table of contents
the Benediktinerkloster Lorch became around 1102 of the Staufer duke Friedrich I. and its family donated. The so-called establishment document has itself meanwhile as falsification from the second half 12. Century put out, might show however circumstances essentially correctly. Lorch the Pope subordinated, how it was usual for monasteries of the Hirsauer reform, but reserved themselves the Staufer the Vogtei .
The forces were directed first toward the establishment of church and examination buildings. Only 1139 could be thought of the transfer of the deceased Staufer by the pin church into the new monastic church could. Owing to the support of the king Konrad III. the monastery made good progress.
The economics of the monastery might have oriented itself in these years closely at the regulations of the Constitutiones Hirsaugienses. The meant the automatic operation of the nearby goods with Konversen and Hörigen. Arising new reform medals brought unpleasant competition out for the Benediktinerkloster, particularly since internal Zwistigkeiten weakened the convention.
The situation of the monastery in the later Staufer period can being well designated nevertheless than. The monastic church became around the turn 13. Century with decoration columns and a tower over the Vierung provide, whereby the Staufergrablege became effective also outward optically.
That pilotfishes collapse meant for the monastery acute danger: former Ministerialen stressed individual rights, which could be replaced however mostly with money. That was more dangerously still access of the count Ulrich I. of Württemberg. He tried to take over the Vogtei over the monastery. Also roll ago II. Give from Limpurg demanded Vogteirechte over different monastery places. In the long run could intersperse however no its requirements. Support found the monastery with the Mr. von Rechberg. In addition Lorch could rely on a system of mutual support by the neighbouring monasteries such as Murrhardt , Komburg and Anhausen, as the abbott also this with disputes to assistance came.
After the king choice of the having citizen Rudolf I. these 1274 the monastery placed Lorch under the Vogtei of the realm. That had the consequence that it in its conflicts with count Eberhard I. by Württemberg one pulled in. The Benediktiner came thereby into a dilemma, because they aimed at the development of their goods around Stuttgart Münster , thus in the middle in the center of power Württembergs. Entering a protection relationship with the count 1291, immediately after death Rudolfs was the result.
At the beginning 14. Century came the monastery into a serious crisis. On the one hand its area of the frequent war courses in the country became devastates, on the other hand went the donations, what concerned size and number, noticeably back. A last large transmission concerned 1279 goods in Bietigheim, until singing and Hohenhaslach. The monastery saw itself now forced to sell possession whereby with Bolheim, Dettingen was lost at the Albuch and Erpfenhausen a whole goods complex. Around 1329 the Tiefpunkt was reached: Pope Johannes XXII. to that withdrawn abbott had to already instruct Kuno from Gundelfingen to officiate as male nurses further.
The laborious reorganization accompanied with a change of the clay-indicating circles in the monastery. Lorch turned out under the influence of the eastSwabian aristocracy families Schechingen, Wöllwarth and work suppl.
The increase in power Württembergs in east swabia led in the long run to the fact that abbott and convention could not extract themselves from its rule, even if the monastery nominal still long time under the Vogtei of the realm. The interests of the rem valley monastery were soon so much interlocked with Württemberg that there was no more possibility for an independent territory formation. The goods politics aimed now at the rounding of the basic rule north the rems by exchange actions with other monasteries and the additional purchase of strategically important points like the castle flax-hit a corner. A further goal was the development in the Weinbaugebieten at Enz and at the middle Neckar. Particularly stepped out now viticulture and - trade as pecuniary resource. Toward end 14. Century the monks had given the expensive direct management up of their Weingüter around Stuttgart. With the economic stimulation clear signs for a religious and cultural upswing accompanied. The 1462 by count Ulrich V. arranged connection to the Melker reform inserted themselves into this overall view smoothly and met on slight resistance. The noble abbott Nikolaus give from work suppl. already soon from the civil Jodokus Winkelhofer one replaced.
The reform drew a lively building activity, which caused a new financial crisis in the association with the pecuniary claims of the count. The monastery answered with the renewal and intensification of its rights, which caused again the anger of its subjects.
The monastery had repelled gradually its possessions on the Ulmer Alb and on the hardening field, thus outside of the württembergischen sphere of influence. Abbott George Kerler compensated the integration into the commonwealth with an active landständischen policy. In the power vacuum during the minority duke Ulrichs was offered for a historical moment again the perspective of the realm immediacy to it, but her not consistently enough was used. Under abbott Sebastian custom-smell returned Lorch to close co-operation with the duke. Perhaps the Benediktiner at that time already recognized that their instruments of power were too small. In Konrad 1514 and in the farmer war 1525 this came to arms then clearly to light. The monks were plundered by the insurgent farmers, the buildings were ignited. From the damage the monastery could recover only laborious. Beyond that it was already threatened by the secularization, since the württembergischen land conditions saw therein a comfortable way from the debt crisis of the duchy. The having citizens had held still the hand over the Prälaten (and meant the protection expensively to be paid to be able), but the return of the refugee of duke Ulrich 1535 the introduction of the reformation, driving the monks out and the official administration for Lorch. To receive changed in the structure of the basic rule nothing, since the duke was interested in it, it as special estates, on which the land conditions did not have influence. The managers undertook however nothing against the debts accumulated since 1525. By Augsburger Interim were allowed to return the monks 1548. Under the new abbott Benedikt succeeded the reorganization, but was counted the days of the Benediktinerklosters. duke Christoph up and the establishment of a school, which was financed from the income of the basic rule, ordered 1556 main headers it. With the death of the last catholic abbott 1563 then past was the history of the independent monastery.
early modern times
it gave Evangelist abbotts in the future however. They were appointed by the duke and visited as Prälaten the württembergischen federal state parliament. In the dreissigjährigen war still twice catholic monks came to Lorch, could hold itself however not for a long time. Since 1727 the abbott title was connected with the chancellorship of the University of Tübingen. Only with the collection of the Württembergs for the kingdom and the associated reorganisation of the national territory in napoleonischer time also the office for monastery was dissolved. It came up in 1807 the formed upper office Lorch (starting from 1820 upper office Welzheim).
the monastic church is Roman column basilika with transverse house and separated Vierung. At the west side two round of stair towers stood, their more north in 15. Jh. collapsed. The southern tower became in 19. Jh. restored and by a floor increases. Today it coins/shapes substantially the silhouette of the entire plant. A Vierungsturm, which had been put on around 1200, disappeared again at the end of the Middle Ages, perhaps due to the fire damage in the farmer war 1525. But the choir carried long time a ridge turret. Two grave chapels for the aristocracy families Wöllwarth and Schechingen, which had been separated in the crossarms, became in 19. Jh. in favor of the space impression again eliminates. The tombs stand or are now because of the external walls of the church building. That inside approximately and outside flat ending Roman choir was originally replaced after the reformation 1462 by a longer gothical 3/8-Chor. Since the cloister was not as usual however because of the eastern side and at the south side of the church, the choir was treppenförmig gradated, so that the cloister under the choir conclusion could go through! Like the cloister the examination buildings lay on the eastern side, so that a strictly axial plant with monumental effect developed, despite the comparatively small dimensions. Model for it was perhaps the monastery holy mountain with Heidelberg. Today only the north wing of the examination is received. It is discussed again and again whether there could be connections to Maria Laach, where the church has a similar basic concept and from where allegedly also the first abbott Harbert had come. The so-called abbey became at the beginning 16. Jhs. as more representativeDomicile of the Prälaten establishes and shows still beautiful coat of arms stones at the front. Furthermore substantial remainders of the old attachment kept, and. A. an old military tower. Farm buildings into an old people's home were converted.
after listings from that 16. Century must have possessed the monastery a great many Reliquien and works of art. Also the library might have been very extensive. Under farmer war and reformation hardly somewhat from it kept. The Württembergi federal state library in Stuttgart keeps four magnificently equipped choir books (two anti-phon acres, a Graduale and a choir more psalter), which developed in the years around 1511/12.
In the church the lategothical Staufergrabmal pulls to view of itself. It was created by an unknown Göppinger sculptor around 1475. The high grave should place the rank of the founders before eyes and increase concomitantly the fame of the monastery. Probably around 1530 the columns were provided with the today still visible Stauferbildnissen. Despite several over painting is good the stylistic idiom of the Renaissance to recognize.
In addition are in the place of worship numerous tombs of members of the families of Schechingen and of Wöllwarth as well as from abbotts 14. to 16. Century.
Harbert 1102? - 1124? ; Kraft 1135-1162; Heinrich 1171-1194; Werner around 1200; Friedrich (Ith) 1239; Konrad 1251; Ulrich (Ith) 1260-1284; Gebzo 1290-1303; Friedrich (IITH) 1308-1328; Kuno of Gundelfingen 1329-1330 (officiated until 1332 as a male nurse of the monastery of far); Ulrich (IITH) 1333; Ludwig von Stubenberg 1333-1371 (+1374); Kind of people (I.) of Schechingen 1372-1389; Kind of people (II.) of Wöllwarth 1391-1399; Johannes of Schechingen 1400-1412; William give from work suppl. 1414-1441; Kind of people (III.) of Schechingen 1443-1461; Nikolaus give from work suppl. 1462-1477 (+1479); Jodokus Winkelhofer 1477-1480; George Kerler 1481-1510; Sebastian custom-smell 1510-1525; Laurentius Autenrieth 1525-1548 (+1549); Benedikt Rebstock 1548-1563
George Udal 1573-1576; Abel Weinlin (Vinarius) 1577-1602; Jakob Magirus (1602-1624); Melchior Nicolai 1625-1627; Jakob von Grab 1627-1630
catholic abbotts at present the restitution in the dreissigjährigen war
Friedrich charcoal burner (administrator) 1630-1632
Johann Jakob Albich 1633-1634
catholic abbotts at present the restitution in the dreissigjährigen war
Friedrich charcoal burner 1634-1639; Vincentius Haug 1639-1641; Placidus robber of 141-1648
spiral Bilfinger 1651-1661; Johann Jakob Mueller 1662-1669; Johann Chrisitan Hengheer 1669-1671; Christian Wölfflin 1671-1680; Joachim Martini 1683-1697; George Burkhard toggle 1699-1703; Michael Förtsch 1703-1705; Johann spiral Bilfinger 1707-1713; Christoph Zeller 1713-1727; Christian matte house Pfaff 1727-1756; Jeremias Friedrich Reuss 1757-1777; Christian Friedrich Sartorius 1777-1785; Johann Friedrich LeBret 1786-1805; Christian Friedrich Schnurrer 1806
sources and literature
the mass of the received documents and camp books is in main public records Stuttgart under the signatures A 499 and H 102/45.
the articles obtain literature a first entrance in the Germania Benedictina and in the Württembergi monastery book:
Klaus count in: Wolfgang Carpenter/NIC oils Priesching (Hgg.): Württembergi monastery book. Monasteries, pins and medal communities from the beginnings into the present, Ostfildern 2003. ISBN 3-7995-0220-3 on-line
Wolfgang Seiffer, in: Franz Quarthal (treatment): The Benediktinerklöster in Baden-Wuerttemberg, in co-operation with Hansmartin Decker Hauff, Klaus carpenter and Institut for historical regional studies Tübingen (Germania Benedictina 5), pc. Ottilien 1975. ISBN 3-88096-605-2
fundamental are two anthologies:
Felix Heinzer and others (Hgg.): 900 years monastery Lorch. One pilotfishes establishment from the departure to the reform. Contributions of a conference of the Württembergi historical and antiquity association [...] to 13. and 14. September 2002 in Lorch (VKBW), Stuttgart 2004. ISBN 3-17-018276-5
Peter Wanner (talk.): Lorch - contributions to the history of city and monastery. Book of local history and geography of the city Lorch, 2 Bde., Lorch 1990 (contributions of Klaus count, Hermann Kissling, Hermann Ehmer and other one)