concentration camp is a name for different forms of camps. The term is usually shortened in German with KZ and associated since the time of the national socialism with the work and extermination camps of the LV regime. From where the contraction comes, is unclear; besidesthere was at that time also the abbreviation frequently used by National Socialist functionaries KL. After Eugen Kogon (the SS-state) gave to SS-security guards „KZ " because of its harder sound the preference/advantage.
Web on the left of
the term the term, however nothing states all possible kinds of collecting, internment and labour camps over the purpose of such a camp. Sammellager for convict, prisoners of war and punishing labour camps were common already longer time, besides developed starting from that 19. Century the form of theInternment or camp for receiving refugees in the context of driving out, emigration and colonialistic conquest. The first so-called Concentration Camps let furnish the British chief of staff general Horatio harsh ore Kitchener during the Burenkrieges (1899-1902) in South Africa, over there about 120,000 farm inhabitants, above all womenand children to intern.
Since 1933-1945 one connects the term to the time of the national socialism in Germany however particularly with the purposeful national pursuit and murder of other-thinking one and otherwise socially expenditure-bordered, in particular with the pursuit of the European Jews and the Holocaust. The Nazis used it, without differentiating between the labour camps and extermination camps established during their despotism. They called garden “or “concert camp” their KZs zynisch also “, in those the Jews and Marxist the “correctFlute tones to be taught ". Thus they masked the planned and industrially accomplished mass murder at millions of humans, who differentiate their camps from all past camps. Neo-Nazi circles publicise such expressions nevertheless gladly today still.
Before this background the use of the word worksfor all kinds of Sammellagern thoughtlessly. It is to usually refer to substantial and striking violations of human rights, which connects different Lagerarten. Sometimes even after that Geneva conventions permissible prisoner-of-war camps are called falsely “concentration camps”. This knows the extermination camps of the NS time by relatingadditionally play down.
Nevertheless concentration camps are not so far outlawed. It gives to today camps, which ignore those Geneva convention or are extracted from their area of application (see below), even if these are differently called.
A concentration camp is a mechanism, in order to hold and isolate political opponents or unpopular humans from ethnical, religious or social groups. This mostly happens on indefinite time with bureaucratic, administrative acts of administration, without court decision, without the possibility of a right agency,Defense or the contradiction and the adhesion test.
In labour camps the passengers must besides hard labour perform. In extermination camps, among which many German concentration camps ranked, they are purposefully murdered or to come by prison conditions, illness, malnutrition, exhaustion, heat or cold weather beneath human dignityaround the life.
Among the procedure methods rank drastic punishments, torture and arbitrary executions. In the concentration camps of the national socialism one pursued the program of the “destruction by work” (heading: “Work makes free “). The slogan of the “education by work” became already beforeinto the Soviet, later in the Chinese and other reeducating camps applied.
An internment camp serves control of political opponents or as politically unreliably valid subpopulations. A prisoner-of-war camp has the purpose of the accommodation of caught soldiers of opposing armed forces. After that Geneva conventionhave interned and prisoners of war humanitarian minimum rights and to be allowed also not to the work to be forced. These rules are often ignored and.
There were also prisoners, who were instructed by court decision for a certain time in a labour camp or a concentration camp, thoseMajority of the prisoners was however without legal proceedings in unfreeness. Also some refugee camps differ from the concentration camps only in little things, refugees exactly the same are often interned and isolated like other unpopular one, and their bad treatment and accommodation are aimed furtherFlüchtlingstrom prevent - so for example the camps for Viet Nam refugees in Hong Kong and Macao, Flüchtingslager in Australia, on Nauru and also elsewhere today. During the Second World War even the refugee camps in Switzerland “concentration camp” were called. The meagerLife was not however under any circumstances comparable with the existence and dying in the concentration camps of the national socialism there.
Time of the national socialism in Germany
in the time of the national socialism the established concentration camps are world-wide most well-known: List of the concentration camps in the third realm.
One estimates today that approx. two thirds of the six million Jew, those thatHolocaust to the victim fell, into which camps of the third realm directly murdered or at consequences of abusing and diseases died there. The remaining third died in Ghettos, with mass shooting and on the so-called death marches. Became into thatKZ also many other humans murders: Homosexual, mentally handicappeds, so-called Asoziale… . The number of dead ones is until today unclearly, there the murderers long over all victims documents led and held to the end of the war no more murdersand many documents such as witnesses irreparably were lost. The LV regime operated at that time in the realm area and the occupied areas more than 24,000 camps, including all external bearings.
one can divide the development of the National Socialist concentration camps in four phases.
Duringthe first phase in the early years of the LV dictatorship up to the early summer 1934 one began everywhere in Germany to develop larger or smaller camps. These camps resembled however more prisons, which were there in addition, the political opponents of the LV regimesto lock up. The structure of these camps was led at the beginning of however not by only one institution, but by different, among other things by the SA, by the different National Socialist police heads and naturally of the SS („protection relay “, an elite unit of the NSDAP under Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler,for the personal protection based by Adolf Hitler was original). In this first phase of the concentration camps were approx. 26,000 humans arrests, who were exposed to the arbitrariness of their „Bewacher “. One knows this first phase of the KZs as a kind„Sees preparation “for that, what came later.
The second phase began 1936 and took about two years, thus until 1938. In this time the building was advanced by camps. The reason for it were among other things the rising prisoner numbers. It changedin addition, the composition of the prisoners. While in the first phase still mainly political opponents of the regime were arrested, in the second phase one began to arrest those which did not correspond to the National Socialist picture. That were above all „Asoziale “,Criminal and „work-shy “as well as all different „Unnormalen “. It was thus tried to exterminate humans „“, who reduced the value of the German people in the eyes of the national socialists. In addition also the Kriminalpolizei and the Gestapo became the so-called „state police “under pure hard Heydrichfolded up and in addition under the supervision of the IKL („inspection of the concentration camps “, a kind central instance, if it concerned concentration camps) new camps were built. In this second phase also the concentration camps Saxonia living and beech forest were built, those already an indication of thethreatening war and associated rising prisoner numbers were. The concentration camp Saxonia living became after its building also the center of the concentration camps (seat desIKL). After „the realm crystal night “in November 1938 one began strengthened to arrest Jews in concentration camps. This ledan overstocking and due to its it became necessary to establish further concentration camps.
For the further development of the concentration camps in the third phase, began those with the war and to in the middle of 1941 and/or. At the beginning of of 1942 persisted, contributed several factors. ThosePrisoner numbers rose rapidly and doubled themselves within shortest time. An arrest wave in Germany had preceded this rise of the prisoner numbers. In addition again the composition of the prisoners changed. Were at the beginning above all still German, thus political opponents, „Asoziale “and „Unnormale “, which were arrested, then came with beginning of the war above all humans from the areas, thus Poland, Frenchmen, Czechs, conquered by Germany, Yugoslavs, dutchmen and Belgians. Among these prisoners were many Jews and gypsy. Also into the conqueredMany new camps were established to areas; soon were locked up more prisoners in these camps than in the realm area (Germany and Austria). With beginning of the third phase the concentration camps were divided in three categories, which the hardness of the treatment and the living conditionsthe prisoners indicated. The death numbers in the third phase rose, like the prisoner numbers, enormously.
The last phase began at the beginning of of 1942 and ended 1945. It was particularly by substantial Jew pursuit and characterized by the war against Russia. In thatthe head office of the concentration camps was appropriate for last phase with the WVHA („restaurant administrative economics “the SS). The prisoners in this phase were needed particularly for the misalignment of armament makers into underground plants. Approximately 2.5 to 3 million humans were in this timein the concentration camps locked up.
Generally one can differentiate two sorts from concentration camps: The normal, after the three categories before mentioned sorted and the pure extermination camps like e.g. Treblinka. In the camps of the National Socialist regime died over 6 million humans. Thosemost were murdered in the Gaskammern, shot or killed, died due to the hard work inputs, at malnutrition and diseases, many also with criminal medical attempts, which were accomplished at them.
also the labour camps served the destruction, i.e. by work.Humans, who could carry no more work out, were murdered, as far as they did not go at the inhuman conditions at the basis. Those patients, who were not again able to work in presumably four weeks, were squirted by the medical personnel with phenol or other one to death.In the labour camps many prisoners survived only short time.
In the process of the war the labour camps attained an war-important function, which stood to the destruction goal in certain contrast. The camps were manufacturing plants of the SS, first for the production of nature and clay bricks,later within many other ranges. In addition workers were lent to (armament -) the industry. The most well-known case concerns the industrial union colors. Practically the entire large-scale industry made use from such forced laborers.
extermination camps were established for the only purpose, JewishHumans, Sinti, Roma (and also different minorities), homosexual one and other unpopular one first by gas cars to murder later particularly in Gaskammern in great quantities. The National Socialist murder apparatus concentrated thereby on Jews and the other groups mentioned, to thatIn addition, victims counted Russian prisoners of war. Camps of this type became between December 1941 and July 1942 in Chelmno in the Wartheland, Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka in the Generalgouvernement, as well as Maly Trostinez in white Russia establishes.
Somewhat differently stored are thoseKZ Auschwitz Birkenau and Majdanek fell. In both concentration camps after start-up of the first extermination camps Gaskammern were only furnished to the mass murder at Jews. Because of the tremendous victim number therefore also Auschwitz Birkenau and Majdanek are ranked among the extermination camps. Differently than the first mentionedExtermination camps were them however at the same time concentration camps in the conventional sense.
Extermination camps differ far victims Jewish of the other concentration camps by the number. In all KZs together, Birkenau and Majdanek excluded, died less Jew than in the smallest extermination camp. Auschwitz Birkenau is the world-wide most well-known of all extermination camps, yet clearly more Jewish humans guest than in became Auschwitz Birkenau in the less well-known Treblinka.
It appears scientifically not durable and ethicalally precarious to summarize the Jew extermination camps under “concentration camps” and thus last end to minimizations feed motionto carry out, because alone in Auschwitz over one million Jews were murdered.
altogether gave it to 23 KZ-base camp, which were independent and far over 1000 external bearings as “external commands” were organizational subordinated which. This base camp were in Germany the concentration camps work village, Mountain Belsen, beech forest, DAK-strike, fin-vouch, large roses, Dora central tract, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Saxonia living and Niederhagen Wewelsburg, in Austria duty living, in Poland Auschwitz I base camp, Auschwitz Monowitz, Majdanek, Warsaw, Plaszow and Stutthof, in Estonia Waiwara, in Lithuania washrooms, in Latvia Riga Kaiserwald, in France Natzweiler Struthof as well as in the Netherlands duke shrubs. The prisoners were not as workers and/or. any longer applicable, they were not killed or into the seven extermination campstransported.
This system were upstream transit camps and Sammellager. Separated quarters were called Ghettos, which there were not no more in Europe long. However in Eastern Europe it gave approx. 600 Ghettos, in which at least 4 million humans were in the meantime interned.
Among other things medical
experiments arrested became from physicians such as Josef Mengele (Auschwitz), Robert knight (KZ beech forest) on medical experiments made, at which the prisoners died usually painful. They were infected with typhus fever (), around vaccinesto test, equally it happened with infecting with TBC exciter, attaching incendiary bomb injuries () and the execution of seawater attempts on these persons. The Nürnberger physician process found of 9. December 1946 up to 20. August 1947 beforethe first American military court yard in Nuremberg instead of. Accused was among other things the department manager for tropical medicine at the institute for Robert cook in Berlin Dr. med.Gerhard rose for the typhus fever attempts at Sinti and Roma in beech forest (). Further the SS-Hauptsturmführer became Dr. med. Waldemar Hoven, camp physician KZ beech forest accused.
Source basis for the experiments in beech forest are the station diary of Dr. med. Erwin thing pupil SS - main tower leader, statements of the European medical profession, who were arrested in the KZ, as well as prisoners like the Austrian sociologist and philosopher Eugen Kogon, the SS-state reported 1946 under the title to which on the life in beech forest. The publication of the complete documentation, verbatim minutes, the accusing and defense material took place only 1999 via the Saur publishing house Munich. The analysis in addition supplied 2001 AngelikaEbbinghaus/Klaus Dörner (Hg.): Destroying and healing. The Nürnberger physician process and its consequences. The Federal Medical Society refused supporting this edition financially. Only single donations of 8000 physicians made possible it.
Kinds of death of the KZ-prisoners
the causes of death of the prisoners became in the document traffic of the LV organsfor the purpose of the secrecy frequently codes. As contractions the file references were used, under which the document procedure with the inspection of the concentration camps (IKL) (1) one worked on.
The following cipher forms were used:
- 14 f 1: “natural deaths”
- 14 f 2: “Free deathor death by accident "
- 14 f 3: “Shooting on the escape”
- 14 f I: “Exekution”
- 14 f 13: “Special treatment ill and frail prisoners” (see also: Action 14f13, special treatment)
of death marches
the Holocaust survivor Arno of merry carriedin its speech before the German Bundestag to 27. January 2005 before: “Between November 1944 and May 1945 about 700,000 prisoners, 200,000 of them Jews, became with the evacuation and liquidating of the KZs in Poland and Germany, on approximately hundredsDeath marches through completely Germany floated. It becomes estimated that over half of them died. They were burned shot, in barns, verhungert or at epidemics deceased. (...) Until today there is itself no overall display of these on of Germany roadsplaying thousandfold tragedies,… “
different camps from history
according to above definition gave it not only inNational socialism concentration camp. That in particular right-wing extremists stress and also overemphasize the existence of concentration camps in different countries at different times consciously, around the German concentration camps at times of the national socialism the uniqueness character to take and their fright must be considered thusto relate.
first were kept imprisoned 1838 by the US army the Cherokee - Indians before their obligatory resettlement in camps. This measure was arranged by president Andrew Jackson, in order to intersperse the “Indian rem oval act “. The Cherokee remindsitself this very day at the “Trail OF Tears “of their resettlement.
Also the Indian reservations for numerous indigene ( natives ) Ethnien, put on in the future by the USA, are to be regarded as concentration camps: Humans became from racistic motives under inhumanen circumstancesin areas held, which made and to it led their own getting along impossible that children, women and also men verhungerten. Escape or Gegenwehr was punished with death.
The history of the term concentration camp probably begins in the Cuban independence fight against Spain 1868- 1898, when first the Spanish general Valmaseda later arranged and to by far larger extent general Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau that those farmers, who not when insurgent ones want to be treated, in fastened camps concentrate must, in such a way specified campos de reconcentración. (see also: Guerilla)
the term “concentration camp” (concentration camps) was used thereafter by the military of Great Britain, in order to describe in the Burenkrieg (1899-1902) camps put on. Women and children of the Buren as well as African, which lived in the Burengebiet,in camps in South Africa were together-floated. Although these camps were not special extermination camps, the bad nutrition as well as bad hygenic conditions caused a high number of deaths rate. Here about 26,000 women and children died. The disclosure of conditions in South Africa through Emily Hobhouse led there to a relaxation of the situation.
Also the German colonial troops used appropriate camps in the colony at that time German southwest Africa with the genocide to the Herero and Nama. According to data of the German military administration died between October 1904 and March 1907 altogether 7,682 arrested. The number of deaths amounted to depending upon camp between 30 and 50% that altogether prisoners.
In Germany around 1920 the first as `concentration camps' designated mechanisms were established to the deportation among other things in Stargard. In these camps became forwardsall Jew from Eastern Europe, in addition, Sinti and Roma interns. They were dissolved 1923 after protests due to the inhuman conditions.
At the beginning of the Second World War the USA Concentration arranged camps for all become potentially dangerous being able citizen of Japanese, Italian or German descent in. In addition, were obligation-interned humans with other background (e.g. A witness Jehovas). Admits became in particular thoseCalifornia Camps, because most japanstämmischen families were there. A court order was not necessary for the compulsory hospitalizations.
Today the USA operate a camp on Cuba (US base Guantanamo Bay) for humans, who are suspected of the support of the terror.The designation is rejected from official side as “concentration camp”, however the bare suspicion of the active support of the terror for an arrest without legal proceedings planned compellingly after the US condition is already sufficient. Critics see thereby all substantial criteria of a concentration campas fulfills on. There are serious signs that the prison conditions for the interned ones, which are reprimanded sharply by human right organizations harm the passenger physically and psychologically substantial. Also the IKRK has after information the New York Time in November 2004 oppositethe US Government criticizes the prison conditions in unusually sharp form and spoken of torture.. Repeated medium reports point likewise into this direction. 
The international-law validity of the camp in Guantanamo, in addition, the legal standard after the US condition is extremely disputed.Some US courts called a holding of suspecting without normal court process in the meantime illegal, for example so Hens Joyce Green, judge at the District Court for the District OF Columbia in its judgement  of 31. January 2005. A finaljudicial clarifying of the legal standard after US right is however still pending.
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
since August 1918 and strengthened at present the Stalinismus the storage system existing in the Soviet Union are designated today often as „Gulag “, after the head department of theSoviet ministry of the Interior, which was considerably for the administration of the camps responsible. They served as camps both for „usual “criminal ones and for political Opponenten and were primarily labour camps.Alexander Solschenizyn has in its works „one day inLife of the Iwan Denissowitsch “and „archipelago Gulag “the prison conditions in literary form revealed. Many building projects, for example the white sea Baltic Sea channel, the city Norilsk or Moscow State University, were built by camp prisoners. „The first circle of hell “„the Scharaschka describes “, in which scientists and engineers were forced to work for the state. From 1930 to 1959 altogether about 18 million humans the storage system went through, at least 1.5 million humans in the camp died. The estimations of the victimsthe decades of the Leninistic and stalinistischen terror are however difficult, some go into several millions.
Under the rule of Lenin and Stalins it could happen that someone denunziert because of a critical expression in the family circle or because of the theft of an apple andone arrested. During the large terror (1937-38) by the state and party leadership arrest ratios were specified, which led to it that a multiplicity of innocent was arrested and condemned, many under it to camp detention. Similar methods became partly already in the construction period of the white sea Baltic Sea channelused. Such judgements were based usually upon of the secret service produced „proofs “or by confessions extorted under torture. In particular the notorious paragraph 58 of the Soviet Stafgesetzbuches, which concerned „counter-revolutionary crimes “, was very vague and indistinctly. Even „bow before the west “, that„Expressing of hopes for the end of communism “and that allegedly „intended attempt of the espionage “was punishable.
After the Second World War humans, who had really or co-operated allegedly with German war criminals or even Germans were, became in in Eastern EuropeCamps interns (for example in Czechoslovakia - were interned here also many Hungary - and Poland). The conditions for the German prisoners of war did not correspond likewise to the regulations that Geneva convention, and many humans died or survived onlywith damages.
Under the communist dictatorship Nicolae Ceauşescus in Romania „disappeared to “dissident in prisons and lunatic asylums. Ceauşescus attempt to increase and improve in the rest of „the quality of the people “the number of Romanians, e.g. led to the mechanism of „child GULAGs “. forobstructed children, as for example in Cighid.
A legal processing of the concentration camps took place also after the democratization of the countries only in few cases. For this also still existing power structures are made responsible from the time of the national suppression, ona critical argument with the past are not interested.
|Designation||of||to||Geschätze number caught humans||Geschätze number of murdered humans|
|Arbe (Rab)||July 1942||11. September, 1943||15.000||1.500|
|Chiesanuovain close proximity to Padua||June 1942|
|Gonars in close proximity to Palmanova||March 1942||8. September, 1943||7.000||453; >500|
|Monigo in close proximity to Treviso||June 1942|
|Renicci di Anghiari, in close proximity to Arezzo||Octobers 1942|
|Visco in close proximity to Palmanova||winters 1942|
Hard labour andadverse life circumstances cost numerous passengers, who were not directly executed, the life.
at present the German Okkupation Yugoslavia, during 2. World war,became of the fascist Ustascha  and Kollaborateuren concentration camp establishes. These were in: Topovske Supe, Šabac and Jasenovac in the KZ Jasenovac. In the concentration camps 66,000 Yugoslav Jews were murdered. This corresponds in approximately 83% that at that timethere resident Jewish population. Died also Nazi opponents as well as Sinti and Roma. The prisoners died not by gas, but were often killed, erhängt, living burned and by means of other cruel kinds of kindkind murdered.
Yugoslavia war 1991 - 1995
- Batkovica (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Čelebići (Bosniaki government troops)
- Dretelj (Bosnian Croatian troops)
- Hrasnica (Bosniaki government troops)
- Igman (Bosniaki government troops)
- Karakaj (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Keraterm (BosnianSerbian troops)
- Kozarac (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Luka Brčko (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Ljubuški (Bosnian Croatian troops)
- Manjača (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Mostar (Bosnian Croatian troops)
- Omarska (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Potočari (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Tarčin silo (Bosniaki government troops)
- Trnopolje (Bosnian Serbian troops)
- Visoko (Bosniaki government troops)
- Zenica (Bosniaki government troops)
during the Bosnian war were arrested several hundredthousand Bosniaken , Croats and Serbs, documents of physical and psychological force and inhumanen living conditions suspended. Several 10,000 humans were murdered. Women were raped in great quantities in some camps. Heavy abusingby chicaneries, torture, Aushungern and illusory shooting were at the agenda.
Of UN war crimes tribunal to 20 years detention condemned Serbian war criminals Dusko Tadic was one the custodian in the concentration camp Omarska.
under the dictatorship of Georgios Papadopoulos from 1967 to 1973 gave it also in Greece for regime opponent numerous concentration camps of those thosePublic and in particular the tourism no knowledge had.
Croatia independent during the Second World War established those after the model of the German Reich for its opponents, in addition, mainly for the Serbian , Jewish and anti-fascist Croatian population concentration camp,Jewish population was delivered also willingly the German murderers. In the concentration camp Jasenovac were killed between 100.000 and 700.000 Serbs , Jews , Sinti and Roma and Croat (anti-fascist). The data vary strongly and are the subject of political historiografischer controversies.
into thatto defeated countries also the Japanese Besatzer furnished numerous concentration camps, the circumstances was similarly, particularly sad the German models was the fate of the many Korean slave workers and still more many thousands of young Chinese and Korean in the Second World WarWomen, who were made available as comfort women (obligation prostitute) the Japanese front soldier. Besides medical attempts at Russian, Chinese and other prisoners, with which for example with pathogens one experimented, were accomplished. In this connection the unit 731 particularly stepsout. Official Japan referred to today no position to this war debt and also never remunerations to the victims paid.
Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland
during both world wars nearly everywhere citizens were locked up by war other parties in internment camps, in Switzerland alsoHumans, who still the fate of a nazi KZ had fled before. These camps were called completely uninhibited also concentration camps, the word had at that time still another another, rational sound. However the living conditions were in it in no case with those in GermanTo compare KZ.
in Kambodscha died under pole poet an important portion of the population. The entire population of the capital was brought in the weeks after the seizure of power of the red Khmer for the setting up a utopian agrarian communism to the farm work on the country.From a total population of seven million died 1.7 to 2 million humans at the consequences of the hard labour, connected with food scarceness and missing medical supply or were murdered - see Tuol Sleng museum, Killing Fields.
after the fascist seizure of power closedthe junta their opponents in football stadiums, in the open air they became the glowing sun, who thirst and hunger murdered suspended, in addition, tortured and. In the Colonia Dignidad created of Paul Schäfer and other fascist German Kolonisten are many humans come to the bloody Putsch of 1973 around the life or until today disappeared. After the arrest of shepherd in the year 2005 one found comprehensive weapon camps on the area.
See also: History of Chile
in the years 1936-1954, the Salazar- Dictatorship, furnished Portugal on the island Kapverden a concentration camp. To 29.10.1936 arrived the first prisoners in the camp Tarrafal. Altogether about 340 prisoners were here concentrated in the 17 years of the existence of the camp. With them actedpredominantly around sailors of the Organização Revolucionário Armada to 08.09.1936 in a revolt took part there, in addition, to “belonged republican , anti-fascist oppositionals and the entire secretariat of the communist party of Portugal PCP “to the Einge kerkerten. Inthe time of their arrest 32 prisoners, under it 1940 Mário Castelhano, died leader of the trade union CGT and director of the anarchosyndikalistischen daily paper A Batalha, as well as 1942 the PCP - Secretary-General Bento Gonçalves.
Starting from 1938 João was Silva leader there of theConcentration camp. Silva visited before the German concentration camps. The security guards consisted of 25 members of the portugisieschen secret police PVDE (starting from 1945 PIDE), as well as a battalion of over 75 Cape Verdian and Angolan auxiliary guards. The prisoners were submitted numerous torture methods. Escape attempts into the years 1937 and afterwards failed.
After the end of the national socialism the situation in the camp relaxed. Up to its locking to 26. January 1954 still two prisoners died. Also up to then most prisoners were shifted to Portugal or amnestied ().
The camp for prisoners from anti-colonial fights was used from 1961 to 1974. Prevailed KZ-similar conditions.
People's Republic of China
in the People's Republic China Laogai 劳改 (reeducating camps, wörtl. Reeducation by work) camps mentionedalso as a kind of concentration camps are regarded. They were furnished after the seizure of power of the communist party. Above all dissidents are arrested, it is however assumed there that for the fulfilment by passenger ratios also different prisoners are accommodated there.
After thatMassacres on the Tiananmen place of 1989 and the associated seizure of power of Jiang Zemin are kept imprisoned and in the People's Republic again millions of these simmering ducks in labour camps, after in 70's by Deng the Xiaopings reforms many the politicalPrisoners released were.
The camps are industrially organized manufacturing plants.Their annual production strength corresponds the one average European country such as Spain or France.
In Chinese propaganda films the labour camps will become as harmless put and proofs for abusing and torture by the Chinese government denied.
The moreover it gave before someYears of reports on orphan homes for inadvertent children handicapped suspended by their parents or. As consequence inadvertent or handicapped children, girls, are often given to the nationally ordered in child politics to homes. The living conditions in these camps are so bad that 30% to50% of the passengers within short time die.
after the First World War became in Poland into that before - until 1918 - to Germany (German Reich) belonging areas the former German prisoner-of-war camp Szczypiorno of the Polish state as internment campfor the German civilian population remained in their homeland further-used, likewise the camp Stralkowo. There inhuman Quälereien ( torture ) came like it for concentration camps is characteristic to heaviest violations of human rights and.
After 1926 further KZ was furnished, not onlyfor Germans, but also for Ukrainer and other minorities in Poland as well as for Polish oppositionals, the camps Bereza Kartuska and Brest Litowsk. Over the number arrested ones and murdered ones of the there official numbers were not communicated.
From beginning to Septembers of the yearly1939 was added further camps for Germans, among other things in Chodzen. It came in this period to an increased number of mass arrests and Pogromen at the German population, who led to the escape of ten thousands. From 1131 localities in floats and Pommerellenit came to kidnapping marches into camps.
After the invasion of the German armed forces at the 1. September 1939 came it to the Pogrom of the so-called Bromberger Blutsonntag of the 3. September 1939.
To the Second World War it came in the course of driving the Germans outCivilian population from the areas of the German Reich, which were placed at that time under Polish administration and since then to Poland to belong, to the establishment of 1255 concentration camps with a number of deaths rate from 20 to 50%, e.g. in Tost (Toszek), Lamsdorf, Potulice, Schwientochlowitz. Tost stood however not under Polish supreme command, but was a camp of the Soviet NKWD. In the camps abusing, excessive cruelties and regular murders were committed. Particularly became the cases of the commanders of camp admit Lola Potok, Czeslaw Geborski and Salomon Morel. In recent time the distribution request of the Polish state concerning Morels at Israel as its current place of residence, which was issued, was negative granted, since Israel delivers also citizens, who are accused of of the crimes against the humanity, not to other states.
With the arrested ones it concerned not around LV authors, but German resident population, which had not been able 1945 fast enough to flee. Arrest reason was not any personal complicity, but the German nationality or language. The population of whole villages - of the babyup to the Greis - in camps one kidnapped, one murdered there or one exposed deliberately to hunger death. Also the any Polish nationality, which some had, did not play a role.
Protests of the American red cross, the US senator of long ones (North Dakota), British Ambassador Bentinckand the British prime minister vienna clay/tone Churchill at the Polish government with the reminder to adhere to those Geneva convention and international law did not cause anything.
The number of at least 60.000-80.000 humans, those is occupied in these camps of the post-war period aroundLives came.
- Congressional record, senates, volume. 92, 2. August 1946 (Evacuation and Concentration Camps in Silesia)
- US national archives, Washington
- Parliamentary Debates, House OF Commons, Fifth Series, volume. 413, London
- province court Kattowitz, Poland
- public records Kattowitz, Poland
- archives of the IKRK (international committeethe red cross), Geneva
- civil missing person list of the search service German Red Cross
- UOKG (union of the victim federations of communist despotism): Documentations of the single federations
- German federal archives, Koblenz: Documentation of the driving out crimes
- German Federal Office for statistics
- Federal Ministry for refugees: Documentation of driving the Germans out from east Central Europe, Bonn 1953-1962
- Central office of the church search service: Entire elevation for clarifying the fate of the German population in the driving out areas, Munich 1965
- John bag - to Collection, bad clay/tone University
- Alfred M. DeZayas: The Anglo Americans and driving the Germans out. Ullstein, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-548-33206-4
- Heinz Esser: The hell of Lamsdorf. Documentation on a Polish extermination camp. Homeland association of the Oberschlesier, Bonn 2000, ISBN 3-8766-015-X
- Ulrich harsh ore (Hrsg.): The National Socialist concentration camps. Development and structure. Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 2002, ISBN 3-596-15516-9 (2 Bde.)
- Stephan Jegielka: The KZ-external bearing Genshagen. Structure and perception of the hard labour in a Rüstungsbetrieb 1944/45. Tectum publishing house, Marburg 2005, ISBN 3-8288-8895-X
- Eugen Kogon among other things: National Socialist Massentötungten by poisonous gas. A documentation. Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1995, ISBN 3-596243-53-X
- Eugen Kogon: The SS-state. The system of the German concentration camps. Heyne, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-453-0278-X
- Heinz Nawratil: Black book of driving out 1945-1948. Universitas publishing house, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-8004-1387-6
- Karin Orth: The system of the National Socialist concentration camps. Hamburg edition, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-930908-52-2
- John bag: Eye around eye (“to eye for to eye”). Cable publishing house, Hamburg 1995, ISBN 3-8225-0339-8
- Johannes Tuchel: The inspection of the concentration camps 1938-1945. Edition Hentrich, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-89468-158-6
Web on the left of
|Commons: National Socialist concentration camps - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- international ones Overview of Holocaust memorial places and institutions
- German-language portal about Shoah and Holocaust
- “concentration camp” with Nationalsozialismus.de
- camp labour camp concentration camp - a definition (KZ-memorial place cold churches: See “archives texts/historical”)
- to KZ-command purchase ring/Landsberg and European Holocaustgedenkstätte in free working group the citizen combination Landsberg in 20. Century ( http://www.buergervereinigung-landsberg.de )
- for the emergence and execution of the actionaction actions by the “special treatment 14 f 13”
- data base of National Socialist camps and detention places
- - pictures and info. side to the KZ beech forest
- www.deathcamps.org also with German-language contents of
- KZ cemetery in Vaihingen to the Enz