|surface:||157 km ²|
|height:||47 m and. NN|
|postal zip code:||62xxx - 67xxx|
|telephone preselection:||+370 37|
Coordinates: 54°54 ′ N, 23° 56 ′ O 54° 54 ′ N, 23° 56 ′ O
|next airport:||Airport Kaunas|
|homepage of the city Kaunas|
Kaunas (Byelorussian Коўна, Polish Kowno, not common German washrooms) is center of the district Kaunas. With approximately360,000 inhabitants is it the second largest city of Lithuania. It is to 100 km because of the confluence of Memel (litauisch Nemunas ) and Neris in the center of the country - west the capital Wilna (litauisch Vilnius).
Table of contents
Kaunas, thatof 1920 - 1940 the provisional capital of Lithuania (to Laikinoji Sostine, see section “modern times”) was, is today primarily industrie, education and science location. Due to its situation it is the most important traffic junction of Lithuania. Kaunas possesses an attractive city centre alsoone over 2 km pedestrian precinct, those, gesäumt from Cafés, is enough galleries and fashion shops, the medieval old part of town with the new city 19. Century connects.
Kaunas is considered as the “litauischere” city in the comparison with Wilna, where due to completely different urban history manyPoland and Russians live. After a phase of the cultural and economic meaning loss after independence 1990, already before the European Union entry of Lithuania an upswing began in Kaunas.
Beside an extensive economy Kaunas possesses several Universities of, enormous consumer possibilities and inamazing art offer with many galleries. In particular textile art, whose roots lie in the traditionally strong textile industry, is strongly represented in the city, which settles also in a large, meanwhile Textilkunst Biennale internationally of high repute.
the Middle Ages
For the first time 1361 a castle at the delta of the Neris were mentioned into the Memel. This castle was conquered repeated by knights of the German medal and/or. destroyed, however always by the Litauern immediately again one developed. Principal reason for the continued attacksthe German medal on Kaunas the attempt of the medal was to interconnect its territories in East Prussia and in live country in order to establish so a uniform and compact rule range of Estonia by live country until to East Prussia. To this North-South axis setthe castle in Kaunas an important obstacle for the ambitions of the German medal. With the destroying defeat of the German medal in the battle with fir mountain against the united Litauer and Poland in July 1410 this conflict became in favor of thatLitauer decided.
After the settlement the farm servant citizens of municipal rights had already received 1408, the meaning of the city grew as commercial centre after 1410 rapidly, which expressed itself also in the opening of a Hansekontors 1440. To the trade the handicraft came and from thatbefore times strategically important and hard contested castle settlement became, a rich and large city in the Polish litauischen state, lain traffic-favorably.
1732 destroyed a fire the city. After Kaunas in the course of the third Polish division (1795) at Russia pleasewas, the city became 1831 Russian Gouvernementshauptstadt (on Russian Kowno). After the regaining of litauischen independence 1918 Polish troops conquered the traditional litauische capital Wilna and integrated them into the Polish national territory. Therefore was Kaunas between the world warsfrom 1920 to 1940 the provisional capital of Lithuania (Laikinoji Sostine). With it a considerable development thrust accompanied: new boroughs were put on, to industry and infrastructure profited from the new capital function and 1922 the Vytautas that large university were opened.
1940 occupied Soviet Troops Kaunas.1941 invaded the armed forces , which remained until 1944 as crew power in the city. In this time the Jewish population became into the Ghetto Slobodka on the other side of the Neris (today: Quarter Vilijampole) gepfercht and gradually inthat close convenient IX. Away (from the napoleonischen time, today memorial place) murdered or into other concentration camps deportiert. The regaining renewed from 1944 to to litauischen independence Kaunas belonged to the Litaui Soviet republic, whose capital became again Wilna.
Kaunas Kaunas very pictorial because of the delta of the Neris into the Memel, which flows through the city in numerous turns. The old part of town is worth seeing (lit. senamiestis) with various catering trade and many well received buildings. At the main place,town hall square, lie cathedral, which Jesuitenkirche and the historical city hall, which because of its high, white shape in the colloquial language “white swan” is called and each Saturday by pairs of weddings one besieges, there it due to its beautiful situation“wedding palace” is extremely more popular.
At the north side of the town hall square is the gallery “Meno parka” of the Litaui artist combination, in which regularly exhibitions with contemporary art are presented.
Nearby the town hall square are because of the Neris the ruin of the castle of Kaunasand the pc. George church, which is quite worth seeing also in unrenoviertem condition. In a side lane of the town hall square to the Memel the Perkunas house, a lategothical community centre lies, in which the pupils of the nearby Jesuiten High School during the summer cure-two-lies to guidance organize.
Upthe high terraces above the Memeltales drive to today two endless rope haulage systems from intermediate wartime.
Kaunas' most well-known museum is dedicated the Ciurlionis - to museum, the large composer and painter of the country. Here one can regard not only the paintings of the artist, butin an extra for it hear furnished area also its music.
Few steps of the Ciurlionis - museum far away on the other roadside lies the singular devil museum with a world-wide unique collection of devil figures. In the Zilinskas gallery nearby the “Sobor”, the neobyzantinischenChurch at the eastern end of the pedestrian precinct, becomes among other things Western European painting issued like e.g. Pictures of max dear man and Franz Mark.
Because of the eastern outskirts of a town of Kaunas, near artificial lake chew-wet seas (Kauno marios), is the monastery Pažaislis, thatafter his renovation to the most beautiful and most unusual Sakralbauten Lithuania belongs.
Of a dark chapter of litauischen history the memorial place in IX. reminds. Away at the northern outskirts of a town, where during the German crew numerous Jewish humans were murdered out completely Europe(see section “modern times”).
universities and universities
Kaunas is seat of several universities and universities. The largest of it is the technical University of Kaunas KTU Kauno technologijos universitetas. The moreover one there is the generally aligned VDU Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, the medical University of Kauno medicinos universitetas, the Litaui agriculture university Lietuvos žemės ūkio universitetas and the veterinarian academy Lietuvos veterinarijos akademija. In addition some professional schools come.
likes Kaunas economically and culturally alsobehind the capital limp, in the sport is equal the city. Kaunas has the only larger stadium of the country (capacity: 20,000 visitors) and beside the best football crew is in Kaunas also the UC Žalgiris at home, that in the national kind of sport basketballin the 80's three times Soviet master will could, in the 90's of litauischer series masters was and also internationally large successes obtained. It belongs today to the national Sportidol Arvydas Sabonis.
inLocation advantage of Kaunas is the situation as the central (road) traffic junction of the country. From north to south running here the so-called meets those via Baltica, which leads from Warsaw across Riga and Tallinn to Helsinki, the east west main route, as motorwaydeveloped distance from Klaipėda to Wilna, which continues to lead in the continuation across Minsk to Moscow. Kaunas lies thereby substantially more traffic-favorably than the litauische capital Wilna, which itself very close of the European Union - external border to white Russia and thus traffic-technically in oneKind “totem angle” finds.
remote bus - there are connections to all larger litauischen cities as well as to a great many towns, in addition to all neighboring countries and many larger cities in other countries of the European union. The penalty afterVilnius drive during the day in a 30-Minuten-Takt. The bus station is only few going minutes far away from the station of the litauischen railway.
Kaunas possesses a bus - and a trolley bus net. The Lietuvos Gelezinkeliai (railway) operatesnot very important rapid-transit railway - similar system of Vorortzügen. To emphasize the existence of a very much expanded regular taxi net is also over 130 lines, which masters the mass of the ÖPNV. This so-called mini penalty are characterised not by excessive luxury, drive however brisklyand in short distances not only within the city, but also to numerous Destinationen in the environment of Kaunas.
also in the Eisenbahnnetz of the country has the station Kaunas a location advantage opposite the capital Wilna. ExistConnections to Wilna, Šiauliai and Warsaw. The passage courses after Kaliningrad pass the station Kaunas, it exist however neither nor door possibility. A high-speed railway connection Warsaw - Kaunas Riga -, promoted by the European Union, Tallinn, the Project Rail Baltica, is in the planning phase (planned completion in the year 2016). Contrary to the very well removed litauischen motorways the railways, which drive on Soviet track yardstick, have still strong pent-up demand.
Kaunas has a modern airport (IATA code: KUN), which is used at present still few, since the airport Vilnius, which is distant for 100 km, completes the main part of the litauischen air traffic. Since then the airport operator however a new fee system introduced, animates cheap fliers since autumn 2005 the offer: Ryanair flies daily directly to London Stansted, as well as to Dublin and Stockholm Skavsta, and starting from autumn 2006 also to Frankfurt cock and Liverpool. Wizz air flies to Warsaw, where e.g. Connection flights to Dortmund to be offered.
Kaunas is for inland waterway crafts of the Kuri Haff (Klaipėda) ago over the Memel attainable. The inland waterway craft travel does not play however so far (differently than in Soviet times) a considerable role. Problematic with the fact it is also that the underflow of the Memelthe European Union border to Russia represents. There are plans to take up the passenger traffic on a speedboat from Kaunas to Nidden on the Kuri Nehrung, which had been adjusted some years ago, again (summer).
sons and daughters thatCity
- Valdas Adamkus, third and sixth president of Lithuania
- Mo of arene, Israeli politician and former defense - and minister of foreign affairs
- Auschra Augusta, Psychologin and Ökonomin as well as foundress of the Sozionik
- Donatas Banionis, litauischer actor
- Vytautas Barkauskas, more litauischerComposer
- Emma Goldman, US-American Anarchistin and Friedensaktivistin
- Władysław Komar, Polish athlete
- Vytautas Landsbergis, litauischer politician
- Emmanuel Lévinas, French philosopher
- George Maciunas, US-American artist litauischer descent
- Jāzeps Mediņš, lettischer composer
- Oskar Minkowski, important physician
- Victor Palciauskas, chess player
- Arvydas Sabonis, litauischer basketball player
- Ben Shahn, US-American painter and commercial artist
- Nina countess give from Stauffenberg, widow of the LV resistance fighter Claus count give v. Stauffenberg