classicism is in the history of art a name for one style-pounds, in that the imitation of the classical antiquity (priority the Greek antique one, which Greek building of temples) to the program is raised.
The demarcation of this epoch is not simple. Thus designatesone for example the architecture Palladios (1508 to 1580) as classicism, likewise the art of France, Holland and England in 17. Century. There is actually a klassizistische for the Renaissance (those an interpretation of the antique art represents )Unterströmung, which remains effective also in the time of the baroque always (baroque classicism), for which the sculpture of thunder and its successor offer a good example. Particularly in England and France a klassizistischer basic taste (Goût classique) dominates the whole 17. and 18. Century.
Mainly however one epoch of the entire history of art becomes in late 18 as “classicism”. Century and early 19. Century (approximately between 1770 and 1830) designates, which (above all Greek) tried to renew the classical period. Astheir mental founder in the German-speaking countries applies for Johann Joachim Winckelmann. In France the epoch of the classicism in the reign of Ludwig XV begins.. During a transition period of 1750-1760, which is called style transition, both elements find of the Rococo, goût pittoresque and as classical forms use. The early classicism is called in France also goût grec, goes after 1770 into goût étrusque of the reign Ludwig XVI over.
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in relation to the preceding Rococo draws the classicismby a return to straight-line forms with a stronger support at classical-antique forms out.
In the painting the artists separate from the usually allegorischen program of the baroque time and often paint scenes from the Greek and Roman antique one, those one“patriotic” Hintersinn have. Are important gestures, bearing and the composition of the figures in the group, which lends a theatrical course to the painting. The outlines become clearer and the pasty colour disappear in favor of a laminar color order to also clearly defined colors. SomeArt theoreticians see therefore in the classicism a kind “break” between Rococo and Impressionismus.
in late 18. Century applied the classicism with nearly puritanischem will for simplification as Gegenmodell to the baroque “prodigality”, which associates with the Feudalismusbecame.
The Zopfstil forms the transition, in which the latebaroque forms still andeutungsweise live on. It is designated after the Zopf, in which the baroque flower greed country is reduced to a thin volume.
Starting from the 1790er years the classicism appliedwhen the “style of the revolution”, particularly in architecture, where wuchtige forms are preferred. In Austria this falls with the reign Josephs II.together, also new tasks of building initiates (churches for new Pfarrsprengel, hospitals, public schools and parks). Withthe collection of the revolution by Napoléon Bonaparte it comes then to the more decorative Empirestil, which spreads with the emperor to Western Europe over completely. Also of Jacques Louis David, the founder of the classicism in the painting becomes the trailer of the revolution andthen Napoleons, for whom it becomes a kind yard painter.
The architecture and painting conventional Meier represent in contrast to this a further idiom in the decorative, which means nevertheless no fundamental aesthetic prevention. In the painting this aesthetics into those holds itself1870er years, in architecture is already placed it in the first century half by alternative designs, earliest by the neo-gothic style in question. Socially the new designs are associated with the rising middle class and its desires for representation.Paul Sprenger, an important representative of klassizistischen architecture in Austria was almost called “ Metternich of architecture ".
The demarcation to following historicism is neither chronologically nor stylistic completely simple. On the one hand the classicism is “more historisierender” a style, itself onthe antique one and their interpretation in the Renaissance leans. On the other hand historicism divides partially the same form repertoire, particularly clearly into the Neorenaissance. In addition it comes still that the late classicism quite a preference for certain decoration forms, approximately from the Byzantineor Arab art, shows. The fundamental of historicism is then also not so much the “separation” from the classicism, but its inserting into a pluralistischen canon of styles. The most striking difference is the by far larger Opulenz and decoration joyfulness history tables of the buildingsand equipments, which assured to the middle class rich-become in the period of promoterism rather as the spartanische style of the first century half.
as transition building between classicism and historicism in Austria applies the old lark fields parish church, with their building a debate overthe “correct style” one led, which already announces the attitude of mind of historicism.
The Schlichtheit of the klassizistischen forms made this style in the beginning, but still more in the center 20. Century again attractively. Adolf Loos felt less than revolutionariesbecause as Fortsetzer Kornhäusels. Particularly between 1930 and 1960 architecture partly leaned klassizistische forms, one speaks here of Neoklassizismus.
acquaintance representative of the classicism
- Isidor Marcellus Amandus Canevale, French-Austrian building master
- Antoni Corazzi, the z. B. the state opera in Warsaw, the largest klassizistische theatre of the world of 1825-1833 builds
- Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe, Architect-general of Leipzig
- Carl Ludwig angel, ethnic German building master, that the city centre of Helsinki arranged
- Heinrich Gentz, German building master in Berlin
- in particular active in Warsaw Christian Frederik
- Hansen, Danish master of building of states January Chrystian coming setter, Polish building master, thatwas
- Leo of Klenze, German building master
- George Wenzeslaus of Knobelsdorff, building master in Prussia
- Joseph Kornhäusel, Austrian building master
- Carl God hard long Hans, Prussian building master
- Dominik Merlini, Italian-Polish building master, that in Poland, in particular Warsaw, actively was
- Ludwig Persius, German building master and pupil of Schinkel
- Matteo Pertsch, GermanItalian architect, in particular in Triest actively
- Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian building master
- Carlo Rossi, Italian-Russian building master; the townscape coined/shaped pc. Petersburg
- Nicolas Alexandre Salins de Montfort, French building master,Creator rawattaches many architectural monuments in Zabern and numerous buildings
- in Frankfurt/Main Karl Friedrich Schinkel, that in Berlin and Prussia created
- Paul Wilhelm Eduard sprinkler, building master and pupil of Schinkel
- of the Friedrich August Stüler, German building masterand pupils of Schinkel
- Adolf of Vagedes, Prussian government advice, building master and pupil of Schinkel
- Friedrich wine burner, the z. B. George Moller, which worked in Darmstadt
- and in the southern Hessen, lent its current picture to the city Karlsruhe
- Robert Adam, Scottish-English building master
- ennobles Canterbury, English painter
- Johann Asmus Carstens, German painter
- Jacques Louis David, French painter
- Heinrich Füger, GermanAustrian painter
- Gavin Hamilton, Scottish painter
- Angelika Kauffmann, German painter
- Joseph Anton cook, Austrian painter
- Anton Raphael Mengs, German painter
- Jean Augusts Dominique Ingres, French painter
- Antonio Canova, Italian sculptor
- Johann Heinrich Dannecker, German sculptor
- To Jean Antoine Houdon, French sculptor
- Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, German sculptor
- Christian Daniel smoke, German sculptor
- Johann Gottfried Schadow, German sculptor
- Bertel Thorvaldsen, Danish sculptor