The palace of Knossos is the largest of the palace plants on Crete, beside Mália and Phaistós. Knossós (Greek Κνωσός; also Knosos; Latin Cnossus or Cnosus) the largest antique metropolis on Crete, about 5 km was probable south of Heraklion. Admits is the place particularly by the large from minoischer time coming palace plant.
Table of contents
place the youngest palace of Knossós as an enormous building ensemble of up to 5 floors with changes a surface of 21.000 m ² on a light surface of 2,2 hectars. 800 areas are provable, butup to 1.300 the palace might have possessed altogether. The palace was surrounded at no time by an attachment wall, to which external walls without received decoration and is, like all palace plants of the Minoer, around a rectangular central yard by 53 x 28 m established, to out4 directions bent, comparatively narrow courses, richly decorated passages, wonderful painted halls, arranged complex stairways and/or. column-stood around galleries lead.
These areas and passage are adjacent in such an confusing, chaotically seeming arrangement that them because of their labyrinthischen composition less the impression of rule architecture, because ofmythisch ritual architecture arouse. Also it a little probably seems that a king the workshops of his craftsmen (Töpfer and stone cutters) and the wealth of its “tax receipts” (up to 400 partially. man-high Pithoi, in which wine, olive oil, grain and honey were kept, the one total capacity of approx. 78.000Litres to have had might put on) with all noises, smells outgoing of it and associated vermin and the daily coming and going of a large number of humans within its rule seat left, although the environment would have placed sufficient surface to larger distance to the order. One is remarkablerectangular colliding stairs, like it also in Phaistós to find is, the one process ion way locks and as theatre for approx. 500 humans one interprets. Calculated this theatre plant is however not within, but at the edge of the palace plant.
In opinion of archaeologists those might City in 16. Century v. Chr. approximately between 10.000 and 100.000 inhabitants had. Remarkably that although dwellings with hot water heating, bathrooms with sitz baths and closets with Wasserspülung were excavated each rain drop on the palace area abgedeckelte by careful shifted, conical formed tubes from Terracotta and,stone gutters one caught, but one collected in comparatively small cisterns. The brook Kairatos, from which some archaeologists assumed, by-flowing in the proximity, he was with large boats navigable, is not applicable as potable water supply for a so large crowd probably also, there it at the same timepossibly as route of transportation, when Kloake might have served or for the laundry. A larger number of wells is not proven on the palace area. Larger areas, how they than accommodation for palace guards at all antique rule seats are provable, were not opened in the palace by Knossós. These considerationsit speaks for it that the palace of Knossós might have been rather a cult place, because a rule seat, both of along the north coast of Crete places present, and of the measuring era level over the road running by here is well attainable.
the areafrom Knossós was already settled during the Neolithikums. Oldest settlement traces of the settlement layers powerful up to 8 m can in 4. Millenium v. Chr. are dated. Immigrants from small Asia, who already had a highly developed , matriarchale culture, moved in the early 3. Millenium v. Chr. afterCrete. They maintained economic and cultural relations with Egypt. At the end of the 3. Millenium v. Chr. developed smaller kingdoms on Crete, as one from the larger palace plants in Phaistós, Mália, Knossós and Káto Zákros close. Knossós proves as particularly large, richand magnificently. Knossós became originally thereby on one since that 4. Millenium v. Chr. settled, neolithischen place between 2100 and 1800 v. Chr. established.
like all palaces of Crete also Knossós between 1750 and 1700 v. became. Chr. by a heavy earthquakedestroyed. The minoische culture does not seem to have lost despite the the branch roses destruction by the earthquake anything of their aliveness.1650 v. Chr. follows smaller destruction by a renewed earthquake. Already short time later, during the second palace time (approx. 1630 to 1400 v. Chr.) became,on the foundations of the old palaces new, still more elegant and more complex establishes. Knossós experienced thereby its largest bloom and probably develops thereby to first, the kretischen city states and for the religious and political center of the island. Knossós probably had the largest and most powerful fleet,its ships to the phönizischen, Egyptian and peloponnesischen ports ran out, which headed for Kykladen, Athens and the Near East. It is secured that Knossós had two seas port, one with Amnisos, the other one in the place of the later Heraklion.
The enormous outbreak of the volcano of Thera/Santorin over approx. 1450 v. Chr., with an enormous Flutwelle Knossós destroyed, left the minoischen palaces which were located at the north coast of Crete intact. Later the city a heavy earthquake got over 50 years owing to that vertically and horizontal in the walls inserted Zedernhölzer almost intact.To 1370 v. Chr. the palace was used. Probably the power of the Minoer might have more strongly suffered by the destruction of the fleet and all nordkretischen ports, which were accompanied by the Zuwanderung of mykenischer Festlandsachäer, their culture spread. An invasion of the Achäer at the beginning of the14. Century v. Chr. anyhow possibly Achäer led to a complete fall of the minoischen culture in connection with a rebellion already on the island of the residents. They destroyed everything that earthquakes and Flutwelle welfare had left. A fire, which must have raged several days,gave, destroyed the highest floors and many walls made of limestone and gypsum to the wood and oil the fire the necessary food. Individual limestone right parallelepipeds heated up by the fire remind today of cheek bones of a giant. Afterwards the palace was given up.
Only with the Greek time becameKnossós again settles.343 v. Chr. Sparta sent its soldiers against with Macedonia allies itself Knossós. Twenty years later Crete turned out under ptolemäische rule. 220 v. Chr. Górtys alternated with Knossós in the role of the kretischen capital. As the Romans 189 v.Chr. on Crete, became Knossós arrived again starting from 150 v. Chr. Of Crete capital. 67 v. Chr. make the Romans Górtys the capital of the new province Creta et again Cyrene, to which beside Crete also the Libyan Mediterranean coast belonged. Since 36 v. Chr. became it colony under the Roman name Colonia Iulia Nobilis. The Greek and Roman city lay in direct proximity of the palace, but it only to the small part was excavated.
myth of Homer approx. 700 years after the destructionmyth delivered by Knossós prevailed in 16. Century v. Chr. the firstborn son of the Zeus and that Europe, the sayful king Minos over Knossós. It extended the enormous palace, which used the older palace than lower floor, in order over it several, new floors to establish,the one ensemble of probably approx. To develop left to 1.300 areas. Minos should be husband of the Pasiphaë and father of the Ariadne and the Androgeos. The Greek God Poseidon gave to the Minos a wonderful, white bull, which it should sacrifice Zeus. There Minos the bull so wellit pleased that he sacrificed another bull, around him to preserve and to its herd float left, it Zeus zürnte and punished it by the fact that its wife Pasiphaë desired this bull and itself particularly in addition from the royal building master and ancestor gentleman of all artists Daidalos a hollow,wooden cow, which was covered with cow skin, to make left. Daidalos brought the wooden cow to the herd, whereupon the Pasiphaë with the göttlichen bull, hidden therein, witnessed and bore to the bull human being Minotauros, a human being-corrosive monster. King Minos left surprisingly this monster with human body and, But assigned Daidalos with the building of a safe hiding place, the sayful labyrinth does not kill bull head. King Minos took death at its son Androgeos with a sporty match in Attika to the cause, the Athener for an annual tribute of 7 young men and 7 virginsto force, which were sacrificed the Minotauros. Prince Theseus proceeded voluntarily among the hostages, in order to kill the Minotauros and to terminate the schaurigen victim cult. When he became acquainted with after his arrival on Crete Minos daughter Ariadne, both fell in love into one another. Theseus trusted her itsIntention on and it offered its assistance to it, if it would carry it forward to marry and to Athens. When he consented, she gave him the magic Wollknäul of the Daidalos, with which he found out from the labyrinth at any time again. Theseus succeeded it with the help of the Gods,to hunt the Minotauros, to flee which it sacrificed the Poseidon, in order thereupon with göttlicher assistance with Ariadne and its Mitgeiseln unnoticed from Crete to Naxos.
the myth of king Minos the transition of the matriarchalen culture of the Minoer, the one seemsGround connection, vegetation and fertility goddess anbeteten and from all pronouncedly to matriarchalen God admirations under the oldest agriculture religions of the Orients in Crete at the longest and purest kept to signal on the patriarchale order of the cattle-breeding Nomaden. The bull takes in the minoischen Religiosität under all God attributesa privileged position: At first still as a holy animal dear, caused its incalculability that it becomes as hostile Dämon the Opfertier. Possibly the minoischen bull plays, with which young men and girls jump ritually over a bull, in this dämonischen view of the bull, its dämonische forces were rooted symbolicallyin the bull plays were overcome. A representation of these bull plays is to be found in the reconstructed part of the palace from Knossós to. Reliably the oversize cult horn, which is to be found to the delimitations of stairs and terraces of the palace probably as cult symbol always, is not coincidental oneBull horn shared. About at the same time in Egypt, of which the Minoer could culturally certainly be affected, as the Prozessionsfresken in Knossós occupies, became the sun God RH on the back of a sky cow transported to the sky. In the pyramid texts of the old person of realm it is occupied and becomeswith God inside have-hear and Neth identified. Hollow, wooden animals are well-known as Greek cunning by Homer also with the fight for Troja. The bent plant of the palace was presumed the origin of the legend of the labyrinth (of labrys = Greek Doppelaxt), in the Theseus the Minotauruskilled. The Doppelaxt is a motive returning on the palace walls and could possibly mean that the palace was originally called house of the Doppelaxt. In Knossós proofs for people victims were actually found only some years ago: On the area behind the Stratigraphi museum one discoveredChild bone with characteristic cut-pure. Child victims belonged also to the phönizischen religion, which was matriarchalisch likewise at first. One assumes today that the Minotauros of the Greek legend was a highest priest as a representative of the kretischen bull divinity. The victory of the Theseus would know the victory of the mainland afterCrete seeping Achäer over the Minoer and their Matriarchat symbolize.
the wealthy kretischen buyer, lawyer and hobby archaeologist Minos Kalokairinos succeeded to 1878 the discovery Knossós. It opened two magazine areas with therein Pithoi and cult articles present. The Mecklenburger buyer and Troja discoverer Heinrich Schliemann, which assumed the palace of king Minos in close proximity to Heraklion, visited 1886 together with the archaeologist William Dörpfeld the terrain of Knossós. Dörpfeld strove for permission for a large-scale, archaeological excavation by German archaeological Institut, itsDirector it in Athens became a little later, but the Turkish authorities required the German to high purchase price.
1894 arrived the director of museum, Ethnologe and press correspondent, the Englishman Sir Arthur Evans on the search for before-Greek writing certifications for the first time to Crete. Finally it became enthusiastic for thoseagain discovered, before-Greek, minoische culture at the Kefala hill. Due to the Greek liberation struggle against the Turkish crew it knew the surface by switching of the Britisher-friendly High Commissioner only to 16. March 1900 buy. Between 1899 and 1914 Evans excavated the palace. Káto became almost contemporaneous in Phaistós,Zákros, Palekastro, Goúrnia, Lato and the Zeus cave Psichró begun with excavations. Arthur Evans had sufficient money, in order to fulfill itself his life dream of the excavation Knossós. Financially the again created Cretan exploration find donation took part.
supports by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, that had been already recommended by the excavations on the island Melos and to Mr. Fyfe, the architect of the British school of Athens, busy Evans at the beginning of still 30 workers with the excavations. But fast their number grew on 200, with their assistance it in record speedfrom only 3 years ² the palace opened 20,000 m. Since it the covering of the mykenischen time not far interested, these were cleared away without documentation. Among its most exciting discoveries ranks the colored, expression-strong Fresken, which represents a high civilization in its luxury. Their clothes reminded onno preceding, well-known civilization. The lady clothes preferred Puffärmel, slim waists and narrow skirts. The special blue color of the clothes refers to maritime trade with the Phöniziern. The Fresken places partially. Sport competitions, probably ritual meaning, in those young men and girls akrobatisch over the back oneBull jump. The heart of the palace is the so-called throne hall, which was called in such a way due to a alabaster throne found there. At the side panels of the Vorraums stone banks are set up. A precious Porphyrschale is located in the center of the Vorraums. It served probably ritual washing. Other interpretations interpret thisas aquarium.
Evans self-willed proceeding with the rash designation of areas, like the throne hall, the bathroom of the queen, the Karawanserei, the customs office among other things much criticism of the archaeologists registered to him. Herein many archaeologists see the Suggestion of a finding security,those by any means does not exist. Its bold restorations are therefore most disputed, since they cement these individual interpretations and make further research at the object (in sito) practically impossible. In its effort to conserve the opened and thus the fast decomposition accessible area and artifacts before the purgeand the viewer a conception of the conceivable appearance of the former palace to give, he experimented first also from England and Scandinavia imported wood. When this did not exhibit the hoped for longevity, he used the then most modern and most long-lived building material, concrete. But this is many more heavily than antique gypsum and timber constructions and after scarcely hundred years thousands of persons per day of current restoration require inspections. On the other hand one must regard Evans than child its time, in which antique ruins in the spirit of the Philhellinismus are restored.
Due to the soft stone came thatGerman geologist Hans George Wunderlich 1970 with its attendance of Knossós at the conventional view of the palace plant doubt. Two years later it carried its new interpretation in its book “where the bull Europe spoke”, in whose center the thesis is located, the minoischen palaces of Creteno mental-cultural or political centers were, but Nekropolen for the funeral of the dead ones. The absence of an attachment wall despite the exposed situation interpreted Wunderlich as cemetery peace, while the school view interpreted this as Friedfertigkeit of the epoch and the effectiveness of a strong fleet. Well, water pipelines, cisterns and drainage canalsby Wunderlich in connection with the preparation of the dead ones to the Einbalsamierung were pointed. Bath tubs became coffins, Pithoi burial places and the multicolored cans with long-drawn-out casting openings aids with the Einbalsamierung the dead one. It seized the light pits of the palace as and Entlüftungsschächtethe Nekropole up. Up to its death 1974 Wunderlichs theses controlled many discussions temporarily.
The archaeologist and cave researcher Paul Faure regard a widely distributed cave distant instead of Knossós with Skontino, of three and a half hours from Knossós, as the labyrinth.
- Arthur Evans: The PalaceOF Minos, 4 volumes, 1921 to 1935, London
- E. Hallager: The Mycenaean Palace OF Knossos, 1977, Stockholm
- R. Hägg and. N. Marinator (Hrsg.): The Function OF the Minoan Palaces, symposium Athens 1984
- J. Wilson Myers among other things (Hrsg.): The area Atlas OF Ancient Crete, 1992, London
- Hans's George Wunderlich:Where the bull carried Europe. Rowohlt, Hamburg 1972; Paperback: Rowohlt paperback publishing house, Reinbek 1981 and more frequently, ISBN 3-499-17198-8 (disputed theory: Interpretation of the palace as dead city)
Web on the left of
|Commons: Knossos - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
Coordinates: 35° 18 ' N, 25° 10 ' O