Colombia

República de Colombia
Republic of Colombia
Flagge Kolumbiens
WappenKolumbiens
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: „Libertad y medal “
splinter, „liberty and order “
office language Spanish
capital Santafé de Bogotá
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Álvaro Uribe Vélez
surface 1.138.910 km ²
number of inhabitants 42.310.775 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 37 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 1,741 US-$ (2004)
independence from Spain, 20. July 1810 explains, 7. August 1819 recognized
currency peso
time belt UTC -5
national anthem Oh Gloria Inmarcesible!
Kfz characteristic CO
Internet TLD .co
preselection +57
Südamerika, Kolumbien hervorgehoben
Kolumbien

Colombia (Spanish Colombia, etymologisch of Kolumbus) is a state in the northern part of South America and borders on Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. Colombia lies at the Pacific ocean and to the Karibik.

Table of contents

physical Geografie

Colombia lies in the northwest of South America and borders both on the Atlantic (1,600 km boundary line), and on the Pacific ocean (1,300 km boundary line). In the southwest Ecuador and Peru , in the southeast Brazil , lie in the northeast Venezuela and in the northwest Panama.

The western half of Colombia is dominated by the Anden, which are divided into three large mountain ranges: the western, the central and the eastern Kordillere. Between the mountain ranges the large, partial passable rivers Cauca and Magdalena flow into the Atlantic ocean. The high mountains accommodate the partially active volcanos Galeras, Huila, Nevado del Ruiz, Puracé, Tolima and Doña Juana. The highest summits are for the pico Cristóbal Colón as well as the pico Simón Bolívar, both in each case 5,775 m high and in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta been appropriate.

Kolumbien und dessen Anden
Colombia and its Anden
the eastern half is characterized by closely wooded flat country, by which the rivers Putumayo, Yapura, Meta and Guaviare flow, which flow either in the Orinoco or in the Amazon.

Colombia has coasts both at the Atlantic and at the Pacific ocean. The most well-known islands in the Atlantic are the archipelago of San Andrés and Providencia (770 km northeast from Colombia), with the islands San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina. The island Fuerte and the archipelagoes of San Bernardo and del Rosario is pre-aged to the Caribbean coast. In the Pacific the islands Malpelo and Gorgona and Gorgonilla lie.

Depending upon sea level one differentiates four climate zones. In the flat country (Llanos) tropical climate over 24° C, between 1.000 and 2.000 m moderated climate (17-24° C) prevails, between 2.000 and 3.000 m cold (12-17° C) and in the mountain regions (Páramos) starting from 3.000 m height to high-alpine glacier climate (under 12° C).

Of Colombia largest cities are the capital Santa Fé de Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Cartagena de Indias, Barranquilla, Ibagué, Manizales, Pasto, Cúcuta and Bucaramanga.

See also: Cities in Colombia

environment

heterogeneous soil conditions, different increments and climate zones, which include the transition and contact between Amazon and Anden, cause a large bio diversity with a high number of endemic kinds. Colombia is world-wide one of the countries with the largest diversity of species per Gebietseinheit: With only 0.7% portion of the world-wide mainland mass combines the country 10% of all animal and plant types of the planet on its national territory. Although Colombia already advances the protection of its natural resources for the 70's, above all apart from natural environment disasters (frequent either under extreme drying or rain times) dynamic social and economic growth and the civil war-like arguments brought substantial environmental damage in the last decades with itself.

With the condition of 1991 the country used up itself now explicitly the reaching of a lasting development; about 60 condition articles refer directly or indirectly to the environment. The law 99 of 1993 forms the normative framework for the arrangement of these defaults, by which a Department of the Environment was created as a component of the national environmental system (Sistema Nacional Ambiental, briefly SINA). To the SINA among other things the regional development authorities, which are assigned the management of natural resources and their lasting development, belong to the nebem Ministry urban environmental planning authorities and - systems like the DAMA in Bogotá and the Ecofondo, the union of all environmental NGOs. National planners of the environment are to contribute to the reaching of the ambitious goals. However operating cost among other things superelevated, missing investments is accused to the regional development authorities in environmental programs and the task again aufgeforsteter areas. These and other lack are to be eliminated therefore by means of a far-seizing environmental sector reform. In addition in March 2003 a law suggestion was already submitted; beyond that the Department of the Environment was fused in April 2003 to the Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarollo territorial. At present there is efforts to restructure those already for decades existing national park administration ( UAESPNN - Unidad Administrativa Especial del Sistema de Parques).

Altogether the past environmental policy is often designated of president Uribe as a backward step behind successes already obtained, in particular, since the environmental and nature destruction rise as consequence of the armed conflict from year to year.

climate

the equator by Colombia runs there, lies the country in the tropical climate zone. The north, thus the Karibikküste, lies in the subtropical zone. In areas below 550m average temperatures from 25°C to 30°C are measured (tropical range). Between 550m and 2.300m annual averages of 18°C and more are reached (moderate range). Between 2.300m and 3.000m the temperature amounts to 10 - 17°C.

Over 3000m the temperatures intermediate 17,8°C and +12,8°C (cold-moderate to cold climate zone) lie. The capital Bogotá lies at a value of 2.640m over the sea level and has an annual average of 13°C. There are annually two rain time (April and October) and two drying times, which do not fail however extremely.

At the west coast of the Anden the largest quantity of precipitation falls. In the southern part of the country become approx. 3.000mm precipitation per year and m ² measured, in the north up to 10.000mm. Some places with a Niederschagsvolumen of up to 16.000mm in the year belong to the heaviest-rainfall areas of the earth.

In the eastern regions it rains less strongly. The amount of precipitation in the high valleys and high basins amounts to due to the rain shade side for instance 1.000mm. Parts of the Karibikküste are very rain-poor due to the trade wind (under 400mm amount of precipitation per year and m ²).

population

Colombia with a total population of approx. 42,3 millions a very much diversified population structure has due to its history. On each square kilometer on the average 31 inhabitants live. 72% of the total population live in the densely populated areas and cities, mainly in the valleys of the Río Magdalena and the Río Cauca as well as at the coast of the Caribbean sea. However lives in Bogota, the capital and the center of the industry, approx. 1/7 of the population. The population consists of three very different groups: the indigenen Indios, the European, mostly Kolonisten and the imported slaves from African origin, originating from Spain. The today's Demografie of the country consists of a mixture of these groups.

Population trend x1000

connections between these groups were and are very far common. The Mestizen with 58%, whose ancestor was Europeans and Indigene, places the largest portion of the population. To the lightmembranous population belongs the Kreolen, descendant of the European Kolonisten, which represent thus the largest minority with 20%. Further the Mulatten is represented in the Colombian society, descendants of Europeans and African slaves with 14%. Purely African ancestors have 4% of the population, 3% rank among the Zambos, which indigenen from African slaves and Indios descend. In the village Palenque de San Basilio exists the only Spanish-based Kreolsprache in Latin America. Humans there are mostly descendants of run away slaves and speak Palenquero. Nowadays 1% are only classified as Indigene, among other things by its culture and language. Dominance is the Roman-catholic faith direction (approx. 90% of the population). People movements of the country into the city are substantial. Urban population rose from a portion of 57% of the total population in the year 1951 to 74% 1994. Thirty cities have more than 100,000 inhabitants. The eastern Llanos Colombia, which consists of 9 Departamentos and constitutes 54% of the surface, accommodates only 3% of the population and thus a density of a person per square kilometer.

See also: Afrokolumbianer

history

after the discovery of Central America by Spanish sailors developed with Santa Marta (gegr. 1527) and Cartagena de Indias (gegr.1533) the first colonial bases to the Colombian Karibikküste.

As

in the year 1537 the first Spanish discoverers under Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada in and-tightness-offered to large Colombia penetrated, the Chibcha were subjugated. The Spaniards built some settlements, which replaced the former indianischen commercial centres, so for example for Santa Fé de Bogotá and Tunja (gegr. both 1539). The establishment of a province took place a little later, made of which the viceroy realm Neugranada developed.

Colombia is one of the states, which resulted from the decay of large Colombia in the year 1830 (others are Ecuador and Venezuela). Up to the year 1903 Panama belonged to Colombia.

Colombia belongs to the 1969 created and close A SHANk, which developed a foreign trade zone between the member states since 1995.

For decades the civil war in Colombia now already persists . After a further wave of force and terror president Álvaro Uribe Vélez imposed to 12. August 2002 for 90 days the state of emergency. In the year 2003 the peace process with the Paramilitärs, begun by Uribe , threatened to fail. A reason for it was without trace disappearing of the founder of the Paramilitärs, Carlo Castaño, another the demand of the Paramilitärs, for their acts, including the drug trade, not to be punished and to the USA not delivered. With the peaceful disarmament of over 30.000 AUC - Paramilitärs by April 2006 occurred a relative peace and the plan Colombia shows despite negative press of progress.

See also: List of the presidents of Colombia and history of Colombia

politics

as Präsidialrepublik is Colombia in the executive, legislation and Judikative divided. The parliament consists of two chambers, the congress (congreso) and the senate (senado). The valid condition became to 5. July 1991 after a popular vote discharges. Nearly all offices, from the president to the delegate, are selected directly by the people. As of age everyone is considered to 18 starting from that. Lebensjahr and only members of the army and convicts may not select. The president and the senate and congressional representative are selected to one term of office by four years.

Colombia is member in the South American community of states, organization of American states and the United Nations. Negotiations of accession to the Mercosur are led.

parties

  • Partido liberal (socialliberal, member the socialist international one)
  • Partido Conservador Colombiano (conservative)
  • Movimiento de Salvación Nacional (conservative)
  • Alianza Democrática M-19 (former M-19 - Guerillagruppe)
  • Polo Democrático Independiente
  • Unión Democrática
  • Unión Patriótica (communist)
  • Partido Comunista de Colombia (communist)
  • Movimiento Obrero Independiente y Revolucionario
  • Partido para Defensa del Folklore Nacional
  • Oxígeno Verde (the Green)
  • La U

training system

in Colombia the education in four stages is divided, preparatory school (preescolar), school (educación básica), High School (educación media) and university (nivel universitario). For the education the Ministry de Educación Nacional is responsible. The national educational facilities for the families are more favorable on the average than in private hand. In addition nationally titles, usually by private technical schools, also not recognized, are offered, which have often the independence of the training as the goal.

In the Vorschulalter kindergartens are offered to parents, almost exclusively from the private sector. The last two years before the primary school become children (4-5 years) and transición (transition) (5-6 years) mentioned. It is expected by a child in transición the age group that it already began with the reading and letter learning.

The school time of a child limits itself to nine years, five of it in the primary school (básica) and four in the High School (secundaria). Usually only for families, which have the necessary financial means, schools offer two further years of the Educación Media, also to Bachillerato mentioned. Pupils those the Bachillerato make have usually the goal the university to visit.

Universities are privately operated both by the state and. Technical conclusions assigned after three years, graduated (comparably with Bachelor) in accordance with four and diplomas after five years. Supplementing master and doctor title, latter only through nationally recognized institutions are offered. The most well-known and outstanding university of Colombia is the Universidad Nacional de Colombia with head office in Bogotá. Further prominent universities are “Universidad de the matter Andes” and “Universidad Javeriana”. The study in Colombia is well-known in Latin America for its good level.

health service

the age distribution is characterized by a large portion of recent population. Between 1985 and 1990 the portion of humans sank under 15 years of 45,7% to 36%, yet this value is very high. For the male population the life expectancy rose between 1965 and 1993 of 54 to 66.5 years, with women of 59 to 72.4 years.

The medical supply is not equivalently distributed over the national territory; Coastal regions and rural regions are here disadvantaged. Physicians, medical employees and hospitals concentrate on the densely populated areas. 23,520 physicians, 13,815 dentists and 43,065 Krankenpfleger perform their service at the health; 1989 was counted 45,858 hospital beds. By nutrition lacking and bad housing conditions the diseases Tuberkulose , malaria , Ruhr and typhoid fever are far common in the a little medically supplied areas. In order to eliminate this bad state, the Colombian state took up World Bank loans and used incomes from oil production for the structure of the health system. Maternity and dentist treatment are supported by the social security. Also workers in the industrial sector are accident-insured and with disablement insured, the members received also a support. The social security is financed by employee, employer and by the state by contributions.

administrative arrangement

Colombia is politically into 32 Departamentos and a federal district with the capital (Distrito Capital) partitioned. Each Departamento has a governor (gobernador) and a section advice (Asamblea Departamental), which is selected every four years by the people. The governor cannot be red-elect for a directly following reign. The Departamentos is further in municipalities (Municipio) divided, which by a people-selected mayor (Alcalde) and a local council (Consejo Municipal) are governed. Bogotá is as federal district an exception and depends further on the Departamento Cundinamarca.

List of the Departamentos, their respective capital in parentheses and as red points in the diagram:

Colombia and its Departamentos
  1. Amazon (Leticia)
  2. Antioquia (Medellín)
  3. Arauca (Arauca)
  4. Atlántico (Barranquilla)
  5. Bolívar (Cartagena de Indias)
  6. Boyacá (Tunja)
  7. Caldas (Manizales)
  8. Caquetá (Florencia)
  9. Casanare (Yopal)
  10. Cauca (Popayán)
  11. Cesar (Valledupar)
  12. Chocó (Quibdo)
  13. Córdoba (Monteria)
  14. Cundinamarca (Bogotá)
  15. Guainía (Puerto Inirida)
  16. Guaviare (San José del Guaviare)
  17. Huila (Neiva)
  18. La Guajira (Riohacha)
  19. Magdalena (Santa Marta)
  20. Meta (Villavicencio)
  21. Nariño (Pasto)
  22. Norte de Santander (Cúcuta)
  23. Putumayo (Mocoa)
  24. Quindío (Armenia)
  25. Risaralda (Pereira)
  26. San Andrés and Providencia (San Andrés)
  27. Santander (Bucaramanga)
  28. Sucre (Sincelejo)
  29. Tolima (Ibagué)
  30. Valle del Cauca (Cali)
  31. Vaupés (Mitú)
  32. Vichada (Puerto Carreño)
  33. Bogotá - Distrito Capital

infrastructure

Colombia avails itself a traction network of 3.304 km length, of it however only 150 km in standard width, which serve mainly for the promotion of coal from the El Cerrejón for the port Bahía Portete. The passenger traffic on the rail is limited to three short routistic distances. Together with 112,998 km road system, of those only approx. 26,000 km are paved, possess Colombia therefore one of the worst traffic infrastructures of south and Central America. The road improvement is with approximately 100 m/km ² below the Latin American average of 118 m/km ². Ports of greater importance are of Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Muelles El Bosque, Puerto Bolivar, Santa Marta and turbo. The number of airports becomes estimated on 980, whereby nearly each town with millions of inhabitants has an internationally tied up airport. There is about 1.89 million fixed net of telephones in enterprise. Officially transmit 413 LW/MW and 217 UKW Radiosender; there is approx. 5,5 million television in the employment.

Since the new condition from 1991 the national investments decreased/went back into the infrastructure, the private against it rose. Thus the participation of the private sector rose into infrastructure projects of transport, river and water supply rapidly. Since 1994 becomes parts of the freeway net in concession at private entrepreneurs assigns, who administer to date thereby 10% to 15% of the road system. Experiences show that the building and maintenance costs are reduced thereby of 300% over the originally estimated costs to 40%. These distances are financed over a duty.

economics

2000-Peso-Schein and 500-Peso-Münze

general

Colombia is a largest producer of numerous kinds of cut flower. With the production of carnations it stands world-wide on first, with cut flowers altogether in second place. With 3.500 different Orchideen - Colombia the largest variety of the world has kinds. Likewise in the first place Colombia stands with the production of emeralds and Guadua wood. It is in addition the fourth largest coffee - producer of the world and stands with the production of bananas world-wide in third place. With the production of potatoes Colombia is prominent in Latin America.

In addition beyond that Colombia is world-wide the fourth largest producer of coal and nickel and has a safe Erdölreserve from between 1,54 to 1.84 billion barrel.

A part of the Colombian economy is affected directly or indirectly by the cultivation and production by illegal drugs. Thus farmers cultivate in particular Koka, in addition, sleep poppy , since they promise themselves such a better income than with the production of food or coffee; and the pressure of the drug trusts does not make it for the Kokabauern possible often also to turn to legal goods.

foreign trade

of main export goods of Colombia are coffee, bananas, cut flowers, emeralds, exotic fruits, textiles, leather goods, food, oil and petroleum derivatives, coal and coal derivatives, gold and sugars.

The country is the second largest exporter of agricultural products into the USA.

to public expenditures

between 1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for

culture

sees also: List of famous Kolumbianer

art

Colombia praises a long history of the arts, which decreases/goes back into the präkolumbischen times. Admit are from these times gold figures, decoration and clay/tone work. In the capital Bogotá are to be admired in the gold museum many of these pieces. A majority of the feats disappeared however since the discovery, only by the discoverers and then by grave robbers. The various groups of peoples manufacture further most different kinds among other things the handbags (Mochilas) and hammocks of the Guajiros handwoven by art .

To the most well-known Colombian artists 20. Century count Omar Rayo, Enrique grey, Fernando Botero and Alejandro Obregón. Most well-known Colombian writer is the Literaturnobelpreisträger Gabriel García Márquez. Other berümte writers are Jorge Isaacs, Tomás Carrasquilla, Fernando Vallejo and José Eustasio Rivera. World acquaintance poet are José Asunción Silva and Guillermo Valencia. In the child literature represent the country of the fable poets Rafael Pombo.

music

the traditional Colombian music is very various. The music of the Karibikküste, where many Afro Kolumbianer live, is coined/shaped strong of African rhythms, how one it in styles like the Cumbia and relatives, but melody-shears Vallenato to hear can. A new music direction developed in this region of Colombia is likewise strong the Champeta coined/shaped by African and Caribbean influences. Completely different against it the traditional music of and region is around Bogotá, which is a mixture of Spanish and vorkolumbischer style elements and so that resembles the folklore music of the high country of Peru and Ecuador. In the remainder of the country the traditional music is particularly coined/shaped of Spanish and Italian influences.

Salsa is in Colombia, as likes also in the remainder of South America likewise much. Famous Colombian Salsa interpreters are the Grupo Niche, Fruko y sus Tesos and Joe Arroyo. One of the most popular Salsa dancers is Maria del Pilar, who is celebrated in the meantime together with its Guitarriero Nico Berdugo also in Europe with numerous appearances. The most well-known musician of Colombia is a singer Shakira. Meanwhile also the Pop singer Juanes and the Vallenato interpreter of Carlo Vives brought it to international celebrity.

In the Colombian large cities there is a constantly growing modern music culture for the 90's. Nevertheless the scene continues to grow. In the year 1994 for the first time the festival took place „skirt aluminium parque “that meanwhile the largest free rockfestival of Latin America is.

media

of Colombia medium world essentially consists of the television (3 key-stations), the press and the radio. The most widely read newspapers are El Tiempo and up to the transformation to the weekly paper El Espectador. The media are in Colombia in the hand of few large entrepreneurs. The Organización Ardila Lülle is owner of radio Cadena Nacional (RCN), a large Radiosender, since 1995 also the own TV transmitter RCNTV and also the largest music publisher Sonolux. Companies and participation of the family Santo Domingo and the Grupo Santo Domingo are (part) owners of radio Caracol, Caracol TV, Bogotá town center TV and the newspaper El Espectador.

sport

Colombia is represented particularly for football and cycle racing internationally well-known and for some years by Juan Pablo Montoya in the formula 1.

Most well-known tennis players are Fabiola Zuluaga, Miguel Tobón and Mauricio Falla.

2005 won the Golfspielerin María Isabel Baena for the first time a title for Colombia with in new jersey , the USA delivered match Play championship. Meanwhile the Kolumbianer Camilo Villegas reserves the second seat behind the legendary player tiger Woods in Ford gulf Championship 2006 in Miami. Baena, Villegas and Jesus Armando Amaya “La Estrellita” are the strongest representatives of the country in this aussergewönlichen discipline for a Latin American country. They promise much for the LPGA and PGA in the next years.

Clara July IANA Guerrero is the world-best Kegelspielerin, a kind of sport also among other things in brothers and sisters Paola Rocío Gómez Ardila and Jaime Andrés Gómez Ardila the country represent. Famous Boxer are the legendary Antonio Cervantes “Kid Pambelé”, world champions in the weight class 140 Pound junior weight (WBA) were the four years long and Miguel “Happy” of the Lora, which held between 1985 and 1989 the world champion title in the weight class for 118 Pound of Bantamgewicht (WBC).

football

a football league was angedacht 1924 and sealed by the entry 1936 to the Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL). The soccer national team played for the first time 1962 in Chile with the world championship also. From three plays it received however only one point, however a historical portion played with a 4:4 against the USSR. 1964 were created the federal league „Federación de Fútbol de Colombia (Fedebol)” with support of the FIFA. Colombia was awarded 1974 by the FIFA delivering the 1986 world championship which can be played, which went however in the long run because of dividednesses between private and state financings 1981 at Mexico.

The largest success of the national soccer team is in the year 2001 the achieved titles of the Copa América, which besides in Colombia was delivered. Further high points were the respective qualification to the soccer world championships of 1962, 1990, 1994 and 1998, as well as historical 5:0 - victory over Argentina in Buenos Aires. This play served the qualification for the world championship 1994 in the USA. The national team will not deny the soccer world championship 2006 in Germany, since it could not itself despite 1-0 in the last play against Paraguay qualify.

See also: Colombian football

cycle racing

first running of South America driven into stages was completed 1951 in Colombia. First well-known Colombian wheel running driver with the route de France was Cochise Rodríguez, that running 1977 as 27. terminated. Fabio Parra won 1988 three stages and ended as the third in the total valuation. Luis „Lucho “Alberto Herrera won 1985 and 1987 two mountain groping and became thereby the Colombian national hero.

About itself made since end of the 1990er years talk besides the Santiago Botero originating from Medellín. It became 2002 time driving world champions with the road wheel world championship in the Belgian Zolder. Beyond that it secured itself among other things three stages with the Vuelta A España as well as with the route de France, with whom it in the year 2000 besides as a winner of the mountain leotard the Avenue of the Champs Élysées in Paris reached.

2005 won the Kolumbianer Ivan Parra two stages with the giro D' Italia.

Inline Skating

for some years ranks Colombia in this discipline among the strongest nations world-wide. The most well-known Inline Skaterin is Cecilia Baena (Sportlerin of the yearly 2001 in Colombia), with the Panamerikani championships 2005 won it nine medals. 2004 became it in Italy three-way world champion. In addition it won the largest Inlinerennen of the world, Berlin Marathon with 10.000 participants. Further well-known world champions, as well as world record owners are Diego Rosero and Jorge Andrés Botero.

Tejo

Tejo, a modern version of an Indian play named Turmequé, is played over 500 years long in the Departamentos Cundinamarca and Boyacá and is already appointed in June 2000 from the Colombian congress to the national sport. The modern version plans, an iron hemisphere, the Tejo, to throw into a metallic circle and so, the black powder bags presented at the four directions, the Mechas, to force to the loud bang. Who is to the center because of the nähesten, the play wins if none the Mechas is met. If a Mecha is met, then the single player wins or the team of the player, all the same who for the center next is appropriate. The portions are accompanied traditional by alcoholic beverages such as beer and Aguardiente. The breweries are therefore naturally the largest sponsors.

holidays

Date name German name notes
1. January Año Nuevo New Year national holiday
6. January * Epifanía/3 Reyes Magos three-king day national holiday
19. March * San José sank Josef national holiday
24. March Jueves Santo Green Thursday national holiday
25. March Viernes Santo Karfreitag national holiday
1. May Día del Trabajo day of the work national holiday
4. May * Ascensión del Señor Christi Ascension Day national holiday
25. May * corpus Christi Fronleichnam national holiday
2. June * Sagrado Corazón national holiday
20. July Día de la Independencia day of independence national holiday
7. August Batalla de Boyacá day of release national holiday
15. August Asunción de la four-gene Maria Ascension Day national holiday
12. October * Día de la Raza day of the race (see also Columbus Day) national holiday
1. November * Día de Todos loosely Santos all-holy national holiday
11. November * Independencia de Cartagena independence from Cartagena national holiday
8. Decembers * Inmaculada Concepción Maria receipt-sneeze national holiday
25. Decembers Navidad Christmas national holiday
with * are provided the holidays, which shift on Monday following on it.

further topics

literature

  • Curth, olive: Music of the world: Colombia. 2002 peeping ore publishing house, ISBN 3-89760-803-0
  • Dilger, Gerhard: Colombia. Beck `sche number of countries. 1996 publishing house C.H. Beck, ISBN 3-406-39864-2
  • Raul Zelik/Dario N. Azzellini: Colombia-large business, national terror and rebellion movement. ISBN 3-929-008-48-3

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Wiktionary: Colombia - word origin, synonyms and translations



coordinates: 4°S - 12° N, 67°-79° W

 

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