Kiribati

Kiribati (kiribat.)
Republic of OF Kiribati (English)
Flagge Kiribatis
Wappen Kiribatis
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: width unit mauri, width unit raoi ao width unit tabomoa, “Health, Peace and Prosperity”
office languages Kiribati, English
capital Bairiki
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Anote Tong
land surface 811 km ²
Number of inhabitants approx. 103.000 (July 2005)
population density of 127 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 663 EUR (2004)
independence 12. July 1979
currency Australian dollar
time belt UTC +12,+13,+14
national anthem Teirake Kaini Kiribati
Kfz characteristic AI
Internet TLD .ki
preselection +686
Karte Ozeaniens, Kiribati hervorgehoben
Karte von Kiribati

Kiribati [kiri: ba: s] (in former times Gilbert islands) an island state is in the Pacific. The state territory extends over a multiplicity of islands Mikronesiens and Polynesiens, which lie over a far area north and south the equator scattered.

With 93% the majority of the population belongsthe Christian faith (53% the catholicism, 41% the protest anti-mash) on. Starting from that 6. Lebensjahr exists a compulsory schooling of nine years. In the capital Bairiki gives it a University of a branch office of the University OF the the South PacificHead office in Suva, Fiji is.

National holiday is the 12. July (anniversary of independence).

Table of contents

geography

the territory has a maximum west east expansion of approx. 4.835km (air line: Westernmost island Banaba up to the easternmost island Caroline Iceland 4,572 km) and a maximum north south expansion of approx. 1,973 km (air line: Northernmost line island Teraina (Washington Iceland) up to the southernmost line island Flint 1,801 km) in a sea area of approximately 5,2Million km ². After this total area counted, over which the islands lay scattered, Kiribati would be still before India the seventh-largest country of the earth.

The national territory is roughly said on half of the way between Hawaii and Australia in the Mikronesi regionsouth Pacific. The geographical location of the capital:
Coordinates: 1° 19 ' 38 " N, 172° 59 ' 4 " O
1° 19 ' 38 " N, 172° 59 ' 4 " O. Between the Gilbert and phon ix-islands runs the 180. Degree of longitude and thus, to end of theYearly 1994, the international date border. In order to be able to use within the entire national territory a date, reached the 1. January 1995 the date border so changed that Kiribati lies completely west of it. The easternmost of the line islands (Caroline Iceland) is calledsince 1. January 2000” Millennium Iceland “, because on this island the first sunrise of the 3. Millenium to be observed could.

The mainland consists of 32 atolls and the volcanic island Banaba (Ocean Iceland). The four main groups are:

The majority of the country is less than two meters over the sea level (large exception is the volcanic island Banaba with at the same time the highest point Kiribatis on 81 meters). A report of the United Nations from the year 1989 determined Kiribati as one of the countries, in 21. Would disappear to century perfectly, if nothing happened over the global change of climateto work against. In the middle of 1999 was communicated that two uninhabited corral reefs were flooded.

An overview of the most important islands; the islands often carry several names:

The largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005):

  1. Bairiki: 44,429 inhabitants
  2. Taburao: 3,822 inhabitants
  3. Bonriki: 3,711 inhabitants
  4. Buariki: 2,715 inhabitants
  5. Temaraia: 2,631 inhabitants

see also: List of the cities in Kiribati

history

were settled the islands, which late Kiribati formsshould, already before 2.000-3.000 years of a only one ethnical group from Mikronesiern. The following ideas of Samoanern, Fiji and Tonganern inserted Polynesian elements into the established mikronesische culture, but many mixed marriages led those to a population, are quite homogeneous inFeature, language and tradition.

Some the Gilbert islands 1765, other 1788 by English sailors were discovered. Among them also captain Thomas Gilbert, after that the Inselgruppe around 1820 from the GermanBaltic was in Russian services admiral Adam ofKrusenstern and the French captain Louis Duperrey were designated.

In 19. Century came whalers, slave traders and dealers in large number to Kiribati. Resulting paging stirred up local of master conflicts and the Europeans dragged also for the native dangerous European diseases.

1837 came the first constant European settlers and 1857 began the Christian Missionierung.

In the effort around the re-establishment of order, the Gilbertinseln was explained 1892 together with the close Ellice Iceland as the British protectorate. Banaba (Ocean Iceland) became 1901after the discovery of phosphate-rich Guanoablagerungen annektiert. Together with Fanning and Washington Iceland they became 1916 the British crowning colony. Most of the line islands inclusive Weihnachtsinsel, which became phon ix and even the Tokelau islands over the next 20 years incorporated by the piece.

1942-43 held a part of the islands for Japan occupied over with them a part of their island defense to form. Of 20. to 23. November 1943 was the atoll Tarawa scene one of the most violent fights between Japanese and Americans in the Pacific war. ThisBattle was for the allied ones a turning point in this war.

Into the 1960ern Great Britain began to then expand the autonomy of the islands. 1975 separated the Ellice Iceland from the colony around the independent State of Tuvalu to base. The Gilbert islands attained 1977 internal autonomy and became, after in February 1978 country-wide elections were held, to 12. July 1979 an independent nation under the name Kiribati.

With independence also the United States gave up all requirements on the sparsely populated phon ix-islands. Eightthe eleven line islands became likewise a part of the Kiribati territory.

1985 followed the island state of the nuclear weapon-free zone of the south Pacific . After 1995 the French atomic tests was resumed, Kiribati suspended its diplomatic relations with France. In September 1999 that becameIsland state taken up to the UN.

politics

the parliament Kiribatis, called Maneaba Maungatabu are never selected every four years and consist of 42 members (40 selected delegates, an ordered member of Banaba as well as a Minister of Justice officially).The president is a head of the government as well as minister of foreign affairs and width unit Beretitenti (spoken width unit pereseetensee) is at the same time called.


See also: List of the presidents of Kiribati

infrastructure

Kiribatis road system has a length of 670 km. The main ports are Betio upthe island Betio as well as Bikenibeu on the island Bonriki (both are islands of the Tarawa Atolls). The international airport Bonriki is in the north of the island Bonriki. The Bairiki national stage is the only sports stadium of the state and lies on the of the same nameIsland.

economics

Kiribati has only few natural resources. The commercially interesting phosphate depots were at present the acquisition of independence exhausted. Momentarily the Kopraproduktion represents and fishing as well as the cultivation of coconuts the most important source of income.

The economy varied in the last years strongly and their development limited by the absence of qualified workers, weak infrastructure and the distance of the international markets.

The tourism places more than one fifth of the gross domestic product. Principal trade partners are Australia,Japan, New Zealand and the USA. Interest income from the phosphate fund and an income from fishery licenses. The foreign financial assistance, to a large extent from Great Britain and Japan, represents a crucial addition GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, it corresponded in the past years about 25% to 50%GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT.

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