Konstantinopel (griech.: Κωνσταντινούπολις/ Konstantinoupolis = “city of the Konstantin”), of Greeks around 685 v. Chr. as Byzantion based, the name of the today's Istanbul was to 1930.In late ancient times and in the Middle Ages Konstantinopel was as “new Rome” the capital of the Byzantine realm, after osmanischen conquest 1453 then the capital of the Osmani realm. As life center of two world realms, at which interface of two continents possesses,Konstantinopel a paramount historical and artistic role. Over 1500 years by the banks of the Bosphorus the fate of mankind at that time was directed. As prototype of an imperial city is Konstantinopel of 4. Jh. to in 18 Jh. longer metropolitan city been thanfor example Rome (3. Jh. v. Chr. - 5. Jh. n. Chr.)
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late ancient times and Byzantine time
Konstantinopel and the eastRoman realm
ways of the increasing meaning of the eastern half of the Roman realm Byzantion 324/326 by the Roman emperor Konstantin I. became. - in place of Trier - as new capital, as “new Rome” (lat.: New facts Roma), planned and six years later, at the 11. May 330 solemnly inaugurated. After its death one called it in its honours Konstantinopel a little later (griech.: Κωνσταντινούπολις “citythe Konstantin "). The city was increased on the fivefold of the original surface, and as Rome on seven hills establishes the model. Also the political and lay mechanisms of the old capital were copied into details. Thus Konstantinopel a Kapitol received, a Hippodrom for 30.000 spectators, a forum (forum Constantini) and a main traffic axle in east-west direction. Despite his promotion of the Christianity the emperor let also heidnische temples establish; its son Constantius II.granted then the senate of the citythe same privileges, as it enjoyed the Roman.
Konstantinopel was developed in the consequence consistently to the center by administration, economics and culture of the eastRoman realm and fulfilled this task (with interruption) since late 4. Century into the modern times par excellence. As long as Byzanz/Konstantinopel stood, also (of the modern historiography so mentioned) Byzantine the realm stood. If the city fell, the realm fell likewise. In consequence of the central position Konstantinopel became also the church center. The bishop of the city,that its office on the Apostel Andreas led back, was starting from 381 Patriarch and stressed a lifted out position. Also culturally the city in late ancient times revived : The university was the youngest, in addition, largest of the east realm and reached under Theodosius I. a first bloom time, whereby also the libraries were removed.
The extension Konstantinopels could take place due to the geographical situation only toward the west. Already Theodosius I. the city developed. Since 412 II. became under Theodosius. about 1500 m west the Stadtmauer a new, partly this very day received wall established by Konstantin established and so the area of the city of six on twelve km ² double. The population Konstantinopels grew rapidly and starting from a certain measure against thatSake the rulers, but even restrictions of influx were not able to prevent the influx. The supply far over 400.000 inhabitants (at present Justinians were it before outbreak of the plague in the 40's 6. Century between 500.000 and 600.000)the ruling powers placed occasionally before problems, in particular in 7. Century after the loss of the “grain chamber” Egypt to the Arabs, whereby the number of inhabitants decreased/went back again. To approximately 600 there were still numerous inhabitants with latin in the city by the way asNative language, as among other things by grave inscriptions is testified, after it was only gräzisiert Konstantinopel completely.
In order to guarantee the Warenversorgung, early ports at the coast became the golden horn and the Marmarameer out or newly built. For the supply of the enormous capital alsoDrinking water were established several aquaducts from the hill country lain northwest, to their water in several, altogether 130,000 m ³ seizing, underground cisterns (bspw. 532 under Justinian I. finished Yerebatan Sarnıçı was stored). Generally the eastRoman emperors seized in 4. - 6. Centurya remarkable desire to build, of which also Chalcedon - although it constantly stood in the shade of Konstantinopel - profited. Thus the port was extended, as well as built palaces and churches. After the destruction during the Nika rebellion 532 Justinian I. left.numerous buildings,establish among them the Hagia Sophia again.
Militarily Konstantinopel applied due to the Theodosiani walls long time as uneinnehmbar and as the strongest fortress of the well-known world; numerous attacks and FE storages failed because of the several times graduated attachment work of the city. To firstAcid test came it 626 by the attack of the Persian Sassaniden and the Awaren allied with them. With the Islamic expansion, while also the Arabs failed because of the three-way wall of the city, few years later late ancient times endedPhase of the city.
a book painting, 1455
) painting from the year 1499 [ work on] Konstantinopel in centralByzantine timeto Europe and are just like the battle with route and Poitiers stopped the advance of the Muslims by Franconias of world-historical importance. However the final loss of the rich Roman Orientprovinzen affected after 636 also the capital;thus now the grain supplies made of Egypt were void. While the Arabs in the course 8. to 10. Century partly to be back-pushed, became the Bulgaren could the new threat for the city. To a first (likewise unsuccessful) FE storage it came 813.The series of the attacks tore also in 9. and 10. Century not off, as Bulgaren and Rus, in the year 1090 the Petschenegen, several times the attempt of a conquest Konstantinopels undertook. Usually led this FE storage to devastation of the thrakischen surrounding countryside of the city, and also lighters the fastened Chalcedon several times by Persern and Arabs one took, one geplündert and one destroyed. Due to its today hardly still traces of the Byzantine architecture are to be found there.
Despite recurring city fires, epidemics and earthquakes remainedKonstantinopel in the Middle Ages one of the few “metropolitan cities” (beside Bagdad, Cairo and Córdoba), and the Christian metropolis most important largest with distance and. Under Justinian it had it in 6. Century like already described their first and largest bloomreached, the number of inhabitants broke through at that time the 500.000er mark. But to center 8. Century decreased/went back the number of inhabitants not least due to the Arab FE storages, around then however to in 12. To rise century to allegedly about 700,000 inhabitants.
Area losses due to more militaryDefeats (among other things in the battle of Manzikert in the year 1071) the Byzantiner end of the elften century forced to look for assistance in the Christian west. Penetrating the Normannen over South Italies up to the Greek mainland could only owing to the VenezianerStop to be ordered, in response trade privileges, tariff deductions as well as a commercial establishment in Konstantinopel were contractually assured to them. Further requests for aid in the west led first crusade to the call by Pope of the Urban II., consequently an army from all parts of Western Europe direction Konstantinopelpulled, where in April 1097 the last departments arrived. In the metropolis at the Bospuros the cross drivers saw a progressive infrastructure, which they could do from none of their cities also only approximately. There was aquaducts, baths and drains, hospitals with departments forthe most different diseases, a large university, even police and fire-brigade. Dealers from all world met on the bazaars of the city, whose large wealth was based on the overseas trade. Emperor Alexios I., that in view of the barbarianly seeming hordes/hurdles around itsCapital was anxious, hurried, to carry the cross driver army on the asiatic side of the Bosphorus. That well 50,000 men strong army still conquered in the same year the close convenient sultanate Sultanate of Nicäa and pulled then to far direction Jerusalem. That closelypressed Konstantinopel again something air had been provided.
The traditionally friendly relationship of the Byzantiner with Venice struck in 12. Century under Manuel I. Komnenos in distrust, Verachtung and hate over, not least by those always Byzantine soil deliveredStruggles for power of the Dogenrepublik with Pisa and Genova. The native ones felt the anmassende occurrence of the so-called. “Lateiner” as provocation. The explosive tendency unloaded itself of 1171 into the “Lateinerpogromen “, when the Byzantine government konfiszierte first the possession rope that Venezianerand it anschliesslich einkerkerte. Allegedly even that was dazzled afterwards to negotiations Enrico Dandolo traveled. Despite 1177 a decided peace impaired the event of the “Lateinerpogrome” the relationship between Konstantinopel and Venice lastingly. And like that it is not amazing that 1202by Venice equipped and by the Dogen Dandolo a led cross driver army conquest Konstantinopels in attack took to clarify under the pretext, the there throne disputes. Emperor Alexios III. II. fled before the moving forward army, and Isaak.(again) place on that tookThrone. The cross drivers remained despite “getaner work” in the city. When they discovered a mosque - there were dealers a Muslim municipality in Konstantinopel, Arab, since 718 due to the address - and they anzündeten, the area conflagration resulted from it destroyed inwhole borough.
After Isaak II. as well as its son Alexios IV. (under unsettled circumstances) and them Alexios V. died. after the throne followed, the cross drivers from the city were referred. These ready thereupon a renewed attack on Konstantinopel forwards. To 13. April 1204 succeeded it to them to storm the city of the sea-wall at the golden horn ago. The following plundering of the city took three days. Many inhabitants of the kosmopolitischen metropolis were killed thereby. Numerous Monumente was destroyed, great works of art becamedestroyed or robbed, some libraries down-burned and a large number of Heiligenreliquien over completely Europe, kept in Konstantinopel, absent-minded. Thus for example the skeletons of the holy three kings, who today in the three-king shrine in Cologne cathedral rests, originate originally from Konstantinopel.From the destruction and plundering by the Venezianer and cross drivers Konstantinopel for the remainder of the Middle Ages in the reason did not recover again.
the lateByzantine time and penetrating of the Turks
the cross drivers carved upand that so-called established the Byzantine army shank area.Latin empire. This held only briefly existed, already 1261 conquered a professional army of the Empire of Nikaia the city in the hand caper, carried by fled Byzantine families, back. The Byzantine realm became in comparatively modestExtent again manufactured, lost however in the consequence ever further areas of its territory. Around 1300 Konstantinopel had still about 100,000 inhabitants. Its role as the most important commercial centre of the Mediterranean had lost it to the Italian ports, in particular Venice. The Italians maintainedCommercial establishments in the quarter Pera (today Beyoğlu) on the northern, European side of the golden horn.
1326 began with conquest Bursas by Osman, an army leader of a small Turkish trunk, the triumphant advance of the Osmanen. In rapid consequence these conquered completely Anatolien and parts of the European mainland. Byzanz resembled soon an island in the Osmani realm. In 15. Century consisted it only more of the actual city and the surrounding villages, the number of inhabitants dropped to approximately 40,000.
Several attacks on Konstantinopel, to to 29 remained unsuccessful. May 1453 the city under Mehmet the conquerer under large losses to be taken could (see also to FE storage of Konstantinopel (1453)). The number of the dead ones is indicated as 50.000. The defenders who were subject in terms of figures farif scarcely two months withstood the FE storage, waited at the end however in vain for assistance from Venice. The survivors were deportiert with exception of the Jews and Genuesen. These could save their private property owing to their prudent attitude during the FE storage.
Many inhabitantsand intellectual ones fled to Western Europe and above all north Italy, and carried thereby many forward receive remained copies of antique documents. This common by the printing invented approximately at the same time - art fast in north Italy and solved themselves a wave of the “Wiederentdeckung” of antique models for further discussionand conceptions out. This Wiederentdeckung accelerated the multilayered process, which is called today Renaissance.
In the meantime the Muslim rulers, who made Konstantinopel the capital of their realm, coined/shaped the townscape again. Innumerable churches, the whose most important Hagia Sophia was, became overMinarette supplements and to mosques converted. Soon the refugees Greeks and Armenians were allowed to return and coined/shaped the multi-cultural picture at that time of a metropolis up to the end of the Osmani realm, tolerant in the European comparison of the time.
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after conquest called thoseTurk the city in the everyday life use İstanbul, even if the unofficial name to into the 1920er years of far Konstantinopel remained; also to today within the Greek language range Konstandinúpoli one says. The name İstanbul (in the German linguistic area in former times also Stambul) leadsfrom the Greek εἰς τὴν πόλι (ν), in the Koine too is tim boli (n) sanded themselves, off, which meant into the city. Exist a multiplicity of theories about the naming. However the legend means: At times Sultan 2.after conquest Konstantinopels fled the Christians from fear of encroachments from the city. Shortly thereafter Fatih Sultan Mehmet ordered special protection of the Christians. On the horse cars then the Slogan ice spreads ten polin, “into the city”. Withthe time became this the name of the city.
The city became residence of the Sultane and capital of the Osmani realm. It kept apart from the political great economic and cultural importance and an international Gepräge. Even the Patriarchat remained, until 1821Greeks played an important role. Under Süleyman the magnificent one (1520 - 1566) İstanbul was the capital of an enormous realm, which extended from Hungary over Belgrade to Bagdad and far to North Africa. The Osmani realm was on the high pointits power, which reflects itself in a multiplicity of palaces and mosques of the architect Sinan, largest osmanischen building masters of its time. However the fall began already at that time. Missing reforms, corrupt Wesire, the power of the Sultansfrauen as well as the bulkheading approximatelymodern tendencies caused that one despite a beautiful front in 19. Century finally of the “ill man at the Bosphorus” spoke, if one meant the Osmani realm.
Starting from that 17. Century came it to a substantial influx of Armenians from all areasthe Osmani realm. Center 19. Century already lived over 220.000 Armenians in Konstantinopel, nearly a third of the total population of the city. Formed a cultural Armenian infrastructure, which finally led to a literary-cultural as well as political departure of the westArmenian community.An important chronicler of this time is a German journalist and writer Friedrich Schrader, which lived and worked from 1891 to 1918 in Konstantinopel.
as emperors Konstantin between 324 and 330 a new center forthe Roman realm at the old Byzanz gründetete, should replace this gradually Rome as capital. In order to lend the thoughts new facts of a Roma reproduction, this had to be developed then also architecturally. There Konstantinopel was besides from the outset like a Christian coined/shaped andthe Christianity state religion became, without which in all other respects without the emperor cult one did, got Konstantinopel an appearance coined/shaped by Votiv and intending columns, forums, palaces, the Hippodrom and naturally numerous Christian churches.
Oldest erhaltenens architectural monument Konstantinopels is the constant in column. Thoseformerly scarcely 50 meters high Porphyrsäule originally bekrönte a statue of the Helios from Ilion. The head of the sun God was umkränzt of seven jets, into which one trained passion nails, while the inside of the statue saved a fragment of the cross Christi.In the year 1105 the statue was destroyed with a tempest and replaced by a cross. The column became the symbol of the city, and which reports last Byzantine chronicler that itself on the day of conquest by Sultan Mehmed II. the city dwellersearly in the morning in order it met, in order to wait for the saving angel of the gentleman.
Beside the constant in column above all the Hippodrom formed the center of the city and was focus of the public life. Here emperors and people met, here demonstrated to thatEmperors its power and are there therefore also some representative objects. Along Spina, which partition wall between the two direction courses, around which the chariot circled, Konstantin set up and its to successors of fixed images and monuments. Among them an Egyptian Obelisk ofTemple in Karnak and the bronze queue column from that 6. Jh. v. Chr.
Among emperors Thedosius became along the distance of the imperial triumph courses three forums most reaching. On the forum Tauri stood the honour column of the emperor Theodosios, production after the modelthe Trajanssäule in Rome. Further columns are the Arkadios column, Markian column as well as the Justinian column. This youngest of the columns is connected just like the constant in column on the closest with history Konstantinopels. The 543 inaugurated 35 m high column registeredRider fixed image Justinians I. in three to quadruple life size. As Mehmed II. Konstantinopel conquered, consisted one of its first acts of destroying the statue.
- Friedrich Schrader: Konstantinopel in past and present, Tübingen 1917
- Wolfgang Mueller Viennese: Picture encyclopediato the topography Istanbuls. Byzantion - Konstantinupolis - Istanbul up to the beginning 17. Century, Tübingen 1977. ISBN 3-8030-1022-5 (work of kind of condition to town development and buildings)
- John Freely; Hilary Sumner Boyd: Istanbul: a leader, 3. , durchges. Aufl., Munich 1986, ISBN 3-7913-0098-9
- Philip Mansel: Constantinople - town center OF the world's the Irish 1453-1924, London 1995. ISBN 0-14-026246-6
- Wolfgang Mueller Viennese: The ports of Byzantion - Konstantinopolis - Istanbul, Tübingen, 1997, ISBN 3-8030-1042-X
- Dogan Kuban: Istanbul - on urban history: Byzantion, Constantinopolis,Istanbul, Istanbul 1996, ISBN 975-7306-20-7
- Stéphane Yerasimos: Konstantinopel, Istanbuls historical inheritance, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8290-1896-7
- Klaus Kreiser: Istanbul: a historical-literary city leader, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47191-9
coordinates: 41° 0 ′ 33 " N, 28° 58 ′ 33 " O
|Wiktionary: Konstantinopel- Word origin, synonyms and translations|