Monastery Lorsch

the monastery Lorsch is a former Benediktiner - abbey, at the local edge of Lorsch, in the southhessian circle mountain route (Germany). It was created in the year 764 and existed 468 years, until it was incorporated 1232 the ore pin Mainz. In the early Middle Agesit was spirit and cultural center of the Frankish realm. Or king-resounds is belonged the only completely received architectural monument of the Karolinger gate - time and to the most important Relikten before-Roman architecture in Germany. Famous are today the works of the monastery library scattered world-wide. The monastery Lorsch (abbeyand old person cathedral) is since 1991 world cultural heritage of the UNESCO.


Karolingische Torhalle
Karolingi gate-resounds
Karolingi gate-resounds and Basilika

table of contents

work on []

Historical name forms

documentary are the following names occupied: in 9. Century Lorishaim, in 9. and 11. Century truck shame, in 9. and/or. 10. Century Laurishaim, in 10. Century Laresham, in 10. to 12. Century Lareshaeim and Lauresheim, in the 11. and 12. Century Lauresham, in the 11. CenturyLarsem and Loraszam and Lorozam and Lorisham, in 12. Century Laurisca and Laurisham and Laureshan and truck SAM and Lorisheym and Lorscheim and Lors.

history

the early Middle Ages

establishment

the monastery became, according to that Lor Codex, as nobleSelf-monastery of the Robertiner Cancor (count in Alemannien to 758 and up to its death 771 count in Rhine gau) and its nut/mother Williswinth based to the Weschnitz. The church and the first monastery constructions from wood were on the area of the today's ruin old person cathedral. Stillexisting documents put the conclusion close that there was here a church, which of the count family specified above already before 764 built and which was geweiht the holy Petrus. This church probably for the purpose family-grave-put to a monastery extended and 764 the bishop Chrodegang of Metz (relatives of Williswinth and Cancor) to the personal possession conveys. The bishop had close connections to house Meier beep pin, was papal Legat and prominent head of the Frankish church reorganisation. Thus the establishment of monastery existence had, the monastery remained in the family estate and the neighbouring bishopsfrom Worms and Mainz had no access to the monastery.

Starting from 764 here already were monks from Gorze, which were sent by Chrodegang. Chrodegang introduced, as on its self-establishment, monastery Gorze, the benediktinischen rules. On the request of Chrodegang for Reliquienfor the monastery Pope handed Paul over I. the Gebeine of the holy Nazarius, to 11. July 765 arrived. The monastery received thereby as one first in the Franconia realm from the Pope a Roman holy one to the gift.

The abbey received thereby increases donations and the numberthe pilgrim increased precipitously. This may have been a reason, in order to begin a church new building at 765. In this year Gundeland, a brother of Chrodegang, became abbott of Lorsch. On a hill nearby the old location (old person cathedral), on which today still recognizable monastery areas, becamethe new church built. The country was given to the abbey by Thurinkbert, a brother of count Cancor. As Chrodegang in March 766 had the monastery of 16 monks died.

realm monastery

the transformation from a self-monastery to a realm and a king monastery became from CancorsSon home Erich causes. When Cancor 771 died, home Erich raised requirements for possession on the monastery. The abbott Gundeland pulled thereupon before the yard court of Karl the large one. There the abbott got the abbey as possession as owner awarded. Around further encroachments of the aristocracy and the neighbouring bishops upthe abbey to prevent transferred Gundeland the abbey at Karl the large one. This took the abbey under its protection. The abbey received thereby the right its abbotts freely to select and it received the immunity.

In the realm organization the abbey had the king service (servitium regis) to carry out and provided for the Binnenkolonisation. In this context the donation of Karl must be seen to the large one, in the year the 773 and 774 the Marks of Heppenheim and the mansion Oppenheim conveyed. In the tradition of the eternal prayer (in the start timethe monastery for the families of the owners and the financially strong aristocracy) Karl the large one demanded, the monks also on for the king family and the realm too prayed.

In the year 774 the new monastic church was finished placed. The abbott Gundeland loaded Karl the large one to the consecration, which was in Speyer. It returned straight from Italy, where it defeated the Langobarden. It traveled with the bishop (late archbishop) from Mainz Lullus and further bishops after Lorsch. Lullus made the Kirchweihe and transferred the Reliquien of the holy Nazarius inthe new church. At the latest since 774 it will have given also first buildings of the Königspfalz, which by Karl the large one and late Ludwig the German was frequently visited in particular.

A further important task came to the abbey starting from the fourth abbott Richbod, the one importantSkriptorium constructed. In the same century the Skriptorium also a school is attached, thus develops from it those far away well-known monastery library high of the Middle Ages. Richbod is probably occupied since 775 in the monastery as document writers. It received its training at yards from Karl the large one Alkuin. It is to be assumed that it was selected by its proximity to the king yard 784 to the abbott and between 791 and 793 in personnel union also archbishop from Trier was. As such belonged it to the closer scholar circle (alias: Macharius) at the king yard around Karl and Alkuin.The monastery had thereby an important role for book production and concomitantly for the education reform in the Frankish realm. Further Richbold let establish ecclesia triplex. This was seen a further small church in connection with the building that the first convention buildings from stonewill must. Further Richbold fastened the monastery with a Steinmauer.

By donations, those essentially of the local aristocracy came expanded the abbey in the following centuries much. The donations came mainly from the Wormsgau, the Lobdengau and that upper Rhine gau. Further one Donations came from the Kraichgau, the Speyergau and in smaller measures from that Lahn gau, the Wetterau (Wettereiba), the Niddagau, that Main gau, the Anglachgau (southeast from Speyer), the Ufgau (southeast from Speyer), the Wingertland (Wingarteiba in the eastern desert forest), the Elsenzgau and that mash gau.

Under the monasteries in the realm Lorsch already emerges 817 to carry those the main load of the king service had (z. B. Deliveries to the realm or the supply of soldiers for the realm army). This clarifies also the economic meaningthe monastery for the Franconia realm.

handing hurrying

abbott Adalung succeeded it to still increase the possession of the abbey. It maintained close relations with Karl the large one, who appointed it 808 also the abbott of Saint Vaast in Arras. Adalung signed, beside others, thatWill by Karl the large one. Also for its successor emperors Ludwig the pious one, was Adalung a close advisor. Thus Adalung 823 traveled to Rome, over on behalf the emperor Untersuchungen against the Pope Paschalis I. to lead.

Also during it arguments between the emperorand the abbey went to its sons strengthened out. The abbey was occupied 832 by Ludwig the German to prevent probably in order the abbey to seize for the emperor Partei.

Adalung was 833 on the lie field with Colmar present and handed over on behalf of Ludwigpious gifts to the Pope the Gregor IV., that on operate from Lothar I. had traveled. In the year 834 Ludwig the German needed the cover of the abbey, against his brother Lothar I. and considered the abbey with a donation. In this time that hadMonastery of 60 monks and a hard gave cella the Michelstadt to the abbey.

Samuel becomes 834, after the death of Adalung, abbott of Lorsch. It successfully led the abbey by the time of the arguments between the sons of Ludwig that pious one. Still by its Fürsprache becameSamuel 841 bishop von Worms, he remained at the same time an abbott in Lorsch. After the death of Ludwig the pious one supported it Lothar I., as this also the Fuldaer abbott Rabanus Maurus, to which Mainzer archbishop Otgar and the Paderborner bishop Badurat did. Only aftercome the contract of Verdun (843), came again to a communication between the church princes and Ludwig the German. This expresses itself in a document of Ludwig from the year 847. In it the king permits the possession torn up by the handing hurrying to thatAbbey to bundle by exchange again. Further 852 the status is confirmed as realm abbey.

the high Middle Ages

the monastery possessed one of the largest libraries of the Middle Ages, which was incorporated later into the Bibliotheca Palatina.

the late Middle Ages

the monastery Lorsch on onekolorierten copper pass of matte house Merian

1232 Lorsch was subordinated to the ore diocese Mainz; the Benediktiner had to leave the abbey and by the Prämonstratenser was replaced. 1461 pawned to cure Mainz its possessions at the mountain route and thus went to Lorsch to the Kurpfalz, which introduced 1556 the reformationand the monastery waived. When the Spaniards took off 1621 from the mountain route, Lorsch was down-burned.

modern times

after end of the dreissigjährigen war arrived the abbey to cure Mainz and were cannibalized. Only “king-resounds “remained intact. It is complete the oldestreceived building of stones of Germany of the after-Roman time and obtain today an impression of karolingischen architecture.

The monastery Lorsch was taken up 1991 to the list of the UNESCO of world cultural heritage.

Propsteien

of abbotts

in the 468 years of its existence had the monastery of 47 abbotts.

Name of to
bishop Chrodegang of Metz 764 ,765
abbott Gundeland 765 ,778
abbott helmet Erich 778 ,784
abbott Richbod 784 ,804
abbott Adalung 804 ,837
abbott Samuel 837 ,856
abbott Eigilbert 856 ,864/865
abbott Thiothroch 864/865 ,876
abbott Babo 876 ,881
abbott roll ago 881 ,882
abbott Gerhard 883 ,893
abbott Adalbero 895 ,897
abbott Liuther 897 900
abbott Adalbero 900 ,901
abbott Hatto 901 ,913
abbott Liuther 914 ,931
abbott Evergis 931 ,948?
Abbott Brun (brother by Otto I.) 948? 951
abbott Gerbod 951 ,972
abbott Salmann 972 ,999
abbott Werner I. 999 1001
abbott Werner II. 1001 1002
abbott Gerold I. 1002 1005
abbott Poppo, also abbott of Fulda (Frankish Babenberger) 1006 1018
abbott direction soon 1018 1032
abbott Humbert 1018 1032
abbott Bruning 1037 1043
abbott Hugo I. 1043 1052
abbott Arnold 1052 1055
abbott Udalrich 1056 1075
abbott Adalbert 1075 1077
abbott Winther 1075 1077
abbott Anselm 1088 1101
abbott Gerold II. 1101 1105
abbott Hugo II. 1105 -
Abbott Gebhard 1105 1107
abbott Ermenold 1107 1111?
Abbott Benno 1111? 1119
abbott Heidolf 1119 -
abbott Hermann 1124 1125
abbott Diemo 1125 1139
Abbott Baldemar 1140 1141
abbott Folknand 1141 1148
abbott Hildebert 1148 -
abbott Marquard 1148 1149
abbott Heinrich 1151 1167
abbott victory hard 1167 1199/1200
abbott Luitpold of illusory field 1199/1200 1214
abbott Konrad 1214 1229

literature

  • Bernd Modrow, ClaudiaGröschel:Fürstliches pleasure. 400 years garden culture in Hessen. Publishing house fast + Steiner, Regensburg 2002, ISBN 3-7954-1487-3
  • Mathias Wallner and Heike Werner: Architecture and history in Germany. S. 20-21, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-9809471-1-4

Web on the left of

 

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