Kinderarbeit designates the use of children (defines as humans under 14 years) to the acquisition work. Today work according to estimation of the international Labour Organization approximately 250 million children between five and 14 years. In the global means today one goes from 100 children out of this age group 20Acquisition work after; of it ten by the hour and ten all day.
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The Kinderarbeit gives it already within living memory, but with the industrialization she took in 18. and 19. Century in Europe and the USA extents on, which the health and education of the population substantial impaired. Children starting from four, six or eight years worked in this time epoch not only as auxiliary workers and Dienstboten, but also to a large part in that Textile industry, in coal pits and mines, between 10 and 16 hours daily. Some work in the mining industry could be implemented only by children because of their small body size. At the beginning 19. Century was a third of the factory hands in the USA between seven and twelve yearsold.
Children, who worked, had a minimum education apart from high health risks only. After an investigation in the year 1819 only 455 could read, write 351 a little and count 234 something from 715 children , who worked .
The Kinderarbeit made an additional for the families possible andoften urgently necessary income. The enterprises, which employed children, felt therefore as benefactors. They exploited the child workers, who got usually only the fraction of the wages of an adult of worker.
The Kinderarbeit in this solid, exploitative form became soon a social problem inthe today's industrial nations. The army had problems because of the many ill children increasingly to find healthy recruits. Prussia issued therefore a law, which forbade under ten years the work in factories to children to 1839; the 10 to 16-jährigen was not allowed any more than ten hours dailywork, no longer on Sundays and no longer at night. In the year 1853 the minimum age for the factory work was raised to twelve years. Still 1858 worked however 12,500 children at the age of 8 to 14 years in Prussian factories. As consequence of the Kinderarbeit became in Prussiathe supervision of trade based.
the United Nations secure for children 1989 alsothe UN child right convention the right too against economic exploitation to be protected. 2002 were furnished with the first world day against Kinderarbeit an international anniversary, annually to 12. June takes place. Since 2003 in the context of this anniversary also strengthened on the child trade (enslavement) referred to.
In some areas, approximately in the south of India, however gradually a re-valuation of the Kinderarbeit begins. There there is in the meantime partly a unionized organization of the child workers; A goal is thereby not the abolishment of the Kinderarbeit, but a “more human organization” (more limited work times, no hiding the Kinderarbeitmore, health protection, something improves wages). Organizations of working children are stronger in some countries of Latin America and Africa. They organized themselves as world-wide child movement and 2004 in Berlin a world meeting accomplished.
In Germany Kinderarbeit is defined by the law for the protection of young workers (JArbSchG): Work of children or young person, thosestill are subject to the full time compulsory schooling, is forbidden strengstens. Exceptions are defined in the law and partly with the supervision of trade subject to approval. The employer must request then before beginning of the work of children special permissions, which with editions, references and/or conditions to be provided to be able.
Kinderarbeit in the tourism
the most important cause for Kinderarbeit is the poverty of parents. Thus the evaluation of extensive data resulted in over private households in developing countries that most parentstheir children to the work would never send, if them would not force extreme emergency to it. The Kinderarbeit leads in reverse in addition, to a increased offer on cheap workers and thus to low wages. The Kinderarbeit is thus also a cause for the parents poverty. (Source: Spectrumthe science January 2004)
- Manfred Liebel, Bernd Overwien, Albert Recknagel (Hrsg.): Which children könn (t) EN. Action perspectives of and with working children. Frankfurt/Main 1999
- Manfred Liebel: Childhood and work. Ways to assist in the understanding of working children in different cultures and continents. Frankfurt/Main and London 2001
- Bernd Overwien (Hrsg.):Of social subjects. Children and young people in different worlds. Frankfurt/Main 2005