|of these articles treats the meteorological term climate, further meanings under climate (term clarifying)|
the term of the climate stands for the whole of all meteorological features, which are responsible for the averaged or average condition of the terrestrial atmosphere at a place. The climatethereby however not only by processes within the atmosphere, but rather by the interrelation of all spheres of the earth one coins/shapes. It covers besides most different orders of magnitude, whereby above all the temporal and spatial dimension of the climatic term of crucial importance for itsUnderstanding are.
the climatic term
the word Zachi (majority: Zacha, climates) comes from the Greek verb κλίνειν [klinein], which bend translated „“meant.This refers to the inclined one of the earth ecliptic. In 20. Century developed thereby the term understanding of the weather whole ( Fedoroff 1927) for the synthesis of the weather ( WMO 1979).
asDemarcation to the weather (time framework: Hours until few weeks) and for weather (time framework: some days until about one week, in extreme cases also one month or a season) one understands climate as one during one period about several decades (usually 30 years) settled statistic condition of the terrestrial atmosphere. One avails oneself of these statistic methods, in order to filter short term fluctuations of the weather and to receive characteristic values concerning different meteorological sizes, which describe the climate of a place in their whole again. Here manageeverything the long-term trends in the center of the interest, which smear however moving in opposite directions to the extremes at long reference periods. Basis for the climate is however always thereby the weather and in Wetterstationen and/or. Weather and environmental satellites seized data.
On the basis of thisDatabase ask themselves for the temporal dimension of the climatic term the question, as changeful the weather is and which fluctuations therefore the meteorological sizes exhibits, which the weather sufficiently describe. The larger these fluctuations are, the less representatively are a statisticEvaluation of the data of a short reference period. The requirement a primarily location-specific climate and evenly not only time-specific weather phenomena to characterize, is to be kept not upright in this case.
But also long-term evaluations lose their statement content by these fluctuations partially, why in particularan average value generally is not sufficient, in order to estimate the climate temporally correctly. A precipitation distribution of a heavy rain within a half decade and other Dürre as average value of the yearly precipitation on the five single years to charge, illustrates the distorting effects, which outan insufficient application of these statistic methods grown-up can. If one regards the climate of a place with one reference period of 1000 years, then one filtered all extreme events surely, however this applies at such a long period also to all short term fluctuations.Even substantial trends, like the small ice age, could be ignored simple by the choice of such a period. If one regards however the data situation regarding far back lying ages, then it shows up here that climatic archives the availableoffer only over very long reference periods an information. The tendency these periods to reduce and so also regarding climatic history short term trends in the development of the climate also seize, is a substantial effort of the Paläoklimatologie.
Thismodifying influences however always depend on the concrete application and can be specified not from the beginning and generally accepted. One can answer it only after an evaluation of the data, in order to be able to specify concerning this the reference or reference period area, which adaptedto the data situation a representative determination of the respective climatic character and the associated development trends makes possible.
On the basis of the problem of the reference periods the World Meteorological Organization specified climatic normal periods so mentioned. These cover a firmly defined reference period of 30 years. The fixedIntervals are the periods of 1931, already locked , to 1960 and 1961 to 1990, as well as the present climatic normal period from 1991 to 2020. They serve among other things the comparability of the climatic sizes among themselves and become here particularly the representationthese sizes in climatic diagrams consulted. Many prognoses of the future climatic development refer here to the year 2050, thus the end of the next climatic normal period.
the term climate often becomes with the world climate and/or. global climate equated.Here it shows up however that global trends and average values must be representative in no way for individual locations. A global rise in temperature of a degree Celsius is thus only an abstraction, which does not have to cover itself however with local Wetterbeobachtungen, whichalso during a longer climatic period its validity keeps usually. Their locally an increase or a degradation from far can stand for larger in addition, far smaller extent against, why also for example a local „record summer “on global level „disappear “can and in reverse.
These local effects are closer at the material effects of the very abstract global tendencies and within the framework its that also meteorological values are seized locally and not global, from extraordinary interest. Also the influences do not become lastthe climate on humans and its vital interests, as for example the agriculture, by local correspondences of global tendencies coined/shaped.
Because from the large spatial differences also differences in methodology result, a three speed organization that has itselfYardsticks works satisfactorily.
- The Mikroklima is limited to few meters to some kilometers, for example a room, a meadow or a road course.
- The Mesoklima refers to landscapes or countries up to some hundred kilometers of expansion.
- The Makroklima describes continental andglobal connections.
While in the weather a close connection exists between order of magnitude and duration of a phenomenon, this connection hardly does not show up with climatic views or.
Mikroklima (and/or. Small climate)
Mikroklima designates the climate within the range of the near-surface air layersup to approximately 2 meters height or the climate that in a small, clearly outlined range (for example between buildings in a city) is formed.
Crucially by the proximity of the Bodenoberfläche and the there soil friction of the wind is coined/shaped. Hereprevail weaker air movements, but higher temperature differences. The difference of the soil, the area, the Hanglage and the plant vegetation can cause close together large climatic contrasts. The Mikroklima is particularly for low growing plants of importance, there it itclimaticmost sensitive life stage in the near-surface air layer go through.
But not only the plants, also humans is directly exposed to the Mikroklima. In particular in non-natural habitats such as cities the Mikroklima knows architecture, the variability that by the different building materials,Sun exposure (Beschattung) or the modification of the wind field substantially from the regional-typical conditions deviate, whereby these deviations are very unstable and itself also by small interferences, as, sensitively and suddenly can change the building or outline of a house. There itself theseInfluences with the time almost everywhere devoted and also external factors to influence very easy knows, are based micro climates usually not from series of measurements for many decades, but to become rather by experience and tabulated comparative data measured.
to the Mesoklimatenmost different single climates together seized, which possess one expansion between some hundred meters and few hundred kilometers, as a rule however in the lower kilometer range to be. Due to this broad however nevertheless local spectrum, here many fields of the applied meteorology play and Climatology a large role. Examples for this are the urban climate or the rain forest climate. All mesoclimates and area climates are generally ranked among the Mesoklimaten, thus for example mesoclimates of ecological systems, whereby with these the transition is flowing to the Mikroklimaten.
grossklima, one speaks Makroklima of the Makroklima, with largepotash towards effects with an expansion of more than in approximately 500 kilometers. For this therefore above all the elements of the global circulation and the large marine conveyor count. Alsothe world climate counts for this. As orientation in demarcation to Mesoklimaten all become the entire earth re-clamping, as well as ocean and/or. continent far effective effects ranked among the Makroklimaten. Less clearly, however as a rule applicable, one arranges also supraregional effects like thatMonsoon, the El Niño or very large regional climates like the Brazilian rain forest also to the Makroklimaten. All Makroklimate stand thereby in a close mutual reciprocal effect and therefore affect each other in various way whereby above all these reciprocal effects not yetcompletely understood and topic of current research are. In the long run in its dynamic interaction it cannot be regarded directly to the comprehensive concept of the global climate due to its Makroklimat for itself alone and be led.
understands climatic factors under climatic factorsmost diverse processes and conditions, by which the climate is caused, received or is changed. One differentiates according to primary and secondary climatic factors, whereby the primary climatic factors of elementary nature are and are therefore derived the secondary climatic factors from the primary climatic factors. TooFirst count the solar radiation, the land sea distribution, the composition of the terrestrial atmosphere and the height of the location. These can be attributed often also to causes like plate tectonics or astrophysical phenomena, these are however not direct at the climateinvolved and therefore only indirectly among the climatic factors are ranked.
The secondary climatic factors contain different cycles and circulation systems of the earth, which directly or indirectly result from the primary climatic factors. For this above all, those count the general circulation of the atmosphere And also the cycle of the rocks causes Meeresströmungen , the water circulation. Also regional circulation systems such as El Niño, La Niña and Monsune are for this counted.
Additionally one differentiates also in some applications thereafter whether the climatic factors and/or. their changeanthropogenen or natural origin are.
the climatic systems represent an extension of the concept of the climatic factors. The climatic system of the earth consists here of its different geo systems : the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the Hydrosphäre, that Biosphere, the Pedosphäre and the Kryosphäre. The fluctuations within and reciprocal effects between the geo systems one calls here climatic noise. The energetic drive of the climatic system lies in the solar radiation and to a small portion also in the terrestrial heat, whereby this in form of volcanism substantially more deciding effect on the material composition of the terrestrial atmosphere and thus their radiation balance possesses. For the interrelation of the climatic systems their different temporal dynamics are crucial. Regards one the climate in very shortPeriods, for example the climatic normal periods, then one can neglect many climatically crucial factors, since these only over very long periods are subject to a change. The drift of the plates of the lithosphere coins/shapes in the long term the land sea distribution and the sea level, however only approximately 3 amounts toup to 20 centimeters per year and is irrelevant thereby in short time intervals. One can recognize by this example that the climatic role of a climatic system always a certain period and/or. a temporal inertia to assign is. This inertia can in case of thatLithosphere millions of years amount to or in case of the atmosphere only few years until decades. In particular the composition of the atmosphere can change very fast, works for its part however only in very long time scales on a change of the composition of the lithosphere. ThisScales are however not compellingly, as for example volcanism show.
The term of the climatic system is however not alone limited to the climatic system of the earth as a whole, but can be applied also to niederskalige systems, whereby these then again parts of theglobal climatic system represent. Examples for this are land sea-wind the system or the monsoon systems.
as climatic element one designates each measurable characteristic of the climatic system of the earth, which coins/shapes individually or by its cooperating the climate on different levelsand for its characterisation to be used can. It concerns thereby usually meteorological sizes, which are seized in the course of the Wetterbeobachtungen in Wetterstationen, in addition, sizes from the Ozeanologie and the geosciences generally. One differentiates it according to whether herComponents in the different households of the climatic system are (budget elements) or these are evenly not (Nichtbudget elements). Also one differentiates according to variables of state, process variables and field sizes.
- Air pressure - measured by barometers;
- Air humidity - measured through Hygrometer;
- Air temperature - measured by thermometer
- wind - measured by anemometers;
- Precipitation - measured by Hydroskope (rain-gauge);
- Evaporation, differentiated according to potenzieller and material evaporation - usually derived and/or estimated from other sizes such as temperature andPrecipitation;
- - And radiant emittance - complicated collection from measurements, estimations and computations, see also global radiation, albedo and Milanković cycles;
- Salzgehalt of the seas - measured by Salinometer;
- Water temperature;
- Ice thickness and/or. Snow height and their density.
- duration of sunshine
- cloudy appearance - statistically seizes and/or. measured by radar photographs;
- Roughness height
- circulation indices
by global average values of the temperature can be determined for example whether one year was colder or warmer than an average of many years. Same applies however also tothe monthly, weeks and daily average temperature. One can refer however also to other size like the precipitation. Another setting of tasks would be it for example the yearly, monthly, to compare or daily maximum temperatures with a climatic average value whereby with the latter however onlyvery much limited informative capability exists, since the deviation of the temperatures of a daily from an average value of many years strongly deviate.
major item: Climatic history
the climate of the earth changes itself during long periods away. Thus changed themselves in the Pleistozän again and again warm - and cold times mutually off and perhaps also still do this until today (Holozän). On the basis climatic archives like arctic ice drill cores, geological deposits (sediments), fossils and Jahresringen petrified trees leave themselves these climatic changes retrace during many periods. The more one thereby into the past penetrates, the fewer data is available and one is in a forced manner ever larger periods to be regarded, until one finally reaches inaccuracies, which can constitute several millions years. Thus becomeEffects like the long-term change of the solar constant, the continental drift and the Earth's orbit variability of ever more crucial importance, while these are overlaid with short term climatic change processes by other factors and only a small role to play. However changes itself by this different temporal perspectivehowever also the climatic term, which can lead with a Nichtberücksichtung of this effect to contradictorynesses between the paleontology /Geologie and the climatology. If one corrects however the temporal and/or partly also spatial perspective, then this contradictorynesses usually dissolves.
in recent time rise the annual average values of the temperature, since a Tiefpunkt 1880, with fluctuations. From this, apart from many other indications and factors, a progressive global heating up is derived.
the most important external causes of climatic changes lie in the variability of the sun exposure, the volcanic activity and separate large events such as meteorite impacts.
With the terrestrial atmosphere it concerns a chaotic system, which can comparatively suddenly change in certain cases,although it reacted before often only very slowly-acting to certain influences, for example into these by negative feedbacks were weakened. There are however numerous effects, which lead to the fact that a negative feedback changes very fast to a positive feedback and soany trends of the climatic development are afflicted with a potenziellen uncertainty. The cause of the envelope can lie even in the past.
The climatic character described by the statistic data and the climate are to be differentiated here however. A goal that Climatology is to be minimized it the difference between both, however this knows due to the complexity of the climate and thereby caused necessity for a simplification in each case an approximation character to possess.
as Climatic sequences does not designate one the consequences of the climate, because these are omnipotent and clear, but the consequences of the climatic change, particularly regarding humans.
See also: Climatic sequences, climatic consequence research
of climatic models
major items: Climatic model
a climatic model is in Computer model for the computation and forecast of the climate for certain time period. The model is usually based on a meteorology model, as it is used also for the numeric weather forecast. This model is extended however for the climatic modelling, by all preservation sizesto illustrate correctly. Usually thereby an ocean model, a snow and an ice model for the Kryosphäre and a vegetation model for the biosphere are coupled. Climatic models represent the most complex and most cpu time consuming computer models, which were so far developed. „The forecasts “of the climatic modelsare naturally more uncertain than those of the weather models, since here substantially larger periods must be considered and a large number of additional parameters be considered. For this reason one speaks with these single models also of climatic scenarios and not of climatic forecasts. ThatDifference between these is that one models a multiplicity of different scenarios for first, on the one hand with other models and on the other hand with other Vorwegannahmen. A climatic prognosis be based thus on the evaluation of different modelling attempts and is also due to the difficult comparability between theseto provide only very with difficulty. Since the individual scenarios, which reflect themselves in the structure of the Intergovernmental panel on Climate CHANGE, exhibit different final results, also a climatic prognosis which is based on it can point out only one span of possibilities. This shows uptherefore also to of the IPCC prognosticated global heating up with a span from 1,4 to 5.8 °C to the year 2100 (IPCC 2001).
major items: Climatic diagram
a climatic diagram marks the diagramclimatic conditions at a certain place in the yearly process. The climatic elements amount of precipitation and temperature are usually considered and represented as 30jährige of average values.
Usually the walter Lieth diagram is used, which on the example of Rio de Janeiro is to be seen.
Frequently arisingin addition is the Thermoisopletendiagramm, with which only the temperature is represented. This is with this diagram however for each hour of each day in the year in detail readable.
climatic zoning and climatic classification
major item: Climate zone
of areas more directly more climaticallyConditions are arranged in climate zones and classified thereby. For the organization of the earth into different climate zones there are thereby different classifications. The most well-known one is that from Vladimir Köppen. The climate zones are characterized particularly by climatic diagrams.
One differentiates with respect to dependence
One divides small-scale climates among other things into
- mountain climate (Orographie),
- boundary surface climate,
- small climate, mesoclimate, regional climate, location climate,
- landscape climate,
- urban climate and
- forest climate.
climate on other planet
the climatic term is regarding the earth most thoroughly described and classified, however its basic principles are independent of the character of the climate and thus in last consequence also of the planet earth. Forwardseverything within the range of the weather and climatic modelling beginnings are pursued to describe also the climate of other heavenly bodies of our solar system (extraterrestrial meteorology). Since these exhibit perfectly different set at climatic factors and input variables for the climatological models (see Atmosphere and planet articles), show up thereby transmission problems. In addition a data situation unsatisfactory within many cases and ranges comes. The use of these projects is not however only appropriate in the understanding of the foreignplanetary climates regarding extraterrestrial activities of humans, as for example for one manned Mars flight, but also in the improvement of terrestrial climatic models by the testing of their modified correspondences at physically completely differently constituted systems. An example for this is the MAOAM - project.
numerous terms exist to climate
in the everyday linguistic usage,to the climate refer directly or indirectly, however thereby on a wrong understanding of the climatic or environmental term are also often based. Usually this strongly anthropogen is coined/shaped and sets up therefore a rating connection between the effects of the climatehumans and the climate ago.
climatic killer and climatic parasits
the climate as such cannot be killed and one can him also harm. Also greenhouse gases are not climatic killers, since they affect the climate, thatEffect of the damage from such an influence however on a purely subjective purchase to nature by humans refers. Besides greenhouse gas is responsible in the context of the natural greenhouse effect for the fact that the global average temperature at the soil 15 °C instead of -18°C amounts to, as it would be without this the case at present. One could call the greenhouse gases therefore with same authorization also climatic rescuers or Klimanützlinge, what however likewise possesses no scientific logical value. The climate exists perfectly independently of whether the globalAverage temperature 15 °C, 30 °C or 100 °C amounts to. A climatic change of such an extreme extent one could call that by right mankind killers, since one assumes, already a global average temperature of over 30 °C for larger kinds of mammal safe becoming extinctas a consequence has. Such a temperature would be in contrast to this special for organisms with a higher temperature optimum also a kind rescue, before humans, who threaten wide their habitats. For a close-to-reality and problem oriented understanding of the climatic term such Begleitbegriffe is useless therefore.
the term of the climatic protection is like the term of environmental protection an official term, however this refers likewise to a purely anthropogene view its which is protect worth and why and/or. for which it is this. ThatHumans define here, against which climate or environment must be protected, and which is not ranked in the consequence among these. These impossible and environmental components afflicted with a stigma are then ranked often also among the climatic parasits or climatic killers.It consists therefore only a narrow degree between a meaningful view of the climatic change and its consequences of a human perspective out on the one hand and an incorrect understanding its which climate and climatic change is on the other hand.
climatic collapse and climatic reversal
both terms concerns it potenziell correct terms, which are correct however also only if they are used and understood in a correct way. A climatic reversal does not express itself in particularly extreme weather events, in natural catastrophes or a century summer, but in a long-term change of the climatic factors and - elements.
Climatic reversal and as extreme for this the climatic collapse are nothing else as for their part extremes of a climatic change and as such lead themselves these also from the characteristics of the terrestrial atmosphereand thus the climate off, not however from what locally as particularly „more violently a “weather change is felt. A change of the climate and in particular world climate can be reconstructed only by primarily statistic models on basis of series of measurements of many years.
Extreme weather events are spatiallimited and subjective single observations therefore represent which are never with the climatic change as such interpreting or begründbar. It concerns only symptoms for these and one can it therefore as alarm flag understand. Even an enormously fast climatic collapse needsYears until decades and never weeks until months, like in some popular representations. Besides such a climatic change falls not „from the sky “and cannot occur therefore also in the actual sense surprisingly. It has also always causes and can with knowledgeand modelling barness of these to be in advance measured.
this term is anthropogene correspondence to climatic collapse and/or. Climatic reversal and as such a central element of the climatic consequence research, even if this term is here usually not used.The climate can certainly experience no disaster, however the consequences of a very sudden climatic change with all authorization from human view are to be interpreted as disaster, there them our way of life and/or. Living conditions elementarily and here in all rule negatively affect.
term and definition of the climate
- Bernhardt, K: Tasks of the climatic diagnostics in the climatic research. Gerl. Beitr. Geophys. 96 (1987), 113-126.
- Hantel, M.; H. Frizzily, C. D. Beautiful meadow:
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