Climate zone

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The earth is divided on the basis different climate conditions due to differently intensive sun no radiation into different zones,from the north pole to the equator extend - and in the Southern Hemisphere spiegebildlich run.

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it exists to two kinds of organizations for the climate zone, a rougher, those the climate zones primarily after geographical-cartographicCriteria divides (situation on the globe), and a finer, those the actual climate conditions (temperature, amount of precipitation) considered.

organization according to geographical criteria

Climate zone of degrees of latitude north/south (°) average temperature (°C)
polar region/cold zone north/South Pole to polar circles 0 °C
Moderate zone of polar circles (66.5 °) to 40 ° 8 °C
subtropics 40 º to the 23.5 ° (turning circles) 16 °C
Tropics 23.5 º to equator 24 °C

organization according to climatic criteria

  • cold zone: Areas, in those thoseCentral temperature in the warmest month 10 degrees Celsius does not reach.
  • moderate zone: Areas, in which the warmest month is warmer than 10 degrees Celsius, which are to annual average temperature however below 20 degrees Celsius.
  • subtropics: Areas with an annual average temperature over 20 degrees Celsius, which do not exceed central temperature in the coldest month however the 20 °C.
  • The Tropics: Areas, in which the central temperature lies in the coldest month over 20 degrees Celsius.

The rough gradingarranges itself in this case after the temperature, it gives however also different organizations, those the actual climate conditions due to the atmospheric circulation, the sea circulation (genetic classification), or the climatic effects (effective classification: dominating vegetation, general ecological criteria) better seize.Example for this is the comparison of amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration, which leads to the differentiation

There is here no best or classification of the climate zones generally which can be preferred. Each kind of the classification has theirspecific pro and cons and this can outweigh only in the case of a concrete application in a direction. If one proceeds only from the climatic conditions, then climatic diagrams so mentioned offer themselves for the differentiated description of local climatic characteristics.

Climatic classifications -, summarize

the regionally very different climates of the earth try general proceeding all climatic classifications and generalize to show.

The kleinsträumlichen differences must yield here the large Regelhaftigkeiten of the climate. Similar climates are aggregated to larger areas, withindetermined bordering and appoximate values of the same climatic parameters (and thus approximately the same climate) exhibit. One generally differentiates between genetic and effective, partially also ökoklimatische, etc. Climatic classifications.

Genetic climatic classifications place the emergence of the climate, thus to their genesis, into the center. Areasame climates become thus for example after continentality and/or. Maritimität of a subspace determines. Central basis of the genetic climatic classifications is the global wind circulation. An early genetic climatic classification submitted for example Hermann Flohn .

climatic classification after Köppen andViolonists

these official climatic classifications used in climatic geography were developed by Vladimir Peter Köppen in this kind organization.


See in addition also climatology, classification.


The numbers indicate the order in the classification of the classification.

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Main group

tropical rain climates (kältester Monat > 18 °C).
Trockenklimate, (either with summer rain, rain without period or winter rain) with main distinction between BS (steppe climates) and German Federal Armed Forces (desert climates).
warm-moderate rain climates (kältester Monat zwischen 18 °C und −3 °C, wärmster Monat > 10 °C), with all-season Precipitation, and/or. seasonally or periodically more highly than into the B-Trockenklimaten.
Boreale climates, snow forest climates, only in the Northern Hemisphere ausgebildet, kältester Monat < −3 °C und wärmster Monat > 10 °C.
cold climates beyond the timber line (polar, as and elevator timber line), with frequently occurring tundra-like permafrost soils, more warmlyMonth < 10 °C, with distinction in EF (eternal frost) and ET (tundra).

partitioning after the quantitative proportion of the precipitation

  • w = winter drying, A) for C and D-climates in the heaviest-rainfall month of the warmer season more than ten timesas much precipitation as in the rainpoorest month of the colder season (ex.:To Cw-climates), b) in the A-climates must at least one month with less than 60 mm precipitation seem around this further classification to Aw-climates to get.
  • s = summer drying, A)C and D-climates must the heaviest-rainfall month of the cold season for this at least three times just as precipitation exhibit as the rainpoorest month of the warm season in the respective climates), b) only extremely rarely also for the A-climates applicable, if the driestMonth in relation to the heaviest-rainfall still up to 30 mm precipitation exhibits, „the s “in third place apart from „f “is only set.
  • f = stands then for expressed drying time in the respective climates.
  • m = central form between f and win the range of the tropical monsoon climate, drying time is available however only short and a little effective.

differentiation of the summer warmth and wintery cold

  • group for C and D-climates:
    • a = Temperatur des wärmsten Monats > 22 °C
    • b = wärmster Monat < 22 °C, aber noch mindestens 4 Monate > 10 °C
    • c = nur 1 bis 3 Monate > 10 °C, kältester Monat > - 38 °C
    • d = nur 1 bis 3 Monate > 10 °C, but more coldlyMonth < - 38 °C
  • group for the B-climates:
    • h = heiß (Jahresmitteltemperatur > 18 °C)
    • k = winterkalt (Jahresmitteltemperatur < 18 °C, aber wärmster Monat > 18 °C)
    • k' = like k, however also warmest month < 18 °C
  • third group:
    • l = lau, all months 10 °C to 22 °C
    • i = isothermally, the differencethe extreme months < 5 °C

climatic classification after Troll/Paffen

climatic systematics
main orientation of the system at the seasonal variation of the climatic main elements
orientation of the system at the relations between climate and natural vegetation
distinction of the earth in five zone climates,however not independently to be defined, but indirectly over the assigned climatic types
zone types:
I polar Subpolares zone climate
II Kaltgemässigt Boreales zone climate
III coolingmoderate zone climate
IV warm-moderate-subtropical zone climate
V tropical zone climate
of climatic characteristics for the demarcation of the individual climatic types
central temperature coldest month
central temperature warmest month
Air temperature yearly fluctuations
precipitation/dampness offer

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