the term catholicism designates the whole of catholic faith and views of life, organization forms and customs. It is differently used in different connections. Within theology it is used if the universalistic nature of the church, or a special stress of church traditionand Liturgie to be emphasized is. He means however less the official teachings, Liturgie and hierarchy than rather the actual thinking, feeling and an acting of catholic population parts sociological particularly, where they form and environment-coining/shaping work the majority. This article treats thatTerm in its sociological sense; for the theological meanings, see Katholizität.

In Europe the catholicism coins/shapes the civilization particularly in countries, in which the reformation did not take place. In addition belong Italy, Spain and France, in addition, Ireland, Poland andCroatia, where the national identity stands for the catholicism particularly close, since in these countries a national opposition relied in each case on the delivered catholicism (against Great Britain, against Russia, against the Osmanen and/or. Serb).

Table of contents


relationship of the Roman church to the policy and civilianSociety

Pope Pius IX.the definition of the papal infallibility in training questions interspersed 1870. This birth certificate of the Roman requirement in modern time caused, outside of the actually theological problem, a clear allocation of the papacy to „the religious range “, thus a break ofpapal-church-national policy (a substantial cause „of the Intransigenz “of the Popes Leo XII. to Gregor XVI.). In such a way justified papal internationalism brought Leo to XIII., the founder kath. Social teachings (gest. 1903), large reputation. In the confrontation with the optimistic human thatModern one fought to Pope Pius X. (1903-1914) around a larger religious effectiveness of the church in the society. In the 1. World war succeeded it to Pope Benedikt strengthen, the catholicism as non-partisan and supranationally. Since that time the catholic church has the substantialDemands of the international peace movement (arbitration, disarmament) into its program integrates.

The fall of the European monarchies 1918 and the release of the not-catholic national churches of political patronizing opened also new possibilities of the inter+denominational dialogue, however only after the experiences II.World war broad acceptance on catholic side found and by II. Vatikani council (1962-1965) is recommended expressly. Since that time the catholicism defines itself a service at the society no longer primarily in demarcation to „the remaining world “, but wants it to undertake, toocarry out.

This automatic correction by program by the last council, prepares Pius XI by the Popes. and Pius XII., accomplished by the council Popes Johannes XXIII. and Paul VI., however straight crises internal in the typically catholic Mileus caused. Ineveryone of the catholic coined/shaped countries the situation of the church is not yet free from loads from the political conflicts. In Spain the church found a distance from the Franco regime only gradual. In Italy also today still disagreement exists whether thoseciviltà cattolica a rather Christian democratic or a rather authoritarian attitude favours. The situation is particularly serious in France, where the traditional catholicism stood in opposition to the republic, so that it came also to exaggerations in the opposite direction. Recent church movementsin these countries on the part of liberals theology with political categories are often evaluated, without this would correspond to the mirror-image-ritual request of the Renouveau catholique.

The emphasis of the world-wide catholicism has itself in the last decades however to Latin America, Africa and (less) Asiashifted. Africa south the seeing era turns strengthens the Christianity too. The catholic church in Latin America stands however, because of their long connection to the European-catholic tradition, forwards for particularly serious challenges. Here the attempt became one for the 1960er years “Release theology “undertaken, which was fought from Roman view however as relapse into concepts, which favour a political theology, now however under Marxist perspective.

In the anglo American culture area the catholic church has 19 since that. Century gradually at acceptanceto win can, is as denomination of the minority to be however still rated.

Altogether the catholicism stands for it only at the beginning from II. Vatikani council task posed to continue equally the religious tradition but nevertheless in the midst of the respective cultural surrounding field „upto participate the height of the time “. The Pontifikat of the Pope Johannes Paul II.marked anyhow the past high point of the abendländischen history of the catholicism. This Pope undertook the self execution of the church as world church in a universal, even inter+religious horizon personally andbrought to success (journeys, training letters, world youth days, holy speaking). Possibly the catholicism has in 20. Century, which would not have thought around 1789 anybody to him capable of, substantially contributed to protect mankind a disaster not least by the contribution to the overcoming of mostcommunist systems. To notice also an increasing influence, in the sense of moral authority, is on the development of a altogether fairer world order:

Jamais plus la guerre! ”

- Pope Paul VI.: 4. October 1965 before the UN in new one York, „never again war! “

Direct special rights within the state orders the catholicism does not strive expressly any longer on (finally agreed upon Italy and the Vatikan 1984 the renouncement of the catholic state religion).

catholicism in Germany

the situation of the catholicism inDeutschland ist dadurch geprägt, dass er lange unter seiner minderen Stellung gegenüber dem preußischenProtestantismus im Bismarck-Reich litt. In the Federal Republic 1949-1989 the catholic environment into the 1970er had years a large socio-political influence (era Adenauer, Kardinal Frings, Cardinal Döpfner, cardinal Höffner). Of Pope the Benedikt XVI. on the occasion of the world youth daily in Cologne 2005 demanded turn of the church in Germany to become missionary „“could favour a new, tendency rather contrasting to the cultural surrounding field. The strongökumenische orientation kath. Church in Germany is however probably continued.

catholicism in Austria

in consequence of the Josephinismus knows the Austrian catholicism during the having castle he monarchy a pronounced proximity to the state up. During the Austrofaschismus 1933-1938 Austria appliedfor some conservative catholics almost as “sample state”. Austrian bishops have the connection 1938 to the largeGerman realm many more in a well-meaning manner welcomed as German bishops. From this historical situation loaded, the episcopacy has II. Vatikanum to the cause taken, itself to a large extentto form liberally. A large proximity to the ÖVP (Austrian people's party) hardly is to denials. Catholics in Austria dissociate themselves every now and then still more clearly from the papacy than in Germany. In addition, vehement proponents of the Traditionalismus are to be found. The general problem, whichProximity or distance of the catholic denomination to the state is appropriate, steps out in Austria thus still more clearly than in Germany.


the term catholicism becomes scientific by the denomination customer, who uses Phänomenologie and sociology, around thosePractice of the catholic faith by the individual Gläubigen to describe in addition, the social relevance of the catholic faith. Appropriate applies to the word the protest anti-mash, which describes this with the Protestant Christians.

The catholicism applies traditionally both regardingthe marriage moral, and politically as conservative, in addition, popular (Volksfrömmigkeit). Further the community consciousness, which stand more highly than the individuality, as well as the religious-cultural tradition play a large role. In the Roman catholicism the highest church authority lies with Pope. Within the catholicism exist also various currents, which are summarized frequently with the policy taken terms (esp. Link catholicism) and/or. „progressists “and „Traditionalisten “to be called.

Before the background of global social changes is the catholicism, anyhow ifit a traditional culture area coined/shaped, during a fundamental transformation process. Under the youth in Europe the delivered catholicism is far away a minority phenomenon. The dissolution of the typically catholic environments causes opposite reactions with progressive like conservative forces however. ThoseGegenwehr of the Traditionalismus is able to tighten only a very small minority of the catholics (z. B. Schisma of the Lefebvre movement of 30. June 1988; with these movements at the most 0.2% of the 1.1 billion sympathize Catholic), since the traditional Volksfrömmigkeit diminishes strongly. The extremeTraditionalisten state besides, „the council church “gave the catholic identity up and purged altogether the modernism.

From sociological view the konfessionellen environments however also then still affect the personal behavior patterns, if the actually church connection already no longer consciouslyone feels.

requirement of the papacy

over the catholicism cannot be discussed without view of the theological self understanding of the papacy. Function of the bishop von Rom called „petrinisches principle the “visibly differentiates the largest Christian church fromall other denominations.

In critical viewpoint it is often accused to the papacy that it interferes into the policy. Religion is private thing. From view of the Roman church the requirement of the Christianity extends however beyond the political and social spheres. Thatpetrinische principle establishes thus a religious internationalism, a world-wide requirement. That is also those original word meaning of catholic D. h. „more generally “church.

This religious requirement to put the religion above of the policy and the society seriously pursued, then itself those must religious institution „holy chair “with the respective opposite within the national range argue. Century-long diplomacy does not give a wealth of experience which can be underestimated to the papal institutions. Today the institution of the papacy (not only the Vatikanstaat) of nearly all states of the world becomes according to international lawrecognized.

While the Orthodoxie inserted itself in an eastern Staatskirchentum, the bishops of Rome occurred a much-hundred-year conflict with the government authorities. In the range of latin church the requirement of the papal formulated Primat with special clarity in the 11 stepped.Century in feature (Gregor VIITH, dictatus papae, 1075). Disappeared since the Westfäli peace of 1648 nearly of „the diplomatic parquet “, the papacy before 1789 the absolute monarchies seemed to be underlaid. In nachnapoleonischer time however a gradual reclimb succeeded.

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