|of these articles is occupied with monastery in religious/mirror-image-ritual sense, for places named monastery sees to monastery (term clarifying)|
a monastery is an accumulation of residential buildings and possibly. further buildings, in those humans (usually monks or nuns) in one on thosePractice of their religion concentrated way of life live together.
The designation monastery comes from lat.: claustrum, which „locked place “(see. also: Examination (monastery) means. In particular „ the cloister “of a monastery typical for abendländische monastery architecture became later with claustrumdesignated. In English (more cloister), French (cloître), Italian (chiostro), Spanish (claustro) and in other languages lives latin root until today in this specific meaning away. In German the designation was generalized against itand the monastery building marks as a whole and/or. the monastery as mechanism actually.
In the western culture area in particular Christian monasteries are well-known, which the catholic church and the orthodox churches belong to to a large extent, like probably it also Protestant (bspw. the woman Mrs. Ebstorf) and ökumenische (bspw. Taizé) monastery communities gives.
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Tibets the buddhistischen monasteries developed as place of residence of the monks during the rain time. In the start time of the Buddhismus the monks always were on thatJourney, as the faith founder was always Buddha up to his end of life on journey.
First by the gläubigen laymen only properties were donated, so that the monks could establish their provisional accommodations during the rain months on it. Became only later them alsofirm of accommodations made available and the living range finally around a central resounds for meetings extended. Today a monastery is considered only as such if it meeting-resounds one has and to it a vollordinierter monk manages.
Buddhisti monasteries are not on self-sufficiencyput on. Originally the buddhistischen monasteries did not have a real property, as later for example in the Tibetan Buddhismus and the Christian monasteries of Europe. The monks denied their living costs alone by the alms collecting, not by work or farm lease of real property.
Major task of the buddhistischen monasteriesare today:
- place of the peace and the retreat from the lay life
- meeting place for the execution of rituals
- meeting place for administrative meetings
- place of the teachings and the study
- point of approach of laymen for victim actions
- place for „the seelsorgerische “support of laymen
- Temporally limited stay of laymen, to the study and Meditation (see:Retreat).
Due to the very different tasks, the monk communities of many monasteries specialized in individual activities. Thus it gives among other things:
- Forest monasteries, those particularly as place of theRetreat serve.
- Village monasteries, which stand also in particular apart from the mönchischen life for the population openly.
- Training and monasterymonastery monasteries, which serve monks and laymen above all religious practice and training.
Buddhisti monasteries are once geweiht and then always are Monasteries, even if nobody lives more in it and is present only ruins; geweihte places cannot be entweiht no more. Because giving away property applies to the monks as a victim, the monks know the place - even if herwanted - if no more not to return, give away or to sell, because by it „the good work “(and/or. „good earnings/services “) of the donor were destroyed made. Rejecting alms is the only sanctioning measure, which monks can set opposite laymen. It becomes for exampleapplied with unjustified bad Nachrede and slandering of medal members.
In Thailand, Myanmar (in former times: Burma), Laos, Kambodscha, where the Theravada - one practices to Buddhismus, are called the monasteries „wade “. In Tibet many monasteries possessed before the Annektierungthe country by the People's Republic of China lease country.
The Zen - Buddhismus (predominantly Japan and Korea) is the only tradition, in which monks work and which monasteries operate partially self-sufficiency. The alms course becomes however, the indication of the humility andin order to give the laymen opportunity for deserving acting, continued to operate.
see also: Buddhisti Mönchtum
The klösterliche way of life is called in the Christianity monastisch, what itself from latin word for “monk “(monachus) derives. From latin word derived from it monasterium also correspondences for „monastery come “in many other languages: monastery (English), monastère (franz.), monasterio (splinter). This root has itself in German also in the word Münster (ahd. munistri, munsri)received.
the first monasteries are in 4. Century come out from a settler colonies (Egypt and Palestine). Among the first western monasteries the monastery Marmontier rank to the Loire, of hl. Martin based by routeto be on German soil the abbey pc. as well as is. Maximin in Trier. In the year 529 creates Benedikt of Nursia in Montecassino as it were the prototype for numerous abendländische monasteries and for living together in the monastery a rule together, as Regula Benedicti over several century the development of the monasteries coined/shaped.
The early monasteries were not only place of mental life, but also centers art relating to crafts and of the agricultural and the research and collection of knowledge (monastery libraries). They carried outthus an important role in the receipt or new acquisition since the antique one which was lost of the knowledge and during its spreading. The monasteries operated own enterprises relating to crafts and agricultural and passing on their acquired knowledge to the domestic rural population.
On this basisbecome monasteries bases of the Missionierung particularly in the north and the east of Europe.
Sketch for many western monasteries is the pc. Galler monastery plan. Are again and again directed klösterliche reform movement against a too strong economic and political secularization of the monasteries,so for example the Cluniazensi reform on the basis of the monastery Cluny (abbey) (see. also Cistercian)
with the establishment of begging medal (Franziskaner, Dominikaner, Karmeliter, Augustiner) comes it to a new type of monasteries.
At all the history of the monasteries leaves itself asChanges between „secularization “and reform in the sense of the rules describe.
The reason for the repeated secularization of the monasteries was the fact that the entrance into a monastery came not always only for religious reasons, but also from the lay motivesenriching (e.g. of aristocracy families in the Middle Ages) and the social supply (e.g. of farmer children not entitled to inherit, who did not have an economic basis for the own establishment of family). Independently of the social origin an insufficient personal attitude led individually (not least the certainor selected abbott) to the monastery life gradually for the secularization of the entire monastery.
After the reformation many monasteries were already waived for lack of need. In the wars it comes also to destruction and (not always) to the reconstruction. By secularization the real estates falleven either directly to the state or but to noble, more rarely to civil families. By the secularization due to the realm deputation main conclusion were at one blow about 300 pins, monasteries and abbeys concerned. They were partially torn off, partially ofState used, partially sells. Many monastic churches were converted - frequently also under pressure of the Gläubigen - to parish churches, in order to save it from the destruction. The monastery libraries against it were dissolved and partly in the state and/or. private libraries integrated,in addition, many books were lost.
To a turn it comes only at the end 19. Century, as medal communities monasteries to redeem can and/or. back-transfer gotten. Since this time also some new monasteries are developed. While most monasteries the national socialismto a large extent intact get over, comes it in the rule area of communism, so also into East Germany after 1945, to the renewed dissolution and/or. Nationalization of monasteries. In East Germany these are only returned after 1989. Since that time it comes there also to some reestablishments ofMonasteries.
For the history of the monasteries, see. exemplary the Internet exhibition documentation of the house of Bavarian history - monasteries in Bavaria from the beginnings to today
historical-cultural meaning for the development of the evening country
in the early Middle Ages were monasteries thoseBewahrer of the culture and centers of the education. Cultural work took place exclusively in monasteries, them contained copies of old books, made art and cultural properties, as for example the Reichskleinodien of the holy Roman realm, and maintained monastery schools.
In addition, practicalThings such as agriculture, plant breeding, herb and medicine developed the monasteries and passing on them to the surrounding population. Thus they became important development centers. Prudent national gentlemen recognized this and based with eagerness of monasteries, them with large Ländereien, oftenin underdeveloped areas, considered. Therefore they were called often also pins, designated after the donation. A typical colony sowing ion medal were the Cistercians.
With the wave of the town foundation in the late Middle Ages, was opened a new field in the social welfare forthe lower layer and in the ill and old person care in the cities. Thus all larger town foundations received at least one monastery within the Stadtmauern. With these tasks above all the Franziskaner and other begging medals concerned themselves. See also Panisbrief
Monasti way of life
a monastery is in the west usually a medal community assigned, whose rule determines the life in the monastery.
Since in the industrialized world uncommonly more life models present are, the new generation for monasteries substantial decreased/went back.
Examples of monastische medals, only in monasterieslive:
of examples of other medals, which live also in monasteries:
„a Ashram “is a monastery-similar Meditationszentrum in India. The actual meaning of the word is „placethe effort “. The actual monasteries are the Mathas. Today there is a whole number of hinduistischer medals.
To withdraw themselves and into the separatingness God more near come from the everyday world, one finds the basic idea of a monastery also inHinduismus. Already the concept of the four life stages of humans (pupil, house owner, itself the forest isolation of withdrawals, release of searches) shows that the Hinduismus plans the way of the itself of that world withdrawing. The hinduistische life draft plans expressly that humans are to marry and have children(when Grihastha, house owner), however in recent years (when Brahmacarin, pupil) religious studies to dedicate itself is, on which it can construct in later years ( than Vanaprashta and Samnyasin). The brahmanischen priests therefore never lived in India zölibatär. Howeverthe abstention SAMness for the life phases, which are certain by religious search, played a large role since more jeher in Indian ideas.
Beside this brahmanisch coined/shaped life model it does not indicate countless Sadhus, Asketen , which around-moves, however in the Hinduismus howeveran institution like a monastery bound are. The myths tell of Rishis (way), which looked in the isolation for realization. Today there are to Swamis and gurus, which often operate a Ashram, in that it Meditation informs and the Gläubigenreligious teachings mediate. The connection of a Gläubigen to a Ashram is however mile far distant from the finalness a surgery; besides the individual Ashrams is independent and not to a superordinate institution bound.
In later time (after 800 n.Chr.) camethe Ashramas frequently with a temple connected the monasteries (Matha) in addition, to into the present centers of mental life, gel honouring SAMness and religious activity were. Some monasteries possess and maintain temple, schools, hospitals, institutes for orphan etc. The scholar Shankara (788-820n.Chr.) donated a monk medal and many monasteries to also promote in order the Zusammengehörigkeitsgefühl of the hinduistischen currents. These monasteries and their chief (Mahant today still apply until with many Indian as highest religious authorities, although it never the position of onehighest instance in affairs of religion attained.
Due to the Islamic influence in north India large monasteries and temple plants are today mainly in south India.
|Wiktionary: Monastery - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- everyday life in the monastery
- list of the monasteries
- List of the monasteries (chronological)
- list of the monasteries in Austria
- monastery literature - literature those, predominantly in the early Middle Ages, in monasteries developed
- for Skriptorium - the klösterliche office
- Devotio antiqua, Devotio moderna - different kinds of the Frömmigkeit
- Vita contemplativa - the withdrawnLife of the monks
Web on the left of
- catholic church in the Internet: Monastery
- Internet portal for German monasteries
- Internet portal of the medals in Germany
- Thuringian monastery book (listing and glossary)
- “Rete Vitae Religiosae Mediaevalis Studia Conectens”
- of monasteries in Bavaria
- picture archives of the house of the Bavarian ones History (see project churches and monasteries)