under consonant (v. lat.: con = with + sonars = sound; also Mittöner or Mitlaut) one understands on the one hand a sound, whose articulation contains a narrowing of the Stimmtraktes, so that the breathing air stream is totally or partly blockedand it to audible turbulences (air whirling) comes. Consonant ones are obstacle overcoming sounds. For this the group of the Obstruenten (Plosive , Frikative, Affrikaten ) and the group of the Sonoranten count ( liquid ones /lateral one, Nasale) in German as well as the half vowelor half consonant/j/.
By consonants generally also the letters are understood, which represent such sounds. Over the common mistake and/or. Equating of sounds and letters to prevent, is meaningful it to use the term consonant letter. Are linguistically correctthe terms Konsonantengrapheme and/or. Randgrapheme (Grapheme, which become related for the edge of syllable, not the syllable core, so z. B. in the grammar of the German language, Berlin 1997, Bd. 1, see. S. 246ff).
| Pulmonale |
in accordance with IPA
|bilabial|| lab IO|
|dental||alveolar|| post office|
For the artikulatorischen description of consonants the following criteria are used:
- Being correct participation (be correctful or be correctless)
- articulation place
- kind of articulation
Under criteria acoustic auditiven regarded, differ consonants from vowels in the degree of their Sonorität. By Sonorität one understands the Schallfülle, i.e. the different acoustic range of the sounds.
Since each syllable exhibits a sound, whose Sonorität exceeds those of its neighbour sounds,have vowels a larger Schallfülle than consonants. To the consonants thereby certain positions in the syllable structure are given, generally at the syllable beginning and - to end, i.e. Consonant ones are normally no syllable carriers. As exceptions of it is however the Sonoranten:Approximanten (vowels in actually more konsonantischerPosition, about young /jĢ /however phonetically to see [iŏĢ ] and nasale and lateral consonants (consonants as Sonoritätsmaximum in the Silbenreim as for instance in mats [matnŉ].
In German the word with the longest consonant letter sequence reads --if one takes in account only words, which are registered in usual dictionaries -- probably fear sweat (five consonant phonemes and/or. - Sounds in consequence, which are represented by eight consonant letters).
|Wiktionary: Consonantally (noun) - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wiktionary: consonantally (adjective) - word origin, synonyms and translations|