the term gravel (of medium high-German gravel = coarse-grained stony sand) designates a widespread sediment, which is called in the upper-German area also crushed stone. Generally the word designates:
- an accumulation of in rivers and brooks round-polished small stones, that Pebbles. Larger stones are called rubble or Geschiebe (forms out of round or sharp edged are called however rock debris). Since gravel contains nutritious material contrary to the humus no for plants and by it through well runs off water, it becomes onlymeagerly bewachsen. Due to the last characteristic gravel is used frequently for the drainage by damp underground. The most important economic use of gravel is however in the building industry, e.g. as wadding for dams, on those railways or roadsrun, or as raw material for the production of concrete.
- in the technical technical language sulfur - and arsenic hard and ore in bright colors with strong Metallglanz, which can be split with difficulty; e.g. Copper - and sulfur gravel
- in the colloquial language money.
- The designation “ Grus “valid in Northern Europe means a fine-more granular sediment in German however - see also Verwitterungsgrus.
table of contents
distinction after grain size
gravel becomes in geology and Geotechnik after size classes and/or. Usually distinctive according to it (wash and dressing plants of Schottergruben), like it in this description of the field one also sorts grain size and before use in the building industryPreparation mechanic one describes.
The names of the grain size go to half decimal steps: Fine to rough gravel, 2 mm - 6 mm - of 2 cm - 63 mm - 20 cm, but for special purposes takes place sieving also more exactly. Under 2 mm speaksone of sand of different refinement.
promotion in the open mining
the promotion of the building material gravel - which is beside sand the most important mass raw material, takes place in the open miningin so-called. Crushed stone or gravel pits, which is called with major industrial extent gravel work. The exploitation of such establishment of such after the promotion large holes remain in the soil, those occasionally with water to be flooded and as artificial seas (excavator lakes)are used.
With river mäandern, inundations and in valley stages of torrents rubble and gravel can settle in larger quantities or form Kiesbänke. By spacious shipping, gebirgsbildung or other tectonics gravel can take far-laminar layers in the geological underground- for instance in Northern Germany, within the range of former ice age - glaciers or in the mol ASS ASS of the Alpine foreland.
further one geological-technical aspects
at the edge or foot of glaciers forms cut up gravel - together with still fine-more granular materials - the so-calledEdge and/or.Endmoränen. In deeper situations gravel in the course of geological periods to conglomerate can solidify itself, if chemically enriched water or flight and penetrates into the gaps. More rapidly this Kompaktion runs with pressure according to an overlay by other rock formations.
With predominantly rock rubble out of round or sharp edged one speaks however instead of conglomerate (“Zusammenballung”) of Brekzie, during loose, deposit near the surface of Schutthalden (e.g. see. Dolomites) and/or. during ice mixing of block glaciers. For building industry and winter dispersion of traffic routes such become Loose rocks too split cut up, which is made sometimes also of gravel (see Brechmühle).
|Wiktionary: Gravel - word origin, synonyms and translations|