|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see municipality (term clarifying).|
The municipality is a term variously related in the social and political life, that from its latin word origin ago (COMM universities = together, communio = community)to the community of interrelations of life and interests refers.
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emergence of the term
in the late 11. Century set in the western part of the holy Roman one Rich a procedure, which is designated in the sources with the terms coniuratio or communio. In Cambrai the citizens swore to „ a municipality planned for a long time in the year 1077 “. They used the absence of the bischöflichen city gentleman. Before had itself alreadyin Le Mans in the year 1070 a movement in an educated manner, a conspiracy, which you called municipality.
The citizens of Cambrai swore to among themselves by an oath the bishop the entrance into the city to refuse, if it the new confederation notrecognizes. This first municipality was struck down and dissolved again. Into the 20's 13. Century pulled itself the fight of the citizens of Cambrai for military sovereignty, jurisdiction and urban autonomy.
In addition, in cities in the current areaGermany were there local movements. So 1074 in Cologne against the archbishop of Cologne and 1073 in Worms. Into all these cases were around the reaching of larger liberties from the feudalen city gentleman, in particular of religious gentlemen. The city gentleman practicedwith its service people and office-holders out, it force over the attachments of the city had the rights of management and court in the city and practiced market and Zollrechte and referred incomes from it. Also the reason and soil very often belonged to the city gentlemanthe city, so that for its use for buildings and the restaurant activities deliveries were to be paid. Further many citizens stood in a personal subordinate position to the city gentleman.
By sources to judge in particular the buyers arrived at wealth pushed at thatPrevailing craze of the city gentlemen. The multilayered reasons led however to the fact that the buyers and craftsman did not rebel, but also into the city hörige farmers , Ministeriale fled and dependent service people the fight for the municipality followed.
The French word commune is called translates municipality. See also „Commune “. In the Scandinavian countries the municipality (kommun) is an administrative unit, which corresponds for instance to the circle. See also kommun and municipality (Sweden).
In Germany municipality becomesas generic term for city, municipality, circle and other municipality federations such as integrated municipalities, uses local administration federations , convention communities , central administrative bodies. In Germany it gives approx. 13,000 municipalities of most different orders of magnitude (the smallest less than ten inhabitants, the largest have are thosethree cities also over 1 million inhabitants.
Municipalities are regional administrative bodies with verfassungsgemässer autonomy warranty with general competence for all local public tasks. Among the local tasks also the precaution for existence ranks.
Apart from tasks of obligation (z. B. Reporting department, refuse disposal, road cleaning) gives it freiwilligeAchievements (z. B. Theatre, sport, municipal library). Which freiwilligen a municipality notices tasks, depends on its (financial) efficiency and by the local political will is determined - usually by resolutions of the local selected agency (local council/town council, Kreistag o.a.). Thus becomesa large municipality quite a theatre maintained or the sport by public mechanisms promote, while a small municipality can notice these tasks not or not to the same extent.
The local supply and disposal take the majority of the municipalities independentlytruely. Thus the municipalities receive their influence in the price, personal, procurement and environmental policy. The moreover the municipalities secure themselves the durable removal of yearly surplus and trade taxes by own public utilities also into the urban household. The political attempt, municipality-own public utilitiesto sell, as “dissipating board silver” in the past years frequently of the citizens one rejected and one prevented successfully with citizen desiring or citizen decisions.
A goal of the municipalities is not maximization of profit, but common economy the increase of the public interest. In particular (i.d.R. inthe local rate laws of the countries it prevents fixed) costing hitting a corner principle that municipalities levy charges, whose height exceeds and to profits leads the costs.
The municipalities notice their tasks in various public and on the right of and organization forms under private law. The trend to separating of managementsstrengthens. Often is void already more than half of all local expenditures and/or. Conversions, investments and persons employed on the participation, which firmieren in the majority as own establishments or GmbH. From the expenditure roundnesses the local decision makers larger Effektiviät promise themselves andEconomy. Exemplary reasons for separating in the detail: more flexible guidance, more flexible and more economical personnel management, higher motivation, reduction of liability risks, better financing and co-operation possibilities, more effective inspection department, use of fiscal advantages, evasion of the assignment right and offer for tender right. In the meantime are appropriate for the municipalities (not only from Germany,e.g. separate. also from Great Britain, where privatisations under the Thatcher government began far in former times) ever more experiences forwards whether these expectations are fulfilled or not. In the last years it notifies already first municipalities, those due to disappointed expectations the OutsorcingInsourcing cancel again.
In the account system the municipalities work at present predominantly with the payment-oriented Kameralistik. For more transparency over the consumption of resources and the financial position a conversion to double record keeping (“doping spades”) is planned in several countries (e.g.Project “new local finance management - NKF” in North-Rhine/Westphalia). The conversion causes substantial costs (approx. 50-70 European Union for each inhabitant). These are to disburse themselves by the fact that due to the then possible cost comparison numerous functions of the administration (e.g. Real estate property administration, Personalverwaltung, social administration) in the future completely to more economical private ones assignbecome (outsourcing).
Due to constantly growing tasks and a clear income decrease since the point income year 2000 at present a strict consolidation course is inevitable in many municipalities. The financial pressure is so high that in many (particularly in the larger) municipalities management reforms and reduction of costs measures(References among other things: slim, process orientated administration, “lean government” and/or. “lean administration”) already long any longer are not sufficient, in order to adjust the local households. The municipalities try, by the dismantling from indirect tasks to to save (e.g. Financial administration, Personalverwaltung, leadership levels, Controlling etc.), around the tasksto be able, those continue to finance the citizen directly benefit (e.g. Social assistance, culture, schools, sport).
Despite a possible official administration by the supervision of local no bankruptcy is possible, since the Lands of the Federal Republic cling. There are in Germany however still no examples ofan official administration by the supervision of local (“state commissioner”). An using of a state commissioner the countries shrink from like the devil the Weihwasser, there also (nationally more skillfully) a state commissioner in view of the emptiness in the local cashes would not know, like one even the most necessary (there legalprescribed) expenditures transact could. The municipalities save themselves therefore increasingly in so-called. Kassenkredite, that one became with private people as account overdrafts (Dispokredit.) designate.
- EH Maria angel: The German city in the Middle Ages. Munich 1993, ISBN 3491961351