Konservatismus

of the Konservatismus - precise conservativism - (of lat. conservare: received,) belonged to the large political currents, since that the 18 retains themselves. Jh. in Europe developed. Idea-historically Konservatismus designates a world view, some dominant in each case political andmoralische Ordnung gegen Kritik verteidigen und die in ihr begründete Verteilung von Macht und Ressourcen vor Veränderung schützen oder eine in der Vergangenheit exemplarisch verkörperteidealistische Ordnungsidee durchsetzen will. Modernism or progressism (scientific) are the Gegenpole of the Konservatismus

table of contents

ideas of the Konservatismus

thatKonservatismus als geistig-politische Strömung in Europa ist in seinem Kern eine politische Ordnungslehre, die in antik-mittelalterlichen und christlichen Ideen ihre Wurzeln hat. The Konservatismus assumes that itself that there is one the human reason given göttliche order, their fundamentalsparticularly in the idea of an eternal, transzendental guaranteed and inviolable right expressed (nature right /G öttliches right). The principle of the radical innovation (“avant-garde “) the thought of a political and mental continuity and an orientation at proven, historically more grown becomes Tradition confronts.

Against the demand of the French revolution after equality the Konservatismus stresses above all the hierarchical and liberal elements of a harmonious, gottgebenen order (Edmund Burke). This “natural” social order sees Burke as organic whole. Opposite this whole one must individualistisch egoistic requirements withdraw. The community, is positioned against a atomisierte and without rights society. The community is coined/shaped by tradition, customs, habit and connection. Change and progress are not categorically impossible, stand however under the reservationsocial acceptance and integration into the existing Wertesytem. With Burke are less the tradierten making and rule conditions, than the fundamental-idealistic value network are protected; thus it defends for example the glorious revolution as a legitimate protection of certain values (esp. the faith liberty)against dominant conditions without rights from its view. The “glorious revolution” becomes logical with it evenly not as revolution, but restoration determines.Power, rule and state are central categories for the continental-European Konservatismus. Der Staat ist positiv konnotiert undauthoritarianly justifies, about if it as defense mechanism against the moral spoilingness of by nature badly thought humans (see. Hereditary sin; Thomas Hobbes is thought) and its privatistic egoisms. On the state the conservative order thinking is aligned.The organizistisch presented state is the “natural” place, at which political power, inappelable (by objection) decision which can be made not retrogressive and social responsibility gather (see. also: Force monopoly).

In the anglo American Konservatismus receives - diametrically to continental-European developments -the individual one positively evaluates function. It moves into the center of the political idea teachings and gets now the order pin end function awarded, which in the European Konservatismus the state receives. By national identity and political symbols the individual becomes on common value conceptionsobligated and in his order pin ends task encourages. The state appears against it as embodiment of anonymous forces and source of the unfreeness. Security appears to individual strength and penetration strength as result. This individualistische development of conservative thinking goes with a strong stress of private restaurant forms andpersonal prosperity increase. ....

history of the political Konservatismus in Europe

as politically active current originated in the newer Konservatismus since that to 17. Century in the fight of the conditions against the claim to power of the earlymodern absolutist state; it became firstcarried of the forces of the aristocracy and traditional regional guidance stories. In 18. Jh. fought the representatives of the Konservatismus the ideas of the rationalism and the clearing-up, those in the faith in the reason-certain autonomy of humans and in its allegedCulminated to ability for the purely reasonable re-organization of all ranges of the political one. In the argument with the French revolution of 1789 the first large political program writings of the Konservatismus developed (in particular Edmund Burke, Joseph de Maistre, Friedrich Gentz, Ernst Brandes, Adam Mueller, Carl Ludwig von Haller).

The political term conservatively developed only around 1800 in England and France („conservative “; „conservateur “) and became (after the 1832 took place renaming the British Tory - party in „Conservative party “) since the early1830er years also transferred to Germany. The Konservatismus was directed now against different developments of revolutionary political theory and practice, as which one not only the representatives of the radical democracy and socialism, but likewise the liberalism and Konstitutionalismus (S. also: Condition) regarded.

Konservatismus in Germany

since 1848 were in the parliaments of the German member states (particularly in Prussia), later also in German Reichstag conservative parties represented; to 1918 there two conservative existedParties: the ostelbisch agrarian oriented German-conservative party and the realm-conservative carried by the high aristocracy and industrial circles.

Bismarck's inheritance

the specifically German development of the Konservatismus inseparably Otto von Bismarcks is connected with the figure. In its term of office the so-called became. Social question, thus the conflict between workers' movement and economic liberalism, going by dissolved that on the one hand the social-democracy was established forbidden (socialist laws) and on the other hand its own national security system (social legislation). Besides it set so-called in that. Culture fight the life rightthe state against the lay Machtabspruch of the catholic church through. These two successes secured its power-politics foundation and the broad social agreement for the anti-liberal state.

The stabilization and strengthening of the conservative state idea by Bismarck led to a comparatively late Inaugurierungdemocratic principles and institutions in Germany.

Weimar Republic, national socialism

after 1918 collected itself the German Konservatismus particularly in the DNVP and in mental-intellectual currents the partial revolution conservative with the term „“to be associated. ThoseSeizure of power of Hitler meant the provisional end of the Konservatismus as political Kraft in Germany; its position to the national socialism was however non-uniform: it reached from the Kollaboration over the Mitläufertum up to the active resistance (as for instance at the resistance circles of 20-July 1944). After 1945 the Konservatismus, which itself after the experience of the totalitarian dictatorship predominantly for the principle of the democratic constitutional state well-known, had played no crucial role in the German policy as independent political Kraft; the small conservative German party1949-1960 ranked among the government parties of the era Adenauer. Different attempts of new own conservative establishments of party remained unsuccessful.

Konservatismus in Germany today

today is the political Konservatismus in Germany particularly as a current in the Union parties CDU and CSU. The tradition strands of the Christian democracy are however more comprehensive than those of the Konservatismus; they cover the political catholicism, smaller currents of the political protest anti-mash as well as the classical liberalism beside this in Germany also. Corresponds to the conservative inheritancefirst the Christian people picture, - became despite the attention for the personalen each individual humans - not the individual, whose autonomy as a reason nature as well as its needs place into the center and verabsolutiert (public interest), but humans first as a componentor reason of an order understands, into which it is in-born: as part of a moral-moral order just like as part on the values of the Mitmenschlichkeit, the political-social responsibility, also community put on along-justified by religious tradition (moral organism). Finally haslikewise the socialconservative idea property, itself since the 2. Half 19. Jh. with the demand for national social politics against the excrescences of a pure economic liberalism (capitalism) arranged (S. Catholic social teachings), entrance found into the philosophies of the Christian social ethicsand the social free-market economy. Those today as conservatively designated parties deviate however also in important points from the historical Konservatismus. Thus for instance about quite positive Konnotierungen of a technological progress prevails forwards in the Christian democracy. Also there is an important neoliberal aligned wing. A rather state-critical party like the FDP applies in Germany remarkably as “more naturally” coalition partner of the Union parties, although the idea-historical foundation of liberals and conservative currents is contrary.

Arnold Gehlen and Helmut Schelsky are important contemporary philosophers of the Konservatismusin Germany.

see also:

Wikiquote: Konservatismus - quotations

literature

  • P. Kondylis: Konservatismus. Historical content and fall. 1986.
  • Armin Mohler: The conservative revolution in Germany.2 Bde. 1989.
  • A. Schildt: Konservatismus in Germany. Of the beginnings in 18. Jh. up to the present. 1998.
  • Franc Bosch: The conservative environment. Goettingen: Barrier stone, 2002. - ISBN 3-89244-501-X (a social history dt. Konservatismus in 20. Jh.)
  • Martin Greifenhagen: ThatDilemma of the Konservatismus in Germany. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1986. (Suhrkamp paperback science 634) - ISBN 3-518-28234-4
  • Bernd heath realm (Hg.): Political theories 19. Century. Volume 1: Konservatismus, Wiesbaden 1999. (Anthology of the hessian national center for political education)
  • Karl Mannheim: Konservatismus. A contribution for the sociology of the knowledge. Hrsg. v. David Kettler, peoples Meja and. Nico Stehr. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1984. (Suhrkamp of paperbacks science No. 478) - ISBN 3-51828-078-3
  • Armin stake Traughber: Conservative revolution and new one of rights.Opladen: Leske +Budrich publishing house, 1998. - ISBN 3-81001-888-0
  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Saage: Return to the strong state? Studies over conservativism, fascism and democracy. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1983. - ISBN 3-518-11133-7 (essays to Carl Schmitt, Ernst Forsthoff, Hans Freyer among other things)
  • Hans Gerd Schumann (Hg.): Conservativism. Cologne: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1974. (New scientific library 68) - ISBN 3-462-00993-1 (anthology with basic texts for the theory and history of the Konservatismus)
  • Caspar of Schrenck Notzing (Hg.): Encyclopedia of the Konservatismus. Stocker, 1996. - ISBN 3-70200-760-1
  • Rudolf four-house: Conservatively, Konservatismus, in: Otto Brunner among other things (Hg.): Historical fundamental ideas. Historical encyclopedia to the political-social language in Germany. Volume 3. Stuttgart: Klett Cotta, 1982 - ISBN 3-608-91500-1
  • Günter Rohrmoser: Mental turn. Christian thinking as foundation of the modern conservativism. 2000.

New writings by program ofConservative

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