As after each achievement sinking temporarily the concentration of the isotope xenon -135 in the reactor core increased („Xe-poisoning “). Since Xenon-135 absorbs the neutrons needed for the nuclear nuclear chain reaction very strongly, those took due to the concentration increaseAchievement of the reactor ever further off. As the operating crew to 26. April 1986 around 00:32 clock the achievement of the reactor by further driving out of control rods again to raise wanted, succeeded to it due to the Xe-poisoning developed meanwhile only up to about200 MW or 7% of the rated output.
Although the enterprise on this Leistungsniveau inadmissibly was (according to regulation the reactor could be operated not below 20 per cent of the rated output) and itself at this time in addition much less control rods in the corefound, when were necessary for a safe enterprise, the reactor was not switched off, but was not given the signal at the beginning of the test run.
26. April 1986, 01:03 and/or. 01:07: In order to simulate the additional load of the core emergency cooling system starting during turbine intake valve locking, became successivelytwo additional main coolant pumps taken in enterprise. Due to the increased cooling agent throughput the steam bubble content in the reactor core continued to decrease. The reactivity acceptance led to driving out further control rods, in order to stabilize the achievement. This would have been the last time, on which one the reactorstill by an emergency shut-down could have saved.
01:19: For the stabilization of the falling water level in the steam separators the feed water supply was increased. This led however to further undercooling and acceptance of the steam bubble content, which was compensated again by staff driving out. In the following minutestried the operating surgeons by adjustment of the feed water and turbine steam supply water level and pressure to stabilize. Both parameters would have led to a reactor reactor trip scram; appropriate warnings were however blocked. The reactor was at this time in an extremely unstable condition, in thateach smallest change of a parameter serious consequences to have could.
01:23: The actual test began. The main intake valve of the turbine was closed and taken thus to the generator, whose discharge energy one wanted to measure, the force supply. Thus the heat dissipation became from the reactorinterrupted, the temperature rose and cooling agents evaporated.
Contrary to light-water reactors of western design, in which the cooling agent is at the same time moderator, reactors of the RBMK type in the lower capacity range have a positive steam bubble coefficient so mentioned (Voidkoeffizient). That means that with increasingEvaporate the cooling agent the reactivity of the reactor rises.
Happened exactly also here. The neutron flux growing thereby caused an intensified dismantling of nuclear poisons collected in the core (in particular Xe-135). Thus reactivity and reactor power rose ever faster, whereby again larger quantitiesCooling agents evaporated. The situation went slowly out of control. Around 01:23: the shift leader released 35 manually the emergency shut-down of the reactor.
In addition all control rods removed before from the core were brought in again into the reactor, but a further conception error showed up herethe type of reactor: By the graphite blocks attached at the points of the staffs (graphite was the main moderator of the reactor) when bringing a completely pulled out staff in reactivity was briefly increased, until the staff had penetrated more deeply into the core.
Throughthe simultaneous introduction of all staffs (over 250) substantial increased neutron multiplication let reactivity rise so far, until finally (around 01:23: 44) the prompt neutrons alone (thus without the retarded neutrons) for the nuclear chain reaction was sufficient („prompt criticality “) and the achievement withinfrom milliseconds hundredfold of the nominal value exceeded („nuclear power excursion “).
The heat deformed the channels of the control rods, so that this not far enough could penetrate into the reactor core, in order to obtain their full effect, and them let tear pressure pipes andthe zirconium of the fuel rods with the surrounding water react. Hydrogen developed in larger quantities and formed with the oxygen of air detonating gas, which probably caught fire and led to a second explosion (only after seconds „the nuclear Exkursion “).
WhichExplosion for taking the cover of the reactor core off heavy over 1.000 tons led, is not not completely clear. In addition the explosions destroyed (only as enclosure trained) the roof of the reactor building, so that the reactor core was now no longer enclosed and direct connectionto the atmosphere had. The glowing graphite in the reactor core immediately fire caught. Altogether 250 tons graphite burned, that are about 15 per cent of the total inventory during the following 10 days.
Large quantities of radioactive subject became by the explosions and the followingFire of the graphite moderator into the environment set free, whereby the high temperatures of the graphite fire provided for a release into large heights. In particular the easily volatile isotopes iodine -131 and cesium -137 partly formed dangerous aerosols, in a radioactive cloudhundreds or thousands were far carried kilometers, before them washed the rain from the atmosphere. Radioactive metals with higher boiling point were set free however particularly in the form of dust particles, which settled in the proximity of the reactor.
Against 05:00the fires were deleted outside of the reactor. Block 3 was switched off.
27. April 1986: The blocks 1 and 2 became around 01:13 and/or. 02:13 switched off. It was begun, the reactor with lead, boron, dolomite, sand and loamto fill up. This reduced the fission product release and took the burning graphite off in the core.
To 6. May 1986 was prevented to a large extent the fission product release.
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the consequences of the misfortune are still controversially discussed very. One in September 2005 published studythe Tschernobyl forum describes the health, ecological and socio-economic effects due to a very extensive investigation of over 100 experts of the participating organizations. The Tschernobyl forum consists of 8 organizations of the UN (the international one Atomic Energy Agency (IAEO), the World Health Organization (WHO), which development program of the united ones Nations (UNDP), the nourishing and agriculture organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the environmental program of the United Nations (UNEP), the office of the United Nations for the coordination of the humanitarian assistance (OCHA), that scientific committee of the United Nations over the effects of atomic radiations (UNSCEAR) andthe World Bank) as well as the governments of white Russia, Russia and the Ukraine.
The study of the Tschornobyl forum agrees in its results with other international investigations in principle. The results are nevertheless not recognized and are not playing down classified from nuclear energy-critical side as. The followingData essentially originate from the study of the Tschernobyl forum.
Person's groups exposed to radiation
immediately after the misfortune and to end of 1987 were used about 200,000 clearing up workers („liquidators “). From it received approx. 1.000 within the first daily after the misfortune very high Doses within the range of 2 to 20 Gray (external gamma ray exposure). The remaining liquidators received in contrast to this substantially smaller doses up to maximally about 500 milli Sievert (mSv), with an average value from approximately 100 mSv. The number of the liquidators increased in, but the liquidators used later received clearly smaller doses to the next years on altogether about 600,000.
In the spring and summer 1986 about 116,000 persons from the 30-Kilometer-Zone around the reactor were evacuated approximately. Later zirka 240,000 further persons were resettled.For the Ukrainian evacuated ones meanwhile in laborious detailed work a middle dose value of 17 was calculated mSv (Schwankungsbereich 0.1 to 380 mSv), for which Byelorussian evacuated one an average value from 31 mSv (with a maximum average value in two localities of 300 mSv).
In the first days after the accident the admission of radioactive iodine with the food led too strongly varying thyroid doses in the general population from on the average about 0.03 to 0.3 Gy with peak values up to approximately 50 Gy. OneThe inhabitants of Prypjat, which received substantially smaller thyroid doses by the punctual expenditure from tablets with sturdy iodine, formed exception of it.
The not evacuated population received nearly 20 years during that since the accident both by external irradiation andalso by admission with the food as internal radiation exposure effective total doses from on the average about 10 to 20 mSv with peak values of some 100 mSv. That is less, than other subpopulations in areas with increased natural radiation exposure receive (up toover 25 mSv per year).
Today the five million concerning in contaminated areas receive generally Tschernobyl caused doses from under 1 mSv/to year, but approximately 100,000 receives still more than 1 mSv per year (to the comparison: The average value of the natural radiation exposurein Germany amounts to around 2,4 mSv per year).
Health consequences in the misfortune region
the long-term sequences of the misfortune are difficult to measure. Because of the uncertainty of many data and epidemiological model parameters are all forecasts over future morbidity or mortality numbers with caution to be regarded.
Acute radiation sickness
of acutes radiation sickness was assumed first with 237 persons and confirmed with 134 persons (in particular power station persons employed and firefighters). From these to today 47 deceased, some possibly also from other cause.
Thyroid cancer and other kinds of cancer
in white Russia, Russia andthe Ukraine was observed so far with approximately 4,000 persons, who were illuminated with the misfortune as children or young people, thyroid cancer. It is assumed that this amassment is to due to the radiation. Nine of the gotten sick ones died so far at the cancer. ThoseThyroid cancer illnesses continue to stop, even if the high point seems to be exceeded. It is counted still on a duplication of the cases of illness. , Whether a increased thyroid cancer risk exists also for humans, those is disputed at the time of the highest load by radioactive iodinehad already arisen.
In addition, a rise of the cases of leukaemia is so far not clearly ascertainable, can not clearly be disproved, there it weak referring to a frequency among the “liquidators” and inhabitants of areas, strongly increased perhaps nevertheless, concerned inthe Ukraine gives. Relevant further observations are to be waited for. With other kinds of cancer so far no radiation caused increased cancer frequency was observed. Due to that usually very long latencies can a future occurrence in addition, not be excluded. Still further observations are necessary also here.
Radiation caused cancer deaths
the estimations and computations over radiation caused deaths still which can be expected go very far apart. In the report of the Tschernobyl forum on basis of the linear dose/effect relationship it is only stated that about 4,000 additional cancer deaths could occur as late sequences of the reactor misfortune.This forecast be based on those doses, those the 600,000 most strongly exposed persons suspended and been based on a study, those had been already published in the year 1996 by Elizabeth Cardis (international Agency for Research on CAN cerium, IARC)was. In this study however further 5000 radiation caused deaths among those 6.8 million persons were predicted at that time, who lived far far away from the place of the explosion and were suspended therefore a clearly smaller dose, than the first mentioned group. Cardis became inthe technical periodical nature of 20. April 2006 going by quotes that it is at present about to publish a study over the consequences of the explosion for total Europe. It concludes from its data that under the 570 million at that time in Europe living humansin the long run 16,000 at the consequences of the explosion will die.
To far higher drop number estimations the “gate CH report” (The OTHER report on Chernobyl) came, that by the EP - delegate Rebecca Harms ( parliamentary group “the Greens”) into order given in April 2006was. Two British researchers came here to the result that under the then living 570 million humans between 30.000 and 60.000 additional deaths by the disaster of Tschernobyl could be possible.
Hereditary damage and radiation caused changes of the gene COM
so far neither one becamereduced fertility with men or Mrs., still another increased number of abortions or genetic defects in descendants observes.
Other (physical) health sequences
when getting sick with the grey star a connection with radioactive load is assumed. With doses above 250mGy an increase of the education of grey star seems to arise. Such a dose were z. B. the clearing up workers in the first days suspended. Further at emergency task forces by Tschernobyl a higher illness risk for heart cycle diseases was determined. Whether this higher illness risk causallyto higher doses or to higher psychological load to attribute is, could by the study not be clarified.
Mental health and psychosocial effects
a substantial load for the health by the disaster of Tschernobyl lie in direct or indirectly from itcaused mental and psychosocial consequences. As mental consequences of the misfortune among other things fear of possible consequences of the radiation, urge into a victim role, which lead to a feeling of social Ausgrenzung, as well as stress in connection with evacuation and resettlement are called.Fear can lead to symptoms and to health-endangering life change (nutrition, alcohol, tobacco). Also the high Suizidrate of the region is explained thereby. In what respect those negligently or consciously wrong information politics (from whatever side always) regarding the actual consequences of theMisfortune the uncertainty of humans strengthened, is difficult to measure.
While one period of ten days large quantities of radioactive substances were set free and distributeditself first over many parts of Europe and finally over the entire northern hemisphere.
About 218,000 square kilometers were contaminated with a dose of more than 37,000 Becquerel (37 kBq) Cs-137 per km ². More are appropriate for than 70 per cent of these areas in Russia,the Ukraine and white Russia. In these areas lived 400,000 in areas with a contamination of more than 555 kBq Cs-137 per km at the accident time about five million humans, on it zirka ² (which accepted of the Soviet authorities as limit value for „strict controls “became). There were such areas only in the three countries specified. This limit value is nearly only reached today within a range by 30 km around the location.
Reactions to the misfortune outside of the former Soviet Union
in the countries outsidethe Soviet Union at that time were very different the reactions to the reactor misfortune. Thus for months heated discussions controlled the public over “radioactively contaminated food” and other possible radioactive contaminations in South Germany and Austria. The fundamental attitude to the nuclear energy was often more important than special arguments.Also today still the borders between material information, purposeful minimization and intentionally geschürter scaring are every now and then flowing in the discussion around Tschernobyl. The disaster from Tschernobyl became for some the symbol for the dangers of the use of the nuclear energy andof nuclear power opponents frequently as argument for a fast atomic door one uses. Nuclear energy proponents deplore however that Tschernobyl is abused as homicide argument against the use of the nuclear energy.
In the consequence of the reactor misfortune from Tschernobyl it seems to have given on the one hand panic reactions: To what extentz. B. the recommendations at that time regarding the Unterpflügen of arable crops or barriers of children's playgrounds appropriate and necessary were, probably still another time will remain long disputed. To a large extent recognition it is today however that the radiation exposures at that time in Germany and Austria usually lowerand only in exceptional cases were about comparable with the radiation exposures by atomic bomb tests before the test stop agreement. An example of the discussion in Germany was „the jet whey in such a way specified “. Some dairies in areas particularly concerned had been instructed, the whey of the milkto separate and not sell to store but since in it the radioactive cesium had particularly enriched itself. The suggestion to apply this whey as fertilizers on fields (whey is a good fertilizer), did not have any chances on conversion, although the radioactivity thatWhey was smaller than of some marketable fertilizer, this use of the whey thus even to a decrease of the radioactivity on fields would have led. Instead the whey in expensive, specially established specific machinery over ion exchangers was disposed „“.
In the Federal Republic of Germanyafter becoming known the reactor misfortune the farmers were requested, that actually for at the beginning of of May lining up transferred from the winter feeding of the milk cows to summer feeding (and pasture) still until the first rainfalls to out-hesitate (the disaster fell together with a fair weather period of several weeks, thoseon the one hand the growth of the meadows much energized, on the other side in addition, with a constantly blowing east wind the spreading of the radioactive dust to the west caused). Later there was then a compensation for the agricultural enterprises for developed extra costsduring feeding.
Tschernobyls on countries outside of the former Soviet Union on the other hand
there were effects actually measurable effects of the disaster of Tschernobyl also in Western Europe. So for example also today still mushrooms are, forest berries and in some regions of Germany, in particular in the south,Game animals highly loads. According to Federal Office for radiation protection (BfS) the Kontamierung is approximately ten times higher than in the north of Germany. In Germany in the muscle meat by wild pigs Cäsium-137-Werte by up to 40.000 Bq/kg were measured. The average value amounts to 6,800 Bq/kg and thus moreas tenfold of the European Union limit value of 600 Bq/kg. Who wants to reduce its radiation load, should do without forest mushrooms and game animals.
In some countries further restrictions apply with production, transport and consumption of food, those still by the atomic fall out ofTschernobyl are loaded.
the disaster of Tschernobyl caused immense costs and harmed the economy in the region. Because of economic paging due to the collapse of the USSR the exact economic effects Tschernobyls are however hardly to be raised. The costshave a large hole into the budgets of the three took part countries torn.
Branches particularly concerned of the local economy were land and forestry. Thus scarcely 800,000 hectares (hectar) did not know country and 700,000 hectars forest any longer economically used due to the radiation dosebecome. In addition, the agriculture of the region suffered and suffers from „the stigma Tschernobyl “(hardly demand for products of the region, hardly private investments).
World-wide the accident of Tschernobyl caused substantial economic damage by an escalation and a Emotionalisierung of the discussionaround radiological topics. The loss of Rationalität and the politicalization of the research in this topic area carried to substantial economic damage, since before the impression of the accident by Tschernobyl political decisions were made to the door from the atomic technology, todaysomewhat temporal distance to be again waived. Socially substantial resources in - often few adept - the discussion are bound around nuclear energy, which then for the development of other important topics no more for the order.
Tschernobyl and the closed zone afterthe accident
to 2. and 3. May 1986 about 45,000 inhabitants from the areas in a periphery were evacuated from 10 km around the reactor. Further 116,000 inhabitants became to 4. May 1986 from the area 30 km around thatReactor evacuates. In the following years further 210,000 inhabitants were resettled, so that the prohibited area is large meanwhile 4,300 km ².
About 1,000 inhabitants are partially already in view of the economic situation despite the strongly increased radiation values weeks after the misfortunereturned to the closed zone. Reason was for most that neither the Soviet Union at that time nor the today's Ukrainian state in the places, into which they were evacuated could put a sufficient base of life to them at the disposal. In addition it comes thatmany the Rückkehrer the health danger by the radiation very highly did not estimate. Since it concerned older people predominantly also at that time, it is unclear how many of it at the consequences of the radiation died. Some today still living Rückkehrer mean, it are “a great many died”. In addition, some report, they would not have also after 20 years in the radioactively contaminated region radiation caused complaints. In the village Tschernobyl themselves, some kilometers south the reactor, live today about 100 Rückkehrer. 2001 opened also the orthodox village churchSports association. Ilja again, to the Sundays service appear regularly about 30 Gläubige. All Rückkehrer like also all inhabitants „of the zone 3 “, the region approximately around the prohibited area, receives a small special pension starting from the age from 47 years from the Ukrainian state at heightconverted by 60 US Dollar in the month. Independently of it practically all inhabitants of the prohibited area, how the loaded, nourish themselves but did not evacuate „zone 3 “, also due to the poverty and unemployment locally, of the forest mushrooms and the locally pulled vegetableand fruit. The health consequences with the adults are with difficulty to measure, above all also, because it other unfavorable factors like the unsatisfactory nutrition, which bad restaurant situation, alcoholism and rising AIDS - rate gives. According to estimate of the radiological institute thatCity Ivankiv, about 50 kilometers south of Tschernobyl, are only about 3 per cent of the samples of vegetable, fruit and game meat, which submit the inhabitants free of charge there for investigation, over which (with Western European level in the agreement) of limit values present outside loaded.The measured values vary however very strongly after micro regions, it give individual samples, which are enormously highly loaded.
Which concerns the children, who live in „zone 3 “, Professor estimates. Dr. Evgenia Stepanova, chief lady doctor of the Pedriatri department of the 1987 for the Tschernobyl victimscreated hospital for radiology in Kiew, that suffer about 90 per cent of the children of the region at radiation caused immune weakness. The consequences are in particular frequent illnesses of all kinds such as pneumonia or allergies. Leukaemia or other cancer illnesses with children would step however“today not particularly frequently” up. Professor. Dr. Stepanova is since 1987 a chief lady doctor at this hospital, was before as a lady doctor of a hospital in a Soviet atomic complex in Siberia assigned. The village Tschernobyl is today above all residence of all workers and scientists,in connection with the reactor disaster are used in the prohibited area. The village was selected for it because it was classified within the prohibited area as relatively less. Entering is possible nevertheless only with special permission. On warnings becomes before thatDanger warned by obviously occasionally arising Staubstürmen in the summer, which spreads strongly increased radioactivity. For the inhabitants for it special shelter are put on in Tschernobyl, which according to warnings to be visited immediately to be supposed and which one is not to leave, before the stormswould have put or one am saved. There is there today a small hotel for foreign scientists, also the administration of the prohibited area and different scientific institutes of the Ukraine has there its seat and/or. Branch offices. For radiation protection reasons change with thatcontinuing patching up at the “Sarkophag” assigned and in Tschernobyl accommodated worker every 14 days. The coworkers of the administration have one on Monday until Thursday shortened work week, return on weekend into its residences outside of the prohibited area, usually to Kiew. Before leavingthe prohibited area are there controls for radioactive contamination. Locally it is left to visitors, as they deal with the radioactive load of the environment. While in particular native scientists are unprotected in the prohibited area on the way, one meets in most highlyloaded zone in the periphery of some kilometers approximately around the reactor also experts from western countries with respiratory protection and Schutzanzügen.
The prohibited area from Tschernobyl appears today at first sight as Naturparadies. Moose, wolves, deer are here numerousavailable, into the 1990er - also some Przewalski horses threatened by becoming extinct were exposed to years here. Within 20 years the villages wild ore left at that time closed up to a large extent and.
Up to the end of the Soviet Union most consequences were locally state secret.The authorities and expert of the today's Ukraine, partially even with the same persons involved as physicians or radiologists, deal today openly and very information-joyfully with it. The auxiliary funds for the consequences of the Tschernobyl disaster are today an important restaurant factor for thoseUkraine.
Even partially strongly the center of the prohibited area of Tschernobyl, contaminated by plutonium, was afflicted in the last years also by Plünderern, although the area is shielded by barriers and controls actually locked. Nearly all dwellings in to27. Within hours evacuated city Prypjat geplündert, doors are in the afternoon hit, cookers and furniture robbed from April 1986. Wild pigs and wildernde dogs are to be found on the former and slowly closing up roads. In the Fundus of the former theatre of the city store until todaythe large posters with the Konterfeis of the former Soviet Politbüro members and numerous banners and flags, prepares for the May demonstration, at the 1. May 1986 in the city to take place should.
Also most thousands 1986 of the assigned vehicles and helicopters, because oftheir small to high radioactive contamination on a central “cemetery” in the restricted area were turned off at that time, are cannibalized and geplündert despite formal guard and fence. Engines and windshields are missing, whole helicopters divided and disappeared.
The nuclear reactor Tschernobyl today
all three stillfunctional blocks were again raised after the end of the clearing up work. The second reactor block was switched off in October 1991 after a fire in the Turbinenhalle. Block 1 followed in November 1996, block 3 to 15. December 2000. The disconnection took place in particularon pressure of the European union, the Ukraine received for it appropriate compensations. The disconnection the block of Tschernobyl is in particular also due to by the temporary blockage of the gas supply for the Ukraine, arranged by the Russian gas PROM company, at the beginning of of 2006 in the country muchdisputed, which led the economiceconomics country its energy crisis before eyes. The European-wide cooling wave at the end of January/at the beginning of of February 2006 demanded in the Ukraine over 800 coolingdead.
The suffered average reactor block is today covered by a provisional, permeable “Sarkophag “. On the inside is the situation from the time of the disaster in hot form conserves to a large extent. From approximately 190 tons of reactor core mass according to estimations still approximately 150-180 tons are in the building, partly in form of melted and rigid fuel elements from uranium, plutonium, graphite and sand (italso elephant foot ), partly mentioned in the form of dust and ash, in form of washed liquids in the reactor sump and foundation or in other form.
The international „Shelter implementation plan “has as a goal of establishing a new durable Sarkophag. As the first measurethe roof of the original Sarkophags were strengthened and improved the ventilating system. The new Sarkophag is to be established over the old. Thus it is to be possible to remove the old Sarkophag without further radioactive substances are set free. The new Sarkophag257.44 meters are to become 108.39 meters high long, 150 meters wide and.
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Web on the left of
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- SSE “Chernobyl NPP”. English-language Internet side of the nuclear power station Tschernobyl
- information platform Tschernobyl +20
- Federal Office for radiation protection: Loadof food
- of research center Jülich: Long-term stress of the population in white Russia
- Bildungserver Hessen: The topic Tschernobyl in the school teaching
- Internet appearance of the Greens in the European parliament
- Greenpeace summary
- committee of children of Tschernobyl registered association.
- Management for development and co-operation DEZA, Berne; Website to the long-term sequences
- WDR transmission quark& CO
- IAEO press release: Tschernobyl: The true extent of the accident pdf file
- excerpt from physics the journal April 2006 pdf file
accident course of events
- expiration of the accident in Tschernobyl (Umweltinstitut Munich registered association)
- Tschernobyl - as it came to supergau?
- The accident: represented at available German-languageTechnical literature
coordinates: 51° 23 ' 22 " N, 30° 05 ' 57 " O