Konfuzius

Konfuzius
Konfuzius Statue von Liu Shih auf dem Confucius Plaza in New York-Chinatown
Konfuzius Statue von Liu Shih auf dem Confucius Plaza in New York-Chinatown
Konfuziusgrab am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts
Konfuziusgrab am Ende des 19. Century

Kŏng Zĭ (chin. 孔子, transliterates: Kong Tse; Calf Giles: K'ung tzû, „master Kong “, eingedeutscht Confucius (out 孔夫子 Kŏng Fū Zĭ, the more polite address) was in Chinese philosopher and founder of the Konfuzianismus. It probably lived on 551 v. Chr. to 479 v. Chr.. It became under the name Kong Qiu (calf Giles: K'ung Ch'iu) in the city Qufu in the Chinese State of Lu (鲁 in the today's province Shandong) born.

The family Kong exists further lineally and might be thereby one of the oldest proven families of the world. A descendant of the 75. Generation lives today in Taiwan.

Confucius created a school for philosophy. The central value of its teachings was the order, which is attainable its opinion after by attention for other humans and ancestor admiration. In the center of its thinking „the noble one was located “(君子 junzi), morally perfect humans. The thought of the harmony plays an important role in its world view: To find “the pivot, the oursmoral nature united with the all-comprehensive order, the central harmony ", regarded Confucius as the most ambitious human goal. “Harmony and center, equal courage and equilibrium are the goal.

Table of contents

Biografie

two years after its birth 551 v. Chr. in the state Lu in the today's Shandong died its father and the boy Confucius received 539-533 v. Chr. Private instruction with its grandfather. With 19 years the marriage took place andhe performed 532 - 502 v. in the years. Chr. different low employments.

Its nut/mother died 529 v. Chr.. After an alleged meeting with Laozi in Luoyang 518 v.Chr. it had two years later the escape before internal struggles for power to seize and exile in the neighbour state Qi look for. After its return after Lu about 500 v. began. Chr. the political ascent of the Confucius. He became first a minister of building and then Ministers of Justice von Lu and finally 498 v.Chr. deputy chancellor.

497 v. Chr. duke thing of Lu takes 80 singing girls as giftthe neighbour state against Qi, whereupon Confucius goes again into the exile. Now a 13-jährige journey begins by different states. It visits successively

  • 495 v. Chr. State of Wei
  • 494 v. Chr. State of Chen
  • 492 v. Chr. Wei, then Jin
  • 490 v. Chr. State of Cai
  • 489 v. Chr.Arguments between Chen and Cai leave Confucius's nearly verhungern
  • 488 v. Chr. State of Wei
Confucius grave in Qufu

only 484 v. Chr. takes place the recall after Lu. There he experiences 482 v. Chr. the death of its son Bo Yu and 481 v. Chr. the death of Yan Hui and the murder of the duke of Qi. This is called also the beginning of the “time the arguing realms “. 480 v. Chr. its pupil Zilu on the battleground and one year die later die also Confucius's.

Above all

a detailed chapter in the historical annals (Shiji) of Sima Qian, which lived and wrote centuries later during the Han dynasty, informs other sources over living and working the Confucius.

The ancestors of the Confucius were the kings of Shang, thosethe king of Zhou after the fall of the Shang dynasty the Lehen of Song had given. The family became impoverished however later. Already in in former times youth Confucius's lost his father and by his nut/mother was alone drawn up.

With 19 years Confucius married and stepped into the servicethe State of Lu. With 50 years he is to have succeeded in attaining a ministerial position. It is to have however already acknowledged this post a few years later again disappointed. Subsequently, it pulled with its pupils as a moving teacher of a leaning state on the other hand and workedas advisors at different courts. Three years before its death it returned to its mother country Lu. Success had not granted it. Only its pupils removal its teachings and won influence.

The fact that it is difficult to draw a clear picture from Confucius to is because of it,that it did not leave not one written work. At most over its thought world we experience from the “discussions” (Lunyu), in which many of its utterances are delivered.

teachings

traditional representation

the most influential work of East Asian history of ideas are the Lunyu. Itcontains the four fundamental ideas the Confucius:

  • Humanity (仁 ren),
  • justice (義 yi),
  • childlike Pietät (孝 xiao)
  • and rites (禮 left).

In addition a high priority is granted to learning. The first word of the Lunyu is „learns “:

Original pinyin translation
“学而时习之,
不亦悅乎?
Xue it ski xi zhi,
le yi yue hu?
Learn a joy and it occasionally
to repeat, is that not also?
有朋自远方来,
不亦乐乎?
You peng di yuan catch a layman,
le yi le hu?
If a friend from far on comes,
is that not also a joy?
人不知而不愠,
不亦君子乎?”
Ren le zhi it le yun,
le yi junzi hu?
By humans to be misjudged, but to grämen, that
is not not the attitude of a noble one?

the Konfuzianismus

of the Konfuzianismus is one of the philosophical-political currents of China, itself as answeron a deeply seizing crisis of the society developed. The term „Konfuzianismus " is however a western coinage without exact Chinese equivalent. The next Chinese expression Kongjiao (孔教 „Confucius teachings "), in an educated manner similar to Fojiao (佛教 Buddha teachings) and Daojiao (道教 Dao teachings), refers to the religious cult, that around the personthe master father of the school, Kong Qiu (孔丘, -551 to -479), Latin Confucius (孔夫子 after Kong Fuzi „teacher Kong "), one operated. The term Rujia (儒家), used in China, can be understood literally as „school (家 jia) to the gentle-courageous (儒 ru) “, whereby „gentle-courageous” stands for the scholar,with his spirit instead of by force for his thing uses itself. To determine, what „Konfuzianismus is " at all, a very undifferentiated everyday life use of the term in the west faces the difficulty. The label „konfuzianisch " becomes here usually related for the ethical system, which (does not undisputed-prove at all)the behavior of before “konfuzianischem” background of grown up Chinese (or Koreans) one takes as a basis. It is to be considered that most users of this term do not have any conceptions over it, which could mark this “Konfuzianismus”. Similar tendencies are in the course of the opening of the Chinese markets in all other respects alsoin China observably, where Confucius is again yardable since beginning of the nineties-years. (Here they serve social inequality as a strictly speaking groundless “explanation model” for the fast economic growth and have apologetische function for rapid increasing - Confucius stresses the Segnungen of a stable political neverthelessOrder).

“Before Confucius the culture was the secret of the holy ones on the throne. By Confucius, who became „ungekrönten king ", her a school entrusted by education, which as advisors and Ministers of rulers and kings ensured that, where they had influence power throughQuite and custom was sanctified. ...

The problem of the Confucius was the natural organization of mankind. For the structure of its system he selected an ellipse with two focuses. The focus was the inside of humans, the other one for it the human society. “(Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations William)

of five classical authors

it gives the five classical authors in such a way specified of the Konfuzianismus, whose study is recommended by Confucius:

alleged were edited these books by Confucius.

literature

  • Carl Crow: Confucius. Statesman - holy - Wanderer; Leipzig 1939(Original titles:Master Kung)
  • Xuewu Gu: Confucius for introduction, Hamburg: Junius, 2002, 2.Auflage, ISBN of 3885063611
  • peoples Zotz: Confucius, Reinbek: Rowohlt 2000, ISBN 349950555X
  • Heiner Roetz: Confucius, Munich: C.H.Beck, row philosopher

see also

to Konfuzianismus - Neo Konfuzianismus - Lunyu - Qufu - Menzius - of four books

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Confucius's - quotations
Commons: Confucius's - pictures, videos and/or audio files
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Confucius in the catalog of the DDB

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