Caucasus

Caucasus
kind: High mountains
type: Faltengebirge with volcanic cones
situation: Eurasien between

black one - & Kaspi sea

of countries: Azerbaijan, Armenia,

Georgien, Russia

length/width: 1,100 km/160 km
highest mountain: Elbrus 5,642 m
largest place: Low-read
largest river: Kura
Satellitenaufnahme des Kaukasus: Im Norden der Große, im Süden der Kleine Kaukasus
Satellitenaufnahme of the Caucasus: In the north the large one, in the south the small Caucasus

the Caucasus (Russian Кавказ, Kawkas; Georgian კავკასიონი, Kawkasioni) is about 1,100 km a long, from west northwest to east southeast running Mountains in Eurasien between black one and Kaspi sea, which rise up to 5.642 m highly. It is on the territory of Russia, Georgien, Armenien and Azerbaijan.

Table of contents

large Caucasus

to that Large Caucasus is long, arranged to 160 km broad and often over 1.100 km. Completely in the north the chain of the wooded black ones of mountains lies (around 600 m highly). South of it the pasture comb ( 1,200 to 1,500 m) follows, then the rock comb(to 3,629 m).

South these chains is divided the mountains into four sections: the western black sea Caucasus, also Ponti Caucasus mentioned (600 to 1,200 m), the vergletscherten high mountain Caucasus with the highest summits Elbrus, Schchara and Kasbek (to 5,642 m),in the center the Suramigebirge (to 1,926 m) and in the east the Kaspi Caucasus (500 to 1,000 m).

In the west the mountains are strongly wooded (to 1,500 m hardwood forest, over it coniferous forest and Almen). The east is forestless.

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Small Caucasus

round 100 km south is the small Caucasus on the territory of Georgien, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The small Caucasus is not independent mountains, but a section of the nordanatolisch nordiranischen chain mountains with manufacture of road surfaces and young volcanos. At the Suramigebirge bordersit directly to the large Caucasus. The highest mountain of the small Caucasus is the Gjamysch (3,724 m). It is covered with Firn, has however no glaciers.

geology

the Caucasus forms an elongated land bridge, a Faltengebirgewith some volcanic cones between the black one and the Kaspi sea, which were unfolded like the alps in the Tertiary period. It exists and. A. from granites and Gneisen and contains deposits of natural gas and oil. Estimated reserves: up to 200 billion Barrel oil.(To the comparison: For Saudi Arabia - the country with the world-wide largest oil deposits - 260 becomes billion Barrel estimated.)

history

the area was again and again scene of ethnical arguments and ball of the great powers. End 7. Century succeededit to integrate some southern areas into the Arab realm. Beginning 16. Century the Osmanen conquered the Caucasus. In 19. Century succeeded it to the Russian realm in one over sixty-year old war against the mountain inhabitants to befrieden the northern Caucasus.The resistance is legendary in Chechnya under guidance of the Imam Schamil, which had to result 1859 the large Russians.

1770 entered the Russians for the first time the Caucasian area. The war which was inflamed between Russia and the Osmani realm 1768 brought that one throughthe peace of Kücük Kainardza (21. July 1774) into the possession of the line between Kuban and Terek. 1785 were formed at the areas Jekaterinograd , Mosdok , Alexandrow and Stawropol the Caucasian governorship. 1796 came the cities Derbent, Cuba and Baku in addition. During that already 1783 under Persian sovereignty standing Christian prince Iraq-read II. by Georgien of Russian Vasall had become, fell under its successor George III. Georgien at Russia and became 1801 a Russian Gouvernement.

1802the Russians Ossetien acquired, 1803 Lesghien and in the following fights with the Persern (1804 to [[1813) these lost in peacetime of Gulistan (24. October 1813) the largest part of their Caucasian possessions. The Khanate Gandscha (circle Jelisawetpol), Schirwan (Schemacha), Talisch (Lenkoran) and Karadagh (Schuscha). 1804 were already Mingrelien and 1810 Imeretien under Russian rule please.

Nearly the entire Transkaukasien had become now Russian area, not yet subjected was however the Gorzen, those the mountainsbewohnenen mountain peoples, with whom the fight only 1816 under the Russian general Jermolow was taken up. It depended the Russians to lock the mountain peoples. Therefore one put a set of Kosaken between the Kaspi sea and the black seapopulated settlements on, which were fastened. The Caucasian line in such a way specified pulled itself from the delta of the Laba the Kuban upward along the Malka up to the Terek and this downward to Kisljar. The “Tschernomor line in such a way specified” ran ofBlack sea along the Kuban up to Labamündung and the Laba upward.1817 was established here the attachments Grosnaja and 1819 Wnesapnaja.

In the consequence the Russians occupied the area Schamkal and the Khanate Kurin and Kasikumuch, the large one and the small Kabarda, Akuscha and devastated Chechnya. Up to then only one connection between Cis and Transkaukasien existed over the Grusini road, which led in the middle across the area and along the Kaspi sea. Thus one reached on the other hand oneDivision of the mountain peoples.

1826 took the fight for its old Caucasian possessions to Persia, however in vain, because it had in peacetime of Turkmantschai (23. February 1828) Eriwan and Nachitschewan at Russia transfer. After the Russian-Turkish war 1828- Russia in peacetime of Adrianopel (14 acquired 29. September 1829) the circle Achalzych), in addition the fortresses Anapa and potentiometers.

With Mulla Mohamed developed for the Russians in this time a new dangerous enemy. It preached thoseTheory of the Muridismus, whose leader 1835 Schamyl one made. The Russians began to proceed only 1839 seriously against the mountain peoples. They formed three columns among the lieutenant generals Rajewski, Golowin and Grabbe. This should from Wnesapnaja approximatelythe north Dagestans proceed, where Schamyl had settled. To 5. One met June on Schamyl, that about 5,000 Streiter around itself had met and struck him with the Aul Burtunai. Schamyl went thereupon after Arghuan and placed itselfhere with 6.000 Lesghiern against the Russians. Despite the nearly inaccessible situation of the village the Russians conquered this fortress to 13. June. Schamyl set off after its rock fortress Achulgo to Koi CSU . Only at the 3. Septembers knew the Russiansalso conquer this fortress. Schamyl escaped and fled after Weden, but was not depressed thereby the Muridismus yet. Grabbe had led back its troops after Temir Chan Schura and Wnesapnaja. Already after short time mountain peoples rose again, so that the Russiansseveral years over no durable successes to reach could.1843 conquered Schamyl Awarien and the country to Koi CSU together with nine Russian Forts, so that in Dagestan only Nisowoje and Temir Chan Schura remain to the Russian.

The Caucasian corps received 1844 throughAssignment entire 5.Army corps an increase of 40.000 men. Prince Woronzow 1844 several places nevertheless lost firm to the Muriden and could the seat Schamyls, which celebrations Dargo, to take. The Orientkrieg (1853 to 1856) increasedstill the difficulties in the Caucasus. After his completion prince Barjatinski transferred the supreme command in the Caucasus. In August 1856 five military commands were established and the main power of the Russians came into the eastern Caucasus. From the south and the east Russian troops penetratedunder general Jewdokimow and prince Orbeliani , subjected the large Tschetschnia and Kachetien to 1857, took to 1858 the passport Argun and built there, at the main entrance of the mountains, the fortress bad us bunk. In June three Russian columns continued to penetrate, duringSchamyl against Wladikawkas marched and the rebellion into the central Caucasus to bring tried. But it was back driven by general Mischtschenko. General Jewdokimow conquered meanwhile Warandi and Schatoj, whereupon the Tschteschenen up to a trunk of Schamyl dropped.

At the beginning of 1859 united three Russian columns under Jewdokimow at the river bass, conquered the firm position with Tausen and began to 29. March the FE storage by Schamyls son defended of the firm lock Weden, to 13. April von GeneralJewdokimow was taken in the storm. Schamyl was limited now to Dagestan and was located in a nearly indisputable position to Koi CSU, where he was struck however by prince Barjatinski. The mountain Gunib was its last place of refuge, before it itself to 6. September resulted in. The east of the Caucasus was won thereby for the Russians, one could now after the west turn. The operations lasted here between the spring 1864 and 1865 and ended with subjecting the Tscherkessen.

Even ifthe Russians in the consequence their rule fastened, then it always only a small impact needed, in order to let the old independence efforts revive to Caucasian people shanks again. The Russian-Turkish war offered such an impact 1878 to 1878. Turkish incitersit was an easy, unrests under the Chechens to plot in Abchasien and in Dagestan. Only by the occupation of the passports, those from Abchasien after the settlements of the Chechens led succeeded it to the Russians to prevent a general rebellion of the mountain peoples.Against under Taski the 14,000 men penetrated the Russians troops from the inside had to consult pasha. To 27. June 1877 the united Turks and ABC hare were struck with Aschanodschir. To 30. The Russians the principal place of the insurgent ones, that took JuneVillage Assacho. The ABC hares and Chechen were thrown to that thereby down, the volatile leaders plotted however new rebellions in Dagestan, only after Zersprengung of a gang of 6.000 men and thrashing of 4.000 men to 30. September and 4. Octobers to be suppressed could.

see also

to population

in the Caucasus living about 50 peoples, the Caucasus peoples (z. B. Mountain peoples, Tscherkessen, Chechen, Russian) to be designated and Caucasian, indogermanischeas well as alataurischen languages speak. The speakers of the Caucasian language are called Kaukasier. The majority of the inhabitants is Christian (Russian or Armenian-orthodox).

continental one border

whether the Caucasus as border mountains between Europe and Asia be regarded can, remainsdue to different excessive quantities in the long run inexplicably. With the ancient Greeks the Caucasus applied as border of Europe. However the border was shifted several times later for political reasons. In this connection the Swedish officer Philip Johan of jet mountain plays an important role, becauseit the last historical key figure during the fixing of the boundaries between Asia and Europe is (see for this:Innereurasi border). At present the border between Russia becomes (Europe) as well as Georgien, Armenia and Azerbaijan (Asia) regarded as border between Europe and Asia.

mountains

Der Elbrus, von Osten
of the Elbrus, from the east
  1. Elbrus (5,642 m), Russia
  2. Dychtau (5,203 m), Russia
  3. Rustaveli (5,201 m), Georgien
  4. Schchara (5,168 m), Georgien
  5. Koshtantau (5,150 m), Russia
  6. Pushkin (5,100 m), Russia
  7. Shkhara (5,068 m), Russia/Georgien
  8. Kasbek (5.047), Russia/Georgien
  9. Mizhirgi(5,025 m), Russia
  10. Katyn (4,974 m), Russia
  11. Shota Rustaveli (4,960 m), Russia
  12. Borovikovs topp (4,888 m), Russia
  13. Uschba (4,695 m), Georgien
  14. Uilpata (4.638)
  15. Tebulosmta (4,493 m), Terekgebirge - Chechnya
  16. Bazardüzü (4,466 m), Azerbaijan
  17. special Trade Union of German Employees (4,243 m)
  18. cathedral bay (4,046 m), Georgien/Russia
  19. Gjamysch (3,724 m)

waters

the drainage Caucasus mountains is predominantly radial. Several important rivers rise in the Caucasus:

as the larger lake worth mentioning is

fauna

besideone finds mainly wild pigs, Gämsen, Steinböcke and also the stone eagle to the usual animal world. Likewise wildly domestic is still the bar.

Flora

in the Caucasus are 6,350 bloom plant types domestic, of it are 1,600 endemic kinds. 17Kinds of mountain plants are only here represented. The giant Bärenklau, which applies in Europe as problematic Neophyt, comes of this mountains. He was imported 1890 as ornamental plant to Europe.

countries & dependent areas

places

important cities in the Caucasus are among other things:

expansion

  • the Caucasus is 1,100 kmlong and 160 km broad.
  • At 399.500 km ² surface is larger the Caucasus region than Germany.

literature

  • Wagner, refuge Günter: Oil and natural gas in the Caucasus Kaspi region. - Geographical ones round-look (Braunschweig, Westermann), volume 49, 1997, S. 355 - 361.
  • Olaf Haselhorst: The Caucasus as object of the Russian colonialism in the first half 19. Century, Hamburg 1999

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Caucasus- Pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Caucasus - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Caucasian proverbs - quotations
 

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