Kirgisistan

КыргызРеспубликасы (kirgisisch cyrillic way of writing)
Kırgız Respublikası (kirgisisch latin way of writing)
Republic of Kirgisistan
Flagge Kirgisistans
Wappen Kirgisistans
(Detail) (detail)
office language Kirgisisch ¹
capital Bischkek
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Kurmanbek Bakijew
prime minister Felix Kulow
surface 199,900 km ²
number of inhabitants 5.081.429 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 25 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 380 US-$ (2005)
independence from the Soviet Union to 31. August 1991
currency Som
time belt UTC +5
national anthem AC möngülüü aska
Kfz characteristic KS
Internet TLD .kg
preselection +996
(¹) in areas with by the majority Russian population is Russian equal office language.
Karte Asien, Kirgisistan hervorgehoben
Karte von Kirgisistan

Kirgisistan (kirgisisch Кыргызстан/Kırgızstan)a state is in central Asia.

It borders in the north on Kazakhstan, in the southeast on China, in the south on Tadschikistan and in the west on Usbekistan. The capital is Bischkek.

Table of contents

national name

generally linguistic usage and in the media of Germany prevails a certain ambiguity over the exact national names. The officialGerman-language national designation reads Kirgisistan. The name Kirgistan as well as the designation Kirgisien usual at Soviet times is likewise common. The designations Kirgisistan and Kirgistan on the one, as well as Kirgisien on the other side, contain different in each case political Untertöne. The name Kirgisien places a Eindeutschung to thatRussian designation Киргизия (Kirgisija), which applied during the Zarenzeit and in the Soviet Union. After the decay of the Soviet Union the Kirgisen tried to strengthen its national identity by the back meditation on their turksprachige culture and selected as national name Кыргызстан/Kırgızstan. This name with that originallyPersian ending for region or country “- stan “the cultural relationship with other turksprachigen countries underlines such as Kazakhstan, Usbekistan and Turkmenistan. Disputed it is here whether the correct transmission of this designation reads in the German Kirgisistan or Kirgistan. The only official German name of theCountry, which the Foreign Office uses, Kirgisistan reads.

geography

Die Topographie Kirgisistans
the topography Kirgisistans

Kirgisistan lies in the high mountains Tienschan; the highest collections reach 7,439 m and 7,134 M. The population concentrates particularly in the Tschüital in the north and the Ferghanatal inThe south as well as in smaller measure in mountain valleys like around the large lake the Yssykköl (kirgis. Ысыккөл). The mountain chain of the Alai forms the southern conclusion of the country. To the most important rivers of the country belong the Naryn, the Tschüi and the Talas.

To ina height of 1.500 m exists the country out quilts, which were made arable by extensive irrigation systems however. Starting from 1.500 m alpine meadows and pastures prevail forwards, to to the snow fields and glaciers the near-rich. In the forests live deer, bar, Marder, wild pig and Luchs. In the high situations there are the most rare snow leopards and Marco Polo sheep. Murmeltiere are far common in the high meadows, and since the collapse of Soviet mass pasture animal husbandry wolves penetrate again in increasing number into the pasture areas.

Population

the Kirgisen (64.9% of the population) are a Turkvolk and profess themselves predominantly to the Sunni Islam. In addition Usbeken ( 13.8%) live, Russian (12.5%), Dunganen (Chinese Muslims, 1.1%), Uiguren (1.0%), Ukrainer (1.0%), Tadschiken (0.9%), act arene (0.9%), Kasachen (0,9%) and member of further Ethnien, as for instance 57,000 Mescheten, in the country. Beginning of the 1990er years lived still approx. 100.000 Germans there; they emigrated in the meantime by the majority to Germany, but there are still small German municipalities in villages such as Luxembourg and mountain valley. 1999there were only about 20,000 Germans (0.4%) in Kirgisistan.

See also: List of the cities in Kirgisistan

history

major item: History Kirgisistans

the area of the today's Kirgisistan became in 8. Century of turkstämmigen Kirgisen populates. That marks the next corner point of historyYear 1219, when the country was conquered of Dschingis Khan. The area remained Mongolian, to it in 18. Century was subjected by the Chinese. A good century later, 1875, conquered Russia the country and integrated it in the Zarenreich. 1917 gave the Alasch Orda movementa short appearance in Kirgistan, which went however to 1919 again to end. After 1919 it was integrated gradually into the Soviet Union and achieved only after the collapse of the Soviet Union 1991 its independence. The parliament selected Askar Akajew to the new president and gave themselves 1993 a condition.

politics

central Asia at the end 19. Century

the condition of 1993 is oriented at western models and plans a force-dividing system of government with a strong position of the president as well as a far pallet at fundamental rights. By referenda for constitutional amendment in February 1996 and October 1998 the anyway strong position of the president was continued to remove debited to the parliament and the trend to the authoritarian Präsidialdemokratie was confirmed. A renewed condition referendum in February 2003 changed in it few. The president could dissolve the parliament, he determined the head of the government, the Ministers,Judge and governors of the Oblaste. The executive consists of the government cabinet, the Ministries and national committees, the Oblasten (administrative districts) and the local administration.

After the electoral law each kirgisische citizen has religious or political convictions regardless of its origin, race, sex, Ethnie, starting from 18 years the rightto select and can be selected starting from 25 years themselves. As the first country in central Asia Kirgisistan held 2001 elections on level of the restaurant administrations in December. Since 2003 the World Bank supports the rural municipalities at the time of the production and execution of its own local investment plans, andGerman project, from which KfW finances, will presumably take part 2005 likewise in this task.

Until March 2005 the parliament (Dschogorku Kenesch) from two chambers with altogether 105 seats, the constantly meeting legislative chamber (60 seats) and the people chamber (45 seats) existed. ThoseConstitutional amendment from February 2003 introduced then an a chamber system with 75 delegates, which with the parliamentary election of 2005 became effective.

In February 1995 in kirgisischen history in democratic elections a parliament was selected for the first time. The governmentnear parties received at that time approximately 55% of the voices.In the second, by choice manipulations overshadowed parliamentary elections in February/March 2000, 15 of the 105 seats of both chambers was assigned in accordance with party lists. A strongest party became the oppositional a communist party with 27,7% of the voices. On the four governmentnear parties “union of democratic forces”, a “democratic woman party”, the “partyto Afghanistan veterans " as well as the party “my country” together approximately 40% were void. The remaining five parties certified to the choice failed to the 5%-Klausel. There are than 30 registered political parties, whose status is regulated by the “law over political parties” in Kirgistan more. Of it are approx. to assign nine parties of the opposition. Exact demarcations of the opposition parties of government parties and the government intimate parties are clearly possible only in few cases, since political alliances and alliances change fast.

The first president Askar Akajew became 1990 of the kirgisischen highest Soviet into thatOffice of the president selected and in December 1995 in the first free elections with 70% of the voices red-elect. Although the condition planned only two terms of office, the constitutional court in the summer decided 1998 that the president could place itself in the year 2000 again to the choice, therewith its first choice those only 1993 into force stepped condition yet did not apply.

Kirgisi farmers in the proximity of the Issyk Kul

in the first years of independence the country well-known as “island of the democracy” saw itself since then with increasing international criticism within the human right range confronted.Both the parliamentary elections in February/March 2000 as well as the presidency election to 29. Octobers 2000 became from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro, which had sent observer missions, when the criteria of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro does not criticize accordingly. The condemnation of the former vice-president, safety Minister and Bischkeker of mayor, Felix Kulow, in March2001 because of misuse of power and office to seven years prison, the arrest of the parliamentarian Beknasarow in January 2002, likewise because of misuse of power, and the death of five demonstrators by police shots in the city Aksy in March 2002 released at home and abroad protests. Prevailed inCountry altogether still a climate with an active and strong civil company, but positive reform steps such as beginnings to reforms in the judiciary and the prison administration, rather liberal compared with other centralasiatic states, introduction of elections on level of the restaurant administration and. A. were accompanied by continuousIntimidation attempts in relation to independent voices from press and opposition.

During large guarantee the government particularly went to the freedom of religion to the break-down from partisans in the southwest of the country in the years 1999 and 2000 and due to the events from the 11. September 2001 consistently against fundamentalist-Islamic groups forwards,she as a danger for the secular structure and stability of the country regarded.

Kirgisi high pasture with the Tien mountains in the background Kirgisistan

joined the most important human right agreements beautiful and to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro value canon submitted. The kirgisische condition guarantees a far pallet of fundamental rights, of themInterspersing barness is tested however rarely by the citizens. There is neither a right-national tradition still another independent law. From cause 50. Anniversary of the declaration of the human rights president Akajew announced to 5. December 1998 a two-year moratorium for the enforcement of the death penalty (from 1996 to1998 was executed 82 death sentences). The moratorium was renewed since then annually and is further valid. At the end of of 2002 began the first Ombudsman of the country its service.

change of power 2005

in February and March 2005 took place in two rounds elections to the kirgisischen parliament , to which the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro, GUS and the Shanghaier organization for co-operation (SOZ) sent choice observers.President Askar Akajew accused to the opposition in the apron of the elections to avail itself of “technologies of the samtenen revolution”. Its statement referred to the events in Georgien and the Ukraine, taken place a short while before, with which the respective democracy movements of these countries could cause a change of power.Due to the assumption supported by international observers, Akajew manipulated, came the tuning to its favour it starting from in the middle of March 2005 too partial violent protest demonstrations, particularly in the economically backward south of the country. To 24. March 2005 was fallen the government. A crowd stormed thatSeat of the government in Bischkek. The president fled to Kazakhstan and from there to Moscow.

The new ruling powers, a loose purpose coalition from Akajewgegnern without clear guidance and clear program, recognized first the still existing old parliament on and announced new elections for the autumn 2005. In the evening24. March 2005 was selected Ischenbai Kadyrbekow by the upper house of the old parliament to the transition president, was however not confirmed then by the House of Commons. In the morning 25. March 2005 communicated the former prime minister Kurmanbek Bakijew, it to the acting state and head of the government was selected. Within thatthe following day the new parliament was then recognized nevertheless, and both houses of the old dissolved.Felix Kulow, only to 24. March from the detention releases and appointed the safety co-ordinator, withdrew already five days later from this post and quit its candidacywith the next presidency elections on.

At the 3. April explained Askar Akajew on the Russian television its resignation as a president, and to 4. April signed he in the kirgisischen message in Moscow the appropriate explanation. Afterwards the kirgisische parliament was concerned several times with this affair, accepted thatResignation however only at the 11. April, after it had cancelled only a number of the manifold privileges (immunity, financial and economic privileges, landed property etc.), which had been course-dug the former president and its family in the last years.

New presidency elections became for the 10. July set.Transition president Kurmanbek Bakijew won these with very large projection/lead and appointed after his assumption of office Felix Kulow its Prime Minister.

See also: Parliamentary elections in Kirgisistan 2005

administrative arrangement

administrative arrangement Kirgisistans

Kirgisistan is into 7 areas (kirgis. область/oblast, pl. областтар/oblasttar) andthe capital district belonging to no area (шаар/schaar, dt. City) Bischkek arranged. The areas subdivide themselves again into 40 districts (район/rajon, pl. райондор/rajondor). The city Bischkek is subdivided into 4 circles. The districts again subdivide themselves in altogether 470rural restaurant administrations (айылөкмөтү/ajyl ökmötü, dt. Village government) and 22 cities.

Oblast kirgisische designation No. on
the map
administrative seat
area Batken Баткенобласты (2) Batken
area Tschüi Чүйобласты (3) Tokmok
area Dschalalabat Жалалабатобласты (4) Dschalalabat
area Naryn Нарынобласты (5) Naryn
Area Osch Ошобласты (6) Osch
area Talas Таласобласты (7) Talas
area Yssykköl Ысыккөлобласты (8) Karakol
city Bischkek (1)

the north and the south Kirgisistans separate infrastructure high mountains. The traffic facilities are in principle unsatisfactory, apart from the area around Bischkek. OneRoad connection of Bischkek into the south, which is open also in the winter for load traffic, exists only since 2003. In the districts Osch, Batken and Dschalal abad are the main passage roads by frequent border crossings by Uzbek and tadschikisches area handicapped, there road construction during the Soviet time without considerationadministrative borders one implemented. There is daily airline connection from Bischkek to Osch and several times weekly also from Bischkek to Dschalalabad. There are two road connections to China, which are blocked by heavy snows and avalanches however in the winter frequently.

The minimum railway system, in the reason only the latterAusläufer of the former Soviet Eisenbahnnetzes and today by the borders with Kazakhstan and Usbekistan cut through, has a length of only 370 km and hardly plays a role in domestic traffic. However regular person and freight connections exist until Moscow.

On the lake Yssykköl insistssmall navigation.

economics

the 1991 independent country become took over one perfectly on the market of the Soviet Union aligned economic structure. The restructuring the same and the privatisation of the enterprises tackled, also with the help of international organizations as the IWF and the World Bank, came however again and again due to corruption, political opposition and lacking of interest of investor into coming to a hold. The government nevertheless got an economic Grundproblem of post office-Soviet States of, high public expenditures with simultaneous break-down of the public revenues, relatively well into the grasp. The budgetary deficit constantly decreased in the course of the 1990er,so that 2001 even a small surplus could be reported. The budgetary planning remains nevertheless problematic. Natural catastrophes in the following years increased the public expenditures and provide for a budgetary deficit 2002 and 2003. A large black market (estimated 40 50% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT), corrupt and inkonsequente tax collection and lowControl items provide for very much limited budgetary appropriations; Measures like an increase of the value added tax on 20% in the year 2004 were seized.

With 35% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT is the agriculture the basis kirgisischer economy. 75% of the field were distributed to the rural population, who became remaindersubordinates the rural local administrations, so that they have their own financial source by lease incomes. 85% of agricultural production originate meanwhile from private companies. In the kirgisischen agriculture again increases are to be registered, and those after the strong decrease in the course of the collapse of the USSR for some yearsTotal production lies today clearly over that of the last Soviet years. Are cultivated in the valleys predominantly wheat, potatoes, sugar beets and vegetables, in the south in addition tobacco and cotton. For the agriculture are problematic the inconsistant weather, numerous natural catastrophes and the scarceness of fertilizers, machines and fuel.

Withover 35% the service sector contributes more for some time to the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT than the dominating agriculture. The liberalisation of the kirgisischen economy led to purchasing innumerable family businesses in the retail trade and food trade.

The landschaftliche beauty Kirgisistans saves a certain routistic Potenzial, that for realization however oneappropriate, yet existing infrastructure does not presuppose. Thus the tourism is limited so far to a large extent to those annually about 400,000 visitors from the former Soviet republics and to young adventure tourists.

Further 15% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT form the industry, with priority the production of gold and in smaller extent antimonyfrom mines in the remote mountain regions of the country. The state-own society Kyrgysaltyn supervises the activities of all mines. It is counted on the exhaustion of the claimant mines in the year 2009; there is only little progress in discovering and opening new occurrences.

Those mostly likewisenationally controlled promotion of gas, oil and coal is marginal compared with the other centralasiatic republics. The Potenzial limited anyway cannot be used due to plants lacking and unsatisfactory optimally.

Kirgisistan possesses uranium deposits; a plant for the production of enriched uranium is in planning.This is to be provided and operated by a Russian kasachisch kirgisischem joint venture; the funds come to the majority from Russia. A substantial problem, which must be urgently solved, are the many unsecured nuclear waste camps from Soviet time; the World Bank has 2004 with a first project this problemtackled.

With exception of the textile and food industry other industrial industries cannot prove or hardly growth for the early 1990er years; even compared with the other GUS states the decrease of the industrial production was very dramatic around 70%. Hardly investments and restructuring leave on itit closes that it will not give basis for a fundamental recovery of the kirgisischen industry in more near future.

A strict monetary policy could press the inflation of over 700% (1993) and 200% (1994) on values between 2% and 3% in the year 2004.

[] If regional

mismatches work on

modern urbane centers during at Soviet times in the north were based, the south with its large Uzbek minority remained more rurally coined/shaped. Ethnical conflicts in the south as well as a Unterrepräsentanz of the south in the kirgisischen policy save a far Spannungspotenzial. This tried toomeet investment programs for the south with präsidentaler control of the province governors on the one hand as well as on the other hand.

economic external relations

as the first GUS state Kirgisistan became 1998 member the World Trade Organization. History and isolated situation of the country bind it however further closely to the other former Soviet republics. ThoseForeign debt amounts to 1 billion Euro (85% correspond GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) and is to be due particularly to badly planned and accomplished investment programs, which were financed with foreign (in particular Turkish and Russian) credits in the first years of independence. A goal of the government was ittherefore getting foreign direct investments in the country as well as to develop the export sector beyond the traditional gold export. This provides for 40% of the export incomes and even for over two thirds of the incomes from exports in not GUS states. Still mainly from the GUS, above all Kazakhstan is importedUsbekistan develops as principal trade partner in the region, to the disadvantage of the other neighbour, with which it came repeated to border disputes.

culture

Kirgisi literature

the central work of the kirgisischen literature is substantially longer the large Manas - Epos, than thoseOdyssey and for approximately 1000 years by verbal excessive quantity retains and further-formed. It besingt the acts of the mythologischen hero Manas and its descendants, in 10. Century in the fight with the neighbouring Uiguren the kirgisische liberty retained.

The probably most well-known modern kirgisische author is thatin Russian language writing Tschingis Aitmatow.

literature

  • Wassilios small: The nestorianische Christianity at the trade routes by Kyrgyzstan up to 14. Jh. Brepols, Turnhout 2000 (Silk Road Studies, 3), ISBN 2-503-51035-3

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Wiktionary: Kirgisistan - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 39°-43° N, 69°-80° O

 

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