|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Korea (term clarifying).|
Korea is a peninsula in Eastern Asia, which is divided into two states since the end of the Korea war. In the north the democratic People's Republic of Korea ( North Korea) is, the southern half is those Republic of Korea (South Korea). Korea borders on the People's Republic of China and Russia and from Japan by the east sea (Japanese sea) is separated. There it nearly whole 2. Millenium up to the division through 1945 the majority of the peninsulacommon realm formed, could a homogeneous culture and society develop.
Table of contents
on Korean has the country in the north and in the south different names. In North Korea Korea is called Chosŏn, what itself upthe first Korean Kingdom of (Go-Joseon) as well as the later Joseon dynasty refer. A common thesis says the fact that Joseon in approximately „morning silence “or „country where the fresh mornings comes “meant, from where obviously also the lyric name „country of the morning freshness/silence “for Koreais due.
In South Korea it is called Hanguk („Han realm “). This term decreases/goes back to the historical States of Mahan, Jinhan and Byeonhan , those together the federation Samhan („three Han “) formed and in the period of the first until fourth century n. Chr.existed. From 1897 to the Japanese crew 1910 the country carried the designation Daehan („large Han “).
western one of languages
Marco Polo called the peninsula during its journeys in late 13. Century Cauly. This is probably based on the ChineseDesignation of the Korean Kingdom of Goryeo (Chinese Gāolì). Into European recordings 20 dips to in. Century inside the two ways of writing Corea and Korea up. In the English linguistic area the way of writing Korea finally became generally accepted, during in Roman languages the postingwith the letter C one maintained.
major item: Korean culture
In South Korea the modern townscape can lead to the erring faith that the culture itself todayno longer substantially of western countries differentiates. Actually in the last 20 years by a rapid economic recovery as one of the tiger states as well as the transition to the democracy drastic changes took place there. Nevertheless traditional ways of thinking and customs are also in South Koreadeeply in the society verwurzelt.
art and technology
First with metalarmored ships, the so-called turtle ships (Geobukseon), were developed and used in Korea.
language and writing
The Korean language is spoken world-wide of approximately 78 million humans. It is written almost exclusively with the own writing Hangeul, occasionally comes also Chinese characters (the so-called Hanja) for application. Hangeul is 1446 on behalf ofKing Sejong developed Buchstabenschrift with 40 indications. Since it is very logically developed and is well adapted to the Korean discussion, it is considered as easily easy to learn - scholars called it originally verächtlich „morning writing “, there it - contrary toChinese writing - on one morning is easy to learn.
The Transkription of Hangeul into latin the writing takes place after two systems: the McCune Reischauer - Romanisierung, which are used in an easy variation in North Korea, as well as the revised Romanisierung, since thatYear 2000 in South Korea as official transcription applies. The fact that both transcriptions are still used, can lead with foreigners to mistakes.
|history of Korea|
see also: List of the rulers of Korea
archaeological finds interpret on itthat the peninsula was settled before approximately 18,000 to 12,000 years.
Go-Joseon (2333-108 v. Chr.)
the classical legend in Korea means that the first Kingdom of (Go-Joseon) alto Joseon (old way of writing: Choseon in the comparison tonewer Choseon realm starting from 1392 and for the today's self designation of North Korea )) in the year 2333 v. Chr. by the half God Dangun Wanggeom, only Dangun or Tangun was usually shortened, based. The Chinese like one conquered 194 v.Chr. the northern partthe realm and based a dynasty, which 194 - 108 v.Chr.dauerte. Go-Joseon became 108 v. Chr. by the Chinese Han dynasty defeats. Soon again smaller states formed (among other things Buyeo, Okjeo, Gaya).
the time thatThree realms begins (approx. Christi birth -313)
in the first centuries n. Chr. itself those knew the Kingdoms of Goguryeo , Baekje and Silla finally intersperse - the so-called three realms of Korea. The Buddhismus became in this time inKorea imported.
First Goguryeo was in the north the clearly most powerful realm, it turned out however ever more in contrast to China.
the three realms fight each other (313 - 668)
313 conquered Goguryeo the Chinese colony Lolang, about onthe today's border between both Korea lies. It was thereby for the first time neighbour of Baekje and Silla and it developed conflicts with both smaller realms, which dragged on centuries long. Japan and China were in demand as allied one.
In the year 660allied itself Silla with the Chinese seaweed dynasty and defeated first Baekje and in the year 668 also Goguryeo.
large Silla (668-935)
after the victory over the other partial realms controlled Silla centuries the peninsula. The culture reached its high point, thoseCapital Gyeongju was a town with millions of inhabitants famous for their wealth. In the north of the Korean peninsula the Kingdom of Balhae developed.
the Goryeo dynasty followed the Sillaperiode and prevailed from 918 to 1392. In this time becamea correct state system developed. 1231 were conquered the peninsula by Mongols, and after 25 years also the king family surrendered. Into the following 150 years the Mongols controlled the Korean peninsula.
Joseon dynasty (1392-1910)
1392 became the KoreanGeneral Yi Seong Gye into the Empire of China sent, in order to resist the Ming dynasty. Instead it did with the Chinese together and returned themselves, in order to eliminate the Goryeo dynasty. As consequence the Joseon dynasty could be established. InYears 1394 the capital was shifted after Seoul and the Konfuzianismus was accepted as official religion. During this period the king Sejong ( supposed as a Chief of Staff of scholars, educated for this purpose) invented the Korean alphabet in the year 1443 Hangeul.
Between 1592 and 1598 Korea in the Imjin war was afflicted occasionally by the Japanese. This invasion on instruction of the Japanese upper field gentleman Hideyoshi led to devastations and destruction, how it only the Korea war brought back with itself. Admiral Yi Sunsin, Of Korea of most famous military leaders, was considerably involved to defend the country against the Japanese. It had invented the first armored warship of history, an agile Galeere, which was called because of its curved bronze-armored upper deck turtle ship (Geobukseon). These ships destroyedthe Japanese supply fleets, so that Hideyoshi had to withdraw its troops.
In 17. Century came catholic mission acres to Korea. The new faith was first not tolerated and was not by force pursued. 1886 stopped pursuit, and 1899 became in Korea the freedom of religion granted. Pjöngjang was called because of many churches and approximately 300,000 Gläubigen at this time also „ Jerusalem of the east “.
Politically Korea refused itself in 19. Century of an opening of the country outward. All borders were closed and any contactto the foreign country, with exception to the empire China, was broken off. As consequence of it Korea in the English linguistic area Hermit Kingdom („a settler kingdom “) was called. 1871 came Korea to the first military contact with the United States, in Korea well-known as the Shinmiyangyo.Starting from 1876 Japan forced upon trade agreements to the Koreans. China promoted now likewise the opening of the country (see Paul Georg von Möllendorff) and looked for the Japanese influence back urge. After the first Chinese-Japanese war (1894-1895) and the Russian-Japanese war (1904-1905) hadJapan however as dominant factor Kraft in Eastern Asia is established. This was underlined by the murder by queen min. To 25. July 1907 became Korea a protectorate of Japan, and 1910 officially annektiert.
to Korea under Japanese rule
see major items: Korea under Japanese rule
During the colonial age many rights were refused to the Koreans. This contained among other things the righton meeting and organization, free speech and an independent press. The Japanese educational system was introduced and fan like Korean history and language had to yield the appropriate Japanese counterparts.
Transportation and communication ways were developed generally speaking country. This supported the Japanese tradeand the colonial economy. It was forbidden to Koreans being active in the trade. Many farmers lost their country, after they were expropriated by the Japanese. This was above all the case if the farmers the country not of the colonial powerto register left. A fundamental problem was that the Japanese did not recognize common reason, how it was widespread in Korea.
After the death of the former king Gojong found at the 1. March 1919 country-wide demonstrations against the Japanese crew instead of. A declaration of independencein Seoul one proclaimed. It becomes estimated that two million people went on the roads. The peaceful protest was brutally suppressed by Japan. Estimated that 47,000 humans arrested, 7,500 were killed and about 16,000 were wounded.
Demonstrations approximately Japan took however no end. At the end of November to 1929 revolted the students generally speaking to country. The iron rule was again introduced in the year 1931. After the second Sino Japanese war 1937 and during the Second World War those tried colonial power, Korea as nationto extinguish. The admiration of the Japanese Shinto - shrines became mandatory. The educational system was radically overhauled, in order to become fair the changed policy. Japanese names were forced upon to the Koreans, while traditional Korean celebrations were forbidden. Newspapers were not allowed to appear any more in Korean,and Korean history was banished as subject from the universities. Hundredthousands of Koreans were shipped to Japan and had to work in Japanese mines and factories. Many men were obligation-recruited in the Japanese military, in order to fight against the Republic of China, duringmany women were forced to serve Japanese soldier to the obligation prostitution and/or sexual slavery and as comfort women so mentioned had (see also Korean minority in Japan).
During Japanese occupation a provisional government-in-exile in China existed. In addition there were extensivePartisan activities, supported particularly of from north China and Russia from operating communist Guerillatruppen.
the division of Korea
toward end of the Second World War did not succeed it to the USA and the USSR,To obtain agreement over the future of Korea. In the Kairoer conference from 1943 it had been already specified that Korea should form an independent state after the surrender of Japan. However this should only after a certain transition period (“into duecourse “) take place, since both sides of the opinion were that the country had to be rebuilt after years of the foreign rule politically and economically completely. The Soviets accepted finally the suggestion of the Americans, Korea provisionally along 38. Degree of latitude in twoTo divide zones of occupation. The northern zone should be placed thereby under Soviet administration, which southern are subordinated to the Americans. Japanese crew power in Korea 9 finally capitulated to. September 1945, in the north in relation to the Red Army, in the south oppositethe American troops.
The southern zone was placed completely under the administration of the American military, whose commander in chief was a general Douglas MacArthur. The former Korean government-in-exile was not recognized by the Americans because of alleged communist infiltration.
The USSR began after theirInvasion into the north of Korea to transform their zone after communist conceptions. In the course of a Landreform the Japanese great land owners one expropriated, one put under state control important branches of industry.
After the negotiations between the two superpowers got lost over a united Korea until 1947 without result,the USA brought the Korea question before the United Nations. This was rated of the Soviet side as offence against the agreement that the Korea question was to be solved from a American-Soviet commission. The USSR did not take part from now on in conferencesthe United Nations to this topic.
To 14. The USA a UN-resolution, the free elections, the departure of all foreign troops and the creation of a UN-commission for Korea reached November 1947 planned. The USSR boycotted the tuning and saw the resolutiontherefore as not binding on.
To 10. May 1948 free elections took place in the south, which Syngman Rhee won. However the elections were boycotted by the left parties. To 13. August 1948 took over Syngman Rhee officially the Regierungsgeschäfte of thatAmerican military government. The Soviet controlled north answered this with the establishment of the democratic People's Republic of Korea to 9. September 1948, whose first president became Kim IL-sung. Both governments regarded as a legal government Korea over completely and quit in addition on,to want to intersperse this requirement also militarily.
This led in June 1950 to the Korea war, which fixed to today continuous division Korea.
- F.H. King: 4000 years agriculture in China, Korea and Japan. Munich 1984. To ISBN 3922201059
- Inge-borrow Göthel: The fall old Korea. Wiesbaden 1996. ISBN 3-447-03808-X
- Martina Deuchler: Confucian Gentlemen and Barbarian Envoys. Seattle and London, 1977
- Jürgen of small: Korea. Views over a lying country. Frankfurt 1980
- Joachim Schüring: “Divided history”. In adventure archaeology 4/2005, S. 70-77. Spektrum der Wissenschaft Verl. - Total one, Heidelberg. ISSN 16129954
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http://www.lvk-info.org/nr17/lvk-17oppert.htm “Ernst Jacob Oppert: A German buyer on raid in old Korea " ' http://www.lvk-info.org/nr17/lvk-17moelli.htm “Paul Georg von Möllendorff: Minister at the Korean king yard " ' http://www.lvk-info.org/nr17/lvk-17eckert.htm “Franz hitting a corner ore: Royally Prussian director of music at the Korean emperor yard "
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