small Asia (lat. Asia minor) or Anatolien (türk. Anadolu, of griech. ανατολη /anatole for „stairway, the east “) is that part of the Turkey, to which to Anterior Asia belongs. Frequently also Cyprus is counted to small Asia.
Table of contents
surface and demarcation
of small Asia surface 757,000 km amount to ² and make 96% of the Turkish national territory out and about 3% ofcompletely Asia. It becomes in the south of the Mediterranean (türk. Akdeniz) limits, in the north of the black sea, in the west of the Ägäis and in the northwest of Bosphorus, Marmarameer and Dardanellen. The eastern border from small Asia is defines not exactly. For the sake of simplicity it is usually equated with the eastern national border of Turkey.
population and religion
the population became larger since 1930 (12 million) on at present 55-58 million (without European Turkey), which oneDuplication every 30 years corresponds. It consists today of Turks, Kurds and members of other Turkish trunks. Besides still different minorities exist like the Zaza, Arab, Armenian, Assyrer, Bulgaren, Georgier, Greek (toto „the population exchange “) and Tscherkessen constituted 1922/23 over 10 per cent.
Regarding the religion the Islam (98%, of it 70 80% Sunniten and 20 30% Aleviten ) dominates. The Christians constitute 0.2%, counted however around 1910 still about 20% (primarily Greek in the west and the north Pontos Greek). By other small religious communities (exact numbers not raised) about 20,000 Jews are to be mentioned.
two capitals and two straits
as border between Europe and Asia applies sincethe antique one the Bosphorus. The Istanbul which is because of it became larger since 1970 of 2 on approximately 10 million inhabitants. It was to 1453 Byzantine, then osmanische and to 1923 Turkish capital. 1923 became the capital into thatmuch smaller, but Ankara central for small Asia shifts.
„The city at the Bosphorus “divides itself because of the intercontinental sea tightness into a European and an asiatic part. They are interconnected through close navigation and two bridges.
The second sea tightness tooSmall Asia are the Dardanellen (antique Hellespont) between the European peninsula Gallipoli (türk. Gelibolu) and the region of Troja and Çanakkale. Geologically seen however Asia and Europe belong together - as connected large continent Eurasien.
early history and antique provinces
the name „small Asia “are derived historically from the Roman province Asia , which formed however only the westernmost part of today's Turkey.
Around 2000 v. Chr.existed inAnatolien the principality of the Hatti (also Protohethiter). It was replaced from Indoeuropäern, whose migration brought some peoples of the Caucasus here: The peoples of the Pala established themselves in the north (special in Paphlagonien), the Nesi and Luwier in centraland Südanatolien. After first principalities they based starting from 1660 v. Chr. the large kingdom of the Hethiter (1460 - 1190 v. Chr.). This federation was beside Egypt the second superpower of the time at that time.
In 9. Century v. Chr. is established that Richly Urartu in the later Armenistan at the ostanatolischen Euphrates. King SA (r) dur I. (around 830) the capital establishes Tuschpa at the Van lake. High-quality irrigation and breed, metals and own hieroglyphics were developed. Around 620 v. Chr.becomes the realm ofthe Skythen conquers and destroys.
- From the northwest to the south Hellespont (Dardanellen), Mysien, Lydien, Karien and Ionien,
- at the south coast Lykien, Pamphylien, Pisidien and Kilikien,
- in the north Bithynien, Pontus, Paphlagonien and Armenia
- and in the interior Galatien (and/or. Phrygien) and Kappadokien.
Alexander the large one sets 334 v. with its army. Chr. over the Marmarameer and the Perser strikes.Anatolien is incorporated nearly completely the Macedonian world realm. After Alexanders death the diadochi the realm, small Asia divide go at Seleukos I..
Its competitor Philetairos splits 282 v. Chr. of it the realm from Pergamon , to it 133 v. Chr.at Rome leaves (!) becomes. Over 275 settles Celts from Thrakien after plunderings in Zentralanatolien and creates the realm Galatien.
Roman realm, Christianity and Byzanz
starting from 60 v. Chr. the coastal regions came by Pompeius to Roman realm. A strong opponent was king Mithridates VI. Eupator of Pontus (121-63 v.Chr.). Later also the interior was annektiert and again arranged around the year 65 the provinces (Pontus in the north, Cilicia (Kilikien) in the southand Syria in the east). The kings of Galatien, Kappadokien, and Paphlagonien kept their throne as Vasallen of Rome and as “buffers” against neighboring nations.
With „the Pax Romana “ of the Augustus began around the turn of an era a bloom time up to 2. Centuryn. Chr. (Emperors Trajan and Hadrian). In order the year 50 began to seize the Christianity foot, first in Perge, later up to the capital Ephesos and to Greece - e.g. see. the Paulusbriefe to different municipalities. Also some bishop seatsdeveloped, among other things in Myra, in which around 350 the holy Nikolaus worked. Also the first councils took place in small Asia.
324 Konstantinopel became the residence of the eastRoman realm. After the fall of west Rome (476 remained small Asia for700 to 1100 years under Byzantine rule and worked into the further environment (z. B. until Russia) inside.
Seldschuken, Mongols and Osmanen
in the 11. Century penetrated from the east the turkmenischen Seldschuken and becamefrom Arabia supports. After the victory with Malazgirt (1071) the majority Anatoliens fell to it. The center of their realm was Ikonion (the today's large city Konya), 200 km south of Ankara (Ankyra, starting from 1023 Angora).
In 12. Century could Byzanz some areas again recover. The eastRoman realm ended only 1453 with the case of Konstantinopel to the Osmanen.
With the Mongols in the middle 13. Century disintegrated the Seldschukenreich into many Turkfürstentümer. One of their dynasties, after their leader Osman I. (1281-1326) the Osmanen designated, subjugated the surrounding areas and conquered 1326 also the Byzantine north with Bursa. In the Osmani realm all o lost. A. antique provinces finally its autonomy and usually also their name.
The First World War and „population exchange “
before and after that 1. World war disintegrated the Osmanenreich, into 16. Century to Bosnia and Hungary was expanded. Its smallasiatic part was united under Atatürk in the war against the Greeks, those after 1918 of Smyrna(İzmir) from direction Ankara had penetrated. These fights ended only 1922 with driving some millions humans out and „the population exchange “1923 (contract of Lausanne). See also: Turkish war of liberation