Causality

causality (v. lat.: causa = a cause) the relationship between causes and effects designates, thus the causal connection of two events.

There is colloquial two events or conditions A and B the cause of an effect C, if A and B of reasons are, which C causes. For example one could say „my footstep on the accelerotor pedal caused that the car accelerated “. However this definition is circular letter: What actually means it that A and B cause , C „“? This is an important question, those and. A. in philosophy, statistics and on the right of and natural sciences one treats.

A causal chain results, if each effect is again a cause of a new event.

Mono causality calls itself an event chain, with that the final resultto exactly a causing trip to attribute leaves, with multi-causality can several trips be present. In a critical sense mono causality can designate also an insufficient attempt at explanation, which attributes only one cause to a multi-causal effect.

From the term of the cause those often becomeReason, condition and cause understands distinctive; over the exact demarcation however no agreement prevails. Mostly applies:

• the cause as a special kind of the condition, i.e. one temporally strictly before the effect lying and in possibly a way particularly outstanding;
• the cause as coincidental, „more insignificantly “trips of an effect beside one „actual “, „a substantial “cause;
• the term „reason “as idealistically contrary to the rather materialistic term „a cause “.

causal order

causal chain
the causal order is a Halbordnung, which is defined over the relation of causal dependence over a quantity of events: An event A is a cause ofEvent B (A < B) or in reverse (A > B), or the events affect each other mutually not (A || B), i.e., them are causally independent or concurrent. Causality besides of most theoreticians as transitiv is regarded:If event A is a cause of B, and B is a cause of C, then A is also a cause of C (if A < B and B < C is, then is also A < C). Others turnagainst the fact that at least our usual judgement practice is not transitiv concerning causality, since we always research ourselves with the search for the cause of an event after the directly causing event.

Causal dependence and itself the causal order resulting in from itare very important in different ranges, as is explained in the following. In particular within some fields of physics, computer science and philosophy the time are actually defined over the causal order, turned around instead of (see Happened Before relation). The term of the “simultaneousnessloses then at meaning, one speaks instead of its from causally independent events. Whether two appear also simultaneous such events, hangs completely of the point of view of the observer off (see relativity of the simultaneousness).

physics and mathematics

causality imply one Halbordnung: The cause of the cause of an effect is thereby also (an indirect) cause of the effect. An effect may not be a direct or indirect cause of their, since otherwise contradictions can occur (like z. B. the grandfather paradox with time journeys).

The events, the one certain event causally to affect can form ([with] a cause of this event to thus be to be able) the absolute past of this event. Turned around the events, which a certain event can affect causally, form the absolute future of the event.

In that classical mechanics is the causal order even a strict weak order, the relation “event 1 lies neither in the past nor in the future of event 2 " is thus an equivalence relation, which is called simultaneousness. This causal order leaves itselfwith a real parameter, the absolute time of Newton, “durchnummerieren”.

In relativity theory however the causal order is only more a partial order. Since effects in it can spread only with maximally speed of light, the absolute past is a cone in that Space-time, the past light cone in such a way specified; likewise the absolute future is given by the future light cone (see Minkowski diagram). Causality implies no more simultaneousness (relativity of the simultaneousness), thus gives it also no clear time coordinate. All time coordinates thatIt has relativity theory however together that causally which are connected events have the same order ( the cause thus before the effect comes always temporally).

Causality is called often also the principle of a cause and effect. In this sense it becomes from many physicistsless than law of nature separate than interpretation of the happening outstandingly, since there is no accurate regulation, how a certain cause and the associated effect can be defined spatially and temporally. In the long run procedures of dead nature become exhaustively through in physicsSolutions of mathematical equations described. A necessity to call subranges of these solutions as causes and effects exists in the long run not, but serves only for the illustration and to assist in the understanding.

The question whether each physical event clearly by a quantity of , Whether thus the universe is as a whole deterministic, is an important question is predetermined causes in physics: After classical Newton's physics, and also after Einstein relativity theory, that is the case. In last consequence that would mean, thateach thought and each falling sheet at the moment the Big Bang were predetermined. Albert Einstein said to it: God throw ELT not. Which us as coincidence appears therefore depends in reality only on unknown causes. Also the free will of humanswould be almost illusion. Einstein drew here a parallel to the unfreeness of the will after Schopenhauer.

Quantum mechanics however teaches that we can predict the probability of later observations due to restrictive in principle laws of nature only - which in detail case nowactually happens, hangs from the objective coincidence (see collapse of the wave function). The Kopenhagener interpretation of quantum mechanics means also that the result is affected crucially by the observer. Also this idea has extensive philosophical consequences: it places the nature of the physical Reality in question (subjectivism , Solipsismus compares and konstruktivismus).

computer science

in computer science plays causality in two kinds a large role: on the one hand as additional statement about it, which events led to which other events. That is particularly with communication in distributed systems with several transmitters and receivers importantly to place for example in order surely that instructions in the correct order are implemented, even if messages in the network overhaul themselves. For this purpose becomeabove all logical clocks assigned, which permit it to determine due to time stamps the causal order from events to.

On the other hand one can say with computer programs easily in a while ago, which action needs which data, and of where these are made available. Thus arisesa causal order over it, which operation needs the result of which others. So expirations can be planned accordingly and sequentialisiert in particular or parallelisiert . See in addition also: Concurrency.

philosophy

vorsokratische Greek philosophy asked all Seins for „the Urgrund “.This is not however only to be understood with the looking for of one „a cause “in the today's use of the word. Rather they looked for element for a kind and/or. a all-comprehensive principle.Arché compares.

Demokrit was one of the first philosophers, that thoseConception of a comprehensive causality in the sense of causes and effects represented.See below materialism and atomistic.

Aristoteles

Aristoteles led four different kinds of „causes “(aitia Pl. aitiai) up:

• causa materialis : the material cause
• causa formalis : the form cause
• causa efficiens : the effect cause
• causa finalis: the purpose cause

this aristotelische partitioning in four kinds of causes is philosophy-historically important: it was taken up by many other philosophers, changed and developed further partly. The term aitia meant with Aristoteles more than the today's term a cause. Everything aitiai a thing to indicate to be able is called to possess knowledge over this thing.

Causa materialis and causa formalis determine according to Aristoteles its an article: the form penetratesthe actually ungeformten, qualityless and motionless material (i.e. the subject) and educates it to a concrete, real thing.

Example: Causa materialis a picture column is the ore, of which it consists; causa formalis however the art of the sculptor,that it forms.

Causa efficiens and causa finalis refer against it to of the articles. Causa efficiens in the sense of an outside impact of the movement and causa finalis as the purpose, over dessentwillen something is understoodhappens, a certain activity is implemented etc.

Example: The father is causa efficiens the child; the health is causa finalis the sport. (see. Aristoteles, Metaphysik 1013a 24 to 1014a 25).

Scholastik

the Scholastik, here the Thomismus, Aristoteles' categorization of the causes essentially took over. However it introduces a ranking under the causes and arranges thereby the less meaning material and effect causes the higher form and purpose causes under (see also: Teleologie). Is importantthe Hinzutreten of a first cause (causa great), i.e. God, for the creation of the world and as their first Beweger.

The Okkasionalismus sees as actual, an only trueful cause of all happening the göttliche conception, while the finite, physical thingsonly causes, opportunity causes (causae occasionales) to be are, in those itself working the göttlichen spirit manifested.

David Hume

one in modern philosophy wide-spread view of the nature of the cause and causality became inSubstantial of David Hume (1711 - 1776) justifies. After it a cause is an article, which precedes another temporally, it spatially neighbouring and at the same time with it is so connected that the conception of the article in the spiritthe conception of the other one produces. Hume saw the cause still as material object, represented thereby however the thesis that we closed on the existence of a causal relation only inductively, but never secured of it to know to be able. The later successors Humes negatebeyond that also the objective existence of the causes themselves.

materialism/Mechanizismus

materialistic and mechanizistische philosophies, particularly in 18. Century, led all causes were common in France in the long run on mechanical pressure and impact („dance of the atoms “)back. There were similar conceptions already in the antique one with Demokrit. See also: Atomistic.

Beginnings for the overcoming of the purely mechanical cause term one finds with Ludwig fire brook, to the one complete reducibility of features of the higher movement forms (i.e.Life, thinking, history) on the mechanics at least doubts.

Kant

Immanuel Kant differentiated a “causality from “causality according to laws of nature “by liberty “:

If I now (for example) completely freely and without the necessarily determiningInfluence of the nature causes of my chair rises, then a new row begins absolutely in this occurence including their natural consequences in the infinite, although after the time this occurence is only one continuation of the preceding row. Because this resolution andAct lies at all in the succession of bare nature effects and is not not a bare continuation the same; separate the determining nature causes stop above the same in reputation of this event completely, which follows after those, but from this effected and thereforethe time after, but nevertheless in reputation of causality an absolutely first at the beginning of a set of features to be called does not have.
(Criticism of the pure reason: The Antinomie of the pure reason: Note to the third Antinomie)

contrary toHume among other things Kant regards causality as necessity. It argues that the causal thought on the internal structure of the realization belongs, if each special causal rule originates from the experience, because one cannot at all understand otherwise the world. “Lies for Kantthe proof for the necessity for causality in at the same time logical like chronological succession of the time. “It clarifies this in the criticism of the pure reason by the example of the observation of a ball and a recessing in a cushion. Here giveit only a logical conclusion of the ball as a cause for recessing as effect. The reverse conclusion would be absurd. “Physics confirmed and as postulate to its most important theories took up the Kant definition of causality to a large extent.” In the specialRelativity theory of Einstein, which permits a Zeitdilatation, not however a Zeitumkehr, remains causality in the sense of the temporal consequence. Likewise the coincidence concept of the quantum theory is not hurt. (Quotations out: Serres/Farouky (Hrsg.), thesaurus of the accurate sciences)

Criticism at the term of causality

after Ernst Mach gives it in nature neither material causes nor causality conditions, but only functional relations. In the Konditionalismus the causes are replaced by conditions. Already John Stuart Mill regarded those as a cause of a thingfull sum of its conditions.Max Verworn increased this view in the absolute: the term of the cause is a leftover of before-scientific conceptions; each happening is not caused, but causes only by the whole of infinitely many, equivalent conditions.

view inDialectic materialism

in the dialectic materialism with internal contradictions of the articles and from the new qualities arising in the course of the development one proceeds. With each change, development of the material things, processes, systems among other things in nature and society work expresses and internal causes together. Outside causes are called themselves from the universal connection of all things, processes, systems among other things resulting in effects the same one on the other; internal causes among other things the DiaMat calls according to it all material things, processes, systems immanent contradictions, the theirMovement, change and development cause. Exterior and internal causes form one „dialectic unit “: the internal causes become only effective by the existence of the outside, the outside causes only by the switching of the inside. The relationship of outside and internal causesis relative thereby: which for a system an internal cause is, an outside cause can be and in reverse for another system.

modern trend of beginnings

John Leslie Mackie introduced the INUS condition, in order to be able to identify causes: An event becomesas a cause of a result perception, if it is however more necessary an insufficient (Insufficient) (Necessary) part of a condition, which is even not necessarily (Unnecessary) however sufficient (Sufficient) for the result.

The Closest World concept of David Lewis is accepted basis of one today far awaygeneral definition of causality. David Lewis places the against-actual implication (Counterfactual Conditional operator) into the center of the considerations and he states as example: „Kängurus would not have tails, them would fall down “.

A world with tailless Kängurus offends obviously against thoseFacts. We must imagine thus a world, which deviates at least in this one point from the reality. This „parallel world “must be to a large extent stimmig otherwise in itself and resemble as far as possible our world. Otherwise also Kängurus could in this worldlive, which go at sprags and therefore not to fall down.

To „Causality “Judea Pearl points, how the Closest World concept can be concretized.

How now are against-actual implication and causality connected? The fact that the stone throw is to be regarded as a cause of the broken disk leaves itselfthus express: If I would not have thrown the stone, the disk would not have shattered. We must turn into thus on the against-actual implication of the negations: „Stone do not throw “implied against-actually „disk shatters not “.

December RMI sneezing mash and free will

the philosophical consequencescausality are particularly interesting in connection with the philosophical thinking direction of the December RMI sneezing mash. There one assumes that oneself that each event is firmly pre-determined by preceded events, thus the universe as causal chain developed. That refers to allEven one, also on the elementary particles of energy and subject. Since now the human brain consists also of subject, it would have to behave likewise deterministically, therefore thus in a way, which can be computed and predetermined by a Turing machine (theoretical).That would mean however that there is no absolutely free will: each of our thoughts was at the moment the Big Bang already fixed. The moreover one it would also mean that on the one hand humans are not able, to solve problems thosealso by a Turing machine (or another computer) to be computed could not. And on the other hand that everything that humans do, think and feel could be simulated by a program, artificial intelligence and also artificial consciousness is thus possible. The borderbetween conscious, purposeful acting and bare mechanical processing of a set of rules thereby completely, will and consciousness disappear would be a Konstrukt. Albert Einstein represented this opinion under reference to the unfreeness of the will after Arthur Schopenhauer. It lent to its attitude alsoa much quoted sentence expression:God throw ELT not.

If one does not accept the deterministic world view however (follows thus indeterminism), then one must ask oneself, what, if not firm regulating, which can be illustrated by physical models, because thatSake governs. Possibilities would be the fate, göttliche intervention or a soul of humans. The two first speak humans likewise the free will off, the latters shift the free will of humans of its physical laws exposed bodies upa soul, which extracts itself from the description by physics.

In this connection often to the role of the coincidence in the basic laws of physics one refers. Like that it is no longer possible in quantum mechanics, the expiration of a procedure regardingto predict all measurable sizes, even if all accessible in principle information about its initial condition admits are. After usual scientific view the nature happening is determined not complete, but is subject partially to an absolute coincidence (Kopenhagener interpretation of quantum mechanics). This absolute coincidencein this connection often as a liberty of physics one consults, in order to create concerning this a clearance for the influence possibility of a hypothetical free will, which is not even subject however to the physical laws, for example in the context of the concept of a soul.

[] If biology

and behavior research work on

if our ancestors the black and yellow strips (effect), before-flashing behind the bushes, a tiger (a cause) attributed and of it made themselves, they were well advised. The fast decision, which probably a cause of the observation could be,and the action following from it were life-supporting.

This behavior to reason which is appropriate causality expectation belongs to the “innate instructors” (Konrad Lorenz): The “hypothesis of the cause” contains “expectation that same will have the same cause. This is first no moreas a judgement in advance. But this prejudice works satisfactorily… in a such oversize at cases that it is superior to each judgement different one in the Prinzipe or the judgement renouncement " (Rupert Riedl, 1981).

Innate instructors have a negative drawback. They know thinking trapsits: “The biological knowledge contains a system of reasonable hypotheses, ahead judgements, us in the framework its, for which they were selected, as with highest wisdom steers; us however at its borders in err perfectly and meanly lead " (Rupert Riedl). On thoseCausality expectation decreases/goes back that often rashly the pilot, captain or engine driver are made responsible for a misfortune.

Ökonometrie (Granger)

in the Ökonometrie is content one a z. B. in relation to philosophy limited causality term. With this those standstemporal order of the variables in the foreground. Crucially the causality term of the Ökonometrie of Granger was coined/shaped. This works with the premise that the past determines the future and in reverse. It means that a variable X for Y Granger causallyis, if with a given information capacity up to the time T-1 at the time t the variable Y be better prognosticated can, as without the installation course of the variables X. Granger causality can apply in a direction or also in both directions(Feedback - system). Granger causality is statistically testable. The causality term is closely related to a further theoretical concept of the Ökonometrie/ time series analysis, the Exogenität.

Granger causality can be tested. For this a bivariates VAR (p) is - model regards:

[itex] \ begin {pmatrix} Y_ {1t}\ \ Y_ {2t} \ end {pmatrix} = \ begin {pmatrix} to a_1 \ \ a_2 \ end {pmatrix} + \ begin {pmatrix} \ phi_ {11.1} & \ phi_ {12.1} \ \ \ phi_ {21.1} & \ phi_ {22.1} \ end {pmatrix} \ begin {pmatrix} to Y_ {1, T-1} \ \ Y_ {2, T-1} \ end {pmatrix} +… + \ begin {pmatrix} \ phi_ {to 11, p} & \ phi_ {12, p} \ \ \ phi_ {21, p} & \ phi_{22, p} \ end {pmatrix} \ begin {pmatrix} to Y_ {1, t-p} \ \ Y_ {2, t-p} \ end {pmatrix} + \ begin {pmatrix} to Z_ {1t} \ \ Z_ {2t} \ end {pmatrix}< to /math>

It does not lie a Granger causality for[itex] Y_2< /math> on [itex] Y_1< /math> forwards, if:

[itex] \ phi_ {12.1} = \ phi_ {12.2} =… = \ phi_ {12, p} =0< /math>

[itex] Y_1< /math> is for [itex] Y_2< /math> not Granger causally, if:

[itex] \ phi_ {21.1} = \ phi_ {21.2} =… = \ phi_ {21, p} =0< /math>

The test on not Granger causality corresponds thus to a test on zero-restrictions for certain coefficients. Such a test could look with normality of the white noise as follows:

[itex] F (p, N-n-p) = \ frac {RSS_r-RSS_u} {p \ has \ sigma_ {11} ^2}< /math>

Is

• [itex] N< /math> the extent of the two time series
• [itex] n< /math> the number of coefficients, which with OIL - estimation (“o rdinary l east s of quares estimation " or KQ-estimation - a “K of flax width unit Q uadrat " - estimation) become related, so that thoseNumber of degrees of freedom becomes smaller,
• [itex] p< /math> the number of additional coefficients, with which the variable X is included into the OLS estimation,
• [itex] RSS_r< /math> the sum of the squared residues of the OLS estimation of the equation with restrictions,
• < math> RSS_u< /math> the sum of the squared residues of oneOLS estimation of the equation without restrictions,
• [itex] \ has \ sigma_ {11} ^2 = \ frac {RSS_u} {N-n-p}< /math> as estimated variance of [itex] Z_1< /math>, is
• [itex] \ has \ sigma_ {11}< /math> the standard deviation.

With the determined value of F one goes reading off into the appropriate table from F around the probability that no Granger causalityis present. It is to be noted that only (generally) the smaller probability of [itex] F (p, N-n-p)< /math> applies. The probability of [itex] F (N-n-p, p)< /math> is more largely (generally) and not applicable.

to jurisprudence

see major item causality (jurisprudence)

medicine

the etiology(v. griech. αἰτία „a cause “and λόγος „reason, teachings “) designates the science of the causes in the antique one in some philosophical schools. Today the medical meaning of the term prevails forwards.

literature

• Andreas hut man (Hrsg.): Causality andLaw of nature in the early modern times, Studia body rivet IANA, ISBN 3-515-07858-4
• David Lewis: Counterfactuals. Harvard University press 1973
• John Leslie Mackie: The Cement OF the university verses - A Study OF Causation, Oxford, Clarendon press, 1980
• Uwe Meixner: Theory thatCausality. A manual to the causal term in two parts, Mentis publishing house, 2001, ISBN 3-89785-185-7
• Judea Pearl: Causality, Cambridge University press, ISBN 0-521-77362-8
• Rupert Riedl: Biology of the realization. The masterhistorical bases of the reason. Parey, Berlin, Hamburg 1981
• Wolfgang bar Mueller: Problems and results of the science theory and analytic philosophy. Bd.1 explanation, reason, causality, Springer publishing house, ISBN 3-540-11804-7
• Wolfgang bar Mueller: The problem of causality, 1983

Web on the left of

 Wikiquote: A cause - quotations
 Wiktionary: Causality - word origin, synonyms and translations
 Wiktionary: A cause - word origin, synonyms and translations