communication (lat. communicare „divide, communicate, to participate leave; make common, combine “) designation on the human everyday life level the mutual exchange of thoughts in language, gesturing, Mimik, writing or picture.

In the extended sense communication is mutual conveying of data or of signals, which have fixed meaning contents, also between animal and vegetable organisms and technical objects or systems.

The term is closely related to that the interaction, in many ranges is these terms even synonymously, particularly if Wechselseitigkeit for the communication term is presupposed. Feelings, emotions, tendencies and Affekte are a part of interhuman communication.

Table of contents

definition and connection

A generally recognized definition of the term does not exist.

A beginning means that the participants of communication can be humans in addition, other organisms or objects (in particular devices). Therefore communication can take place , approximately between humans and computer after the key word „of man-machine communication “also between humans and things.

It is discussed above all whether the participants of communication must be individuals, and/or whether each communication a consciousness lies to reason (see Turing test). In the technical disciplines this is answered in the negative and communication as a process is regarded, which changes the condition of the receiver. From philosophical view it is questionable whether there can be communication without understanding and memory “at all. Disputed it is also whether communication must be intentional and whether there is one-sided communication.

"Die Saporoscher Kosaken schreiben dem türkischen Sultan einen Brief"  von Ilja Repin (1880)
“Those Saporo Kosaken write from Ilja Repin (1880)
vertical communication to the Turkish Sultan

A usual description of communication in the Geisteswissenschaften is the transceiver model: It means that communication can only take place, if there are at least two participants in communication, whereby both function mutually as transmitters and as receivers. It is crucial that transmitters and receivers have a at least similar coding of the transferred messages, in order to be able to interpret the received signals.

It is indisputable that communication represents a substantial means for attaining from knowledge and realization: only collecting data from the environment makes it possible to an individual (or also equipment), to provide a model of the environment and to set new information in such a way into a context that they attain meaning. If one seizes the term of communication so far that no individual or intentionaler transmitter is presupposed, then communication is even the only possibility for learning, since each perception is part of a kommunikativen procedure.

It is remarkably unknown that also between the smallest components of all perceptible existences communication takes place with the goal of forming and of stabilizing “partnerships” and that the goal of all communication is in the best case communication over as fair an exchange of achievements as possible. These achievements can go the far beyond spectrum of vital basic safety device (respiration, nutrition, reproduction etc.) up to the acquisition of luxury goods, those in the long run nothing different one serve than a reaching of well-being feelings and the avoidance of uneasy feelings (in each case in the broadest sense). Communication used in this sense also as power instrument with the goal of reaching positions from which more well-being feelings are possible.

In a broader sense each behavior is understood as reaction to something or someone than communication, since each reactive behavior possesses a report character (interaction). Each behavior represents a form of communication: “One not cannot communicate” (after Paul Watzlawick) is an often quoted and remarkable sentence for definition.

systemic connection

of abstract ones regarded designates communication the procedure of connecting at least two systems in particular from complex systems. Within the range of interhuman communication, in addition, in some technical and scientific connections the interaction character can be very simply clarified by communication: In order to be able, are always endeavored kommunikativ interacting systems (persons, highly developed EDP, body cells etc.) function to let information develop in other systems. In addition they use different media and transport their information in different way, for example by means of contact, electromagnetic waves (radio, light - and/or. Color change, Wärmeausstrahlung), electric currents, sound and/or language, enzyme exchange etc. For success it is important that these information is correctly decoded . Shortened one could also say:

  • Communication is a substantial element of systems. Without communication no system exists.

communication within different science ranges

further overviews in: Communication model

more special ranges

after the transmitters and receivers involved, techniques and catchment areas distinctive between:

  1. Computer-obtained communication
  2. man-machine communication
  3. digital communication
  4. group communication
  5. individual communication
  6. intimate communication
  7. mass communication
  8. telecommunications
  9. chemical communication
  10. interhuman communication

see also

Wikiquote: Communication - quotations


human communication

and further detailed list [

work on] technical

communication/applied linguistics walter

  • Hoffmann successful describe - practice of the technical editor here; Organization, text organization, editorship ISBN 3-8007-1652-6
  • W. Fall, C. Walling Felkner practice manual technical documentation ISBN 3-8111-7088-0
  • H.P. Krings scientific bases of technical communication ISBN 3-8233-4543-5
  • Norbert Groeben reader psychology. Text understanding - text comprehensibility ISBN 3-402-04298-3
  • Anne of training villages controlling German. Linguistic and languagepsychological guidelines for (by machine) language controlled here a detailed list further in
  • the technical documentation ISBN 3-8233-5080-3 Susanne Göpferich intercultural “Technical Writing ” (

2003) for ISBN 3-8233-4760-8 and

machine communication

and further detailed list here

biochemical communication

and further detailed list (alternative) here as well as conservatively/scientifically here


  • might I the Unwort of the age determine, then only one would be applicable: communicate. An author does not communicate with his reader. It seeks to entice it to amuse to provoke to animate. What a wealth at (still alive) internal movements and appropriate expressions devours such a brutal garbage sip rword! Man and woman do not communicate with one another. The various mysteries, which give it up each other, would find their flat solution, as soon as this futile term steps between it. A catholic, who means, it communicates with God, belonged on the place exkommuniziert. To God one prays, and one does not maintain, but one receives a holy coming union. All our lucky and futile attempts to inform us with the world to affect and affect us, the whole diversity of species of our excitations and intentions fall the Ödnis and the Monotonie of a soziotechnischen short term to the victim. Thus we carry out for the insignificant feed motion, which up-eats our language with large appetite. - Botho bunch (the following one on tiptoe, 2004, ISBN 3-446-20491-1)

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Wiktionary: Communication - word origin, synonyms and translations

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