Korea under Japanese rule
|Korea under Japanese rule|
|Romanisierung revised:||Ilje Sidae|
|McCune Reischauer:||Ilche Sidae|
|history of Korea|
at the beginning 20. Century turned out Korea under the rule of Japan. 1905 are annektiert Korea Japanese protectorate and 1910 completely by Japan. The Annextion ended only with the surrender of Japan to 15. August 1945. Thus Korea attained however not the hoped for liberty, but turned out between in the arising cold war between the interests of the United States and the Soviet Union as well as later the People's Republic of China. This led two verfeindeter States of (north and South Korea ) to the establishment and to the Korea war.
In Korea this phase becomes today as Ilje Sidae (일제시대, kor. Japanese Kaiser era) or Ilje Gangjeomgi (일제강점기, kor. forced crew time by the Japanese empire) designates.
Table of contents
already after the obligatory opening of the Japanese ports by US ships and using of first steps of the Meiji reforms gave it in Japan to efforts, itself the Choson - to make realm (Korea) subject: one wanted to create a “realm like the European countries” and colonies to have, in order to become of equal standing and not even become dependent (Inoue Kaoru). Besides a certain inferiority feeling existed opposite the culturally countries Korea and China fertilizing in the past always superior and, to which one wanted to teach now the modern trend taken over by Europe.
There it was obvious, to a historical attempt of the conquest of Korea in the Imjin war at the end 16. To tie century and to throw begierliche of views of the weak and partitioned country beyond the Japanese sea, which offered strategically an ideal starting point for a further expansion to China and Russia.
opening of the Korean ports
one decided in the long run for a slower procedure: 1875 forced Japan by delegation of warships the contract of Gangwha: „the a settling kingdom “ Korea was opened for the Japanese economy and diplomatic relations between both states was taken up. The imported goods of goods and technologies, growing rapidly after trade agreements also with China and western powers, opened in particular Russia and also Germany to new influence in Korea. They particularly loaded the agrarian population, then it came 1894 to rebellions of the socialrevolutionary sparkling wines Donghak, against which Chinese assistance was called.
economic consequences to the opening
the Chinese intervention against the insurgent ones gave after the contract of Tianjin Japan the pretext to intervene for his part; however the involved ones recognized the Japanese motives and the Korean contractors closed an armistice, while the Chinese troops evaded to the Japanese. In the long run the intervention troops without pretext and declaration of war seized the Chinese fleet on the beginning of the first Chinese-Japanese war, in which China from Korea was displaced and occupied with the Liaodong peninsula Chinese area.
the consequences of the first Chinese-Japanese war
after the destroying and humiliating defeat of China in the first Chinese-Japanese war were switched off that the Chinese emperor so far as Tributstaat connected Korea by the contract of Shimonoseki 1895 „independently “and the Chinese influence. Under Japanese hegemony one accomplished western reforms like the abolishment of the konfuzianischen state examinations for officials and the introduction of the German civil law already carried out in Japan. 1894 occupied Japanese forces the king palace in Seoul, the Gyeongbokgung, after the murder of the anti-Japanese queen min fled king Gojong and the Crown Prince Sunjong into the Russian message, which they could leave only after two years with support of a people movement for the re-establishment of the Korean sovereignty again. 1897 were proclaimed the Empire of “Daehan “.
Russian-Japanese war and Japanese protectorate
as a result of the Russian-Japanese war, while its Japan could operate the Korean capital Seoul occupied and with army and fleet of Korean bases from in particular against Manchuria, China left Manchuria according to that the contract of Portsmouth, closed under switching of the US president Theodore Roosevelt, where Japan with the Kwantung territory established its first colony; Russia accepted Korea as Japanese sphere of interest. In the consequence became to 17. November 1905 in Tokyo the signature of the Korean delegation to a contract forced by force by robbery of the seal of the Korean minister of foreign affairs. The present Treaty made Korea a Japanese protectorate: the Korean ruling family was integrated into the Japanese emperor family with „mutual right of succession “including marriage of the later Crown Prince Yi Eun with the Japanese princess Bangja, behind the Korean government stood the Japanese administration of the general resident Terauchi Masatake. This took over the external agency of Korea, the internal administration and the military. The complaint of the king Gojong before the international conference of peace into the Hague was rejected in June 1907 with the reason, it possesses no rights as a sovereign of a State of, the king by the general resident Ito Hirobumi to the resignation was forced.
Under the protectorate administration took over Japanese officials Verwaltung and Gerichte and introduce Japanese administrative rules, police and execution of sentences also were japanisiert, that Korean army dissolved and disarmed. In June 1910 the Japanese military police received a commander in chief, who received also the supervision over the civilian police. Resistance also by force against the Japanese rule is formed outgoing in particular nevertheless, from the konfuzianischen schools and groups of young people. An armyarmy army from although badly armed resistance fighters, which entangles the Japanese crew army in fighting beside notices on railways and Telegrafenstationen also, forms, but in the long run after Gando north the Yalu (1908 lived disputed area beside 21.000 Chinese of 83,000 Koreans in this between China and Korea) evades and until 1915 resistance carries out there.
Annexion Korea as Japanese province
to 22. August 1910 forced the Japanese government the resignation of the king Sunjong, after prince Ito Hirobumi to 26. October 1909 on a journey in Manchuria in Harbin murdered by the Korean at Junggeun was. The new governor general was installed also in formal regard as highest commanders, Korea as Japanese province under the name Joseon was completely annektiert in this way . Beside a large quantity at military police a whole division of the Japanese army was stationed in Korea, 1915 were strengthened now the military operational readiness level around a further division.
beginning of the crew
Japan removed Korea as bridgehead on the asiatic mainland purposefully and exploited the country: The south of the peninsula was suitable for the power production little, so that the structure of industry concentrated on the north and was promoted in the climatically favoured south the agriculture. For the development of the whole country railway lines were established. In this time the developed infrastructure played an important role for the economic development in particular North Korea after 1945, as far as it not while the Korea war was destroyed.
The regional imbalance of the economic structure led to a south north migration within Korea on the one hand as well as on the other hand to the emigration of many Koreans to China, Hawaii and Japan.
To the death of the next to last king Gojong in January 1919 it comes country-wide to anti-Japanese unrests, those in the explanation of independence by the movement of the 1. Culminate to March. These are struck down bloodily, it give to deplore 7,909 dead ones and uncounted hurt ones. By international protests crew power sees itself forced to concessions: thus in August with admiral Saito Makoto a new governor general is appointed, its second colleague is civilian. Saito expresses itself for the protection of Korean culture and customs and the welfare and wants to serve the luck of the Koreans. Temporarily again the Korean language as instruction language certified and some Koreans is taken part in the administration of the new governor general. On the other hand (Japanese) the police solid around 10.000 men and the operational readiness level are developed by Japanese altogether of 346.000 (1920) on 424.700 (1925); 1906 was only 39,000 Japanese in Korea, also 1910 was quite small the number with 171.543, rose then however constantly: 1930 on 527.016 and 1935 on 619.000.
To 10.4.1919 in Shanghai under co-operation by Syngman Rhee and Kim Gu a Korean government-in-exile one creates. Only II. International one seized with a resolution of the conference in Luzern of 2. - 9. August 1919 a party for the überfallene Korean people and requested the Völkerbund to take up Korea as a member. At the 11. December 1941 explained this government-in-exile Japan the war and fought with its Korean restoration army from China with the allied ones against the Japanese army.
society and culture
since beginning of the colonial age 1910 were refused to the Koreans fundamental rights. This contained among other things the right to meeting and organization, free speech and an independent press: all Korean newspapers and magazines had to adjust 1910 their appearance, it remaining beside one a Korean sprachigen English and a few Japanese newspapers, which were published by crew power.
The Japanese rule made a Aufweichen before comparatively rigid social structures, in particular a change of sex roles possible. Starting from 1886, thus still under the Yi-dynasty, - partly on operation of foreign Christian mission acres - Mädchenschulen developed, in which pupils enjoyed western education. For this the society Chanyanghoe was formed 1898 (讚揚會). Starting from 1910 the today's Ewha Womans University of college courses come out from a Mädchenschule offered. Women gained own coming in and could over education and occupation more easily socially ascend than under the Yi-dynasty. The newspaper Maeilsinbo published in its expenditure of 21. July 1931 a statistics, according to which in the capital prefecture 9,779 male 3,337 female faced industrial worker inside, which were numerous under the recent classes particularly. Into the 1920ern first organizations of employed person women were created, who partly move inlet found.
The Japanisierung was advanced meanwhile with all power: forbidden in the cultural range at the beginning of the crew the traditional konfuzianische education will become, hundreds of private schools closed, forbidden Korean school books and introduced the Japanese educational system; the Japanese language becomes exclusive instruction and office language also in newspapers, even the domestic and private use of the Japanese by monitoring secured. The Korean Tracht, which Hanbok, forbidden, starting from 1940 Korean names are japanisiert obligatorily and the state Shintoismus than religion inserted , sacrificing in the temples for this established become obligation already before; the ancestor cult common in Korea is to be displaced thereby, the campaign had besides clearly anti-Christian intentions (particularly many Korean Christians differently than their Japanese faith comrades against each ancestor cult turned). Besides the Chinese calendar became by in Japan since center the 19. Century replaces usual Gregorian calendar.
Only after the rising of the people of the movement of the 1. One facilitated the situation within the press range, so that in the course of the twenties the number of the Korean newspapers rose to five, for March among them the 1920 in Seoul justified daily papers Dong A Ilbo (Dongailbo, The Eastern DAILY one) and Chosunilbo (Joseonilbo, The Korean DAILY one), which stood naturally under Japanese censorship. In the first half of the 1920er the first woman magazine comes named Yeojagye on the market, into the 1930ern follows modern woman magazines to Japanese models, z. B. Yeoseong of the publisher of the Chosunilbo.
In the king palace Gyeongbokgung is placed on the axle center 1926 a palace for the governor general completely, not only the view axle between palace and city destroyed, but also the geomantisch important energy flow of the northern mountains Bukhan into the capital interrupted. South Korea tore the building used after release as parliament and national museum to 15. August 1995 with a people celebration off, exactly fifty years after end of the crew. In the area of the king palace Changgyeongung by the Japanese crew a zoo was furnished.
The Geomantie spread in Korea, which of China taken over faith in Feng Shui - the Japanese crew took advantage of force fields, by ramming iron staffs at neuralgic points, in particular on mountains, into the soil, in order to weaken so the strength of the Korean people. Iron staffs are this very day looked for and removed again and again.
It gives nevertheless again and again resistances, in particular against encroachments from crew side: as to 30. Octobers of 1929 young Japanese in Gwangju to Korean pupils near-make themselves, come it to a hand mixture with Koreans; when the Koreans are condemned, who go out Japanese however exempt from punishment, it comes to unrests at the schools; by the 54,000 pupils taken part 1,642 will become arrested, 2,330 provisionally the school referred, 582 must finally the schools leave. This shows twenty years after beginning of the crew the miss of the Japanese efforts to win Korea “forceless” for itself.
Strengthened since beginning of the second Sino Japanese war 1937 and during the following Second World War the Japanese colonial power under the governor general min revision modification tried to extinguish Korea as independent nation. Starting from 1940 Japanese names were forced upon to the Koreans.
since the opening of Korea for the Japanese trade by the contracts of 1876 was the foreign trade of Korea in stranger, since 1905 in excluding Japanese hand. Forbidden after 1910 the trade in principle suspect for Konfuzianer also within Korea for Korean and only Japanese were certified. All trade until 1945 is thus in Japanese hand. This shows up in it that after 1911 110 enterprises in trade and industry were active, of it 101 in Japanese possession, in addition came 19 Japanese enterprises with addresses into Korea. The crushing Japanese predominance strengthened by locking of two larger and successful Korean enterprises, „the Korean country and maritime Transportation company “and „Korea Hide company “as well as by the nationalization - speak Japanisierung - the Ginseng - production and the mines.
Japan used Korea as seen first as military marching-up area for the Chinese-Japanese war and the Russian-Japanese war around the turn of the century. After consolidation of the balances of power the economic exploitation of the country stepped into the foreground; Only the northern region to considerable extent has to offer Bodenschätze. A goal of the modernization of Japan was an industrialization to also overcome in order the agricultural structure of the country with 80% of rural population. In order to compensate these planned losses, one needed Korea as “grain chamber”.
Already since beginning of the Okkupation Japanese crew power had tried to sell the Kleinbauern starting from 1912 in particular. By “new measurement” and “soil inspection” of the agriculturally usable soil actually an extensive expropriation finds to Estate corporation material in favor of first „the Eastern “. To this in the first years after the Annexion created society fell all country with uncertain ownership structures and more far-reaching to Japanese immigrants and some Korean Kollaborateure. Like that already 1916 are 36.8%, 1920 39.8% and finally 1932 52.7% of the Korean plough land in Japanese hand. The quantity of rice, available in Korea, sinks between 1912 and 1918 from 78 sho to 60 sho (about 1.8 l) for each person.
In the consequence the Korean agriculture was aligned in the thirties increasingly on the cultivation of rice, while the traditional rural agriculture with vegetable was displaced such as Kohl, Rettich, Knoblauch and Frühlingszwiebeln, little aminal husbandry (to the self-sufficiency and as lease deliveries) and - so far in the warmer south possible - Seidenzucht. 1919 (Korea had about 17 millions inhabitants) were already exported 1/6 of Korean rice production (64.7 millions rice bundles) to Japan, before Japanese plan defaults introduced the change. The rice cultivated areas were expanded of 3,68 millions acre (1919) on 4,29 millions acres, while the entire agricultural cultivated area did not even grow by the same surface of 10,8 on somewhat more than 11 million acre, which rose Korean population however from 17 to scarcely 23 million persons. After these plans Korea should supply the Japanese islands with the rice, which could not be cultivated there because of increasing industrialization.
Also without those of production target would have been reached for the increase of the rice yield around scarcely 75% also only ansatzweise, the export was increased according to plan to Japan. Thus around 1933 more than half of the Korean harvest to Japan one exhausted.
The rice mono cultures led besides to one-sided economic dependence of the farmers, who came with harvest failures or only diminished returns into existence emergency, particularly since to the lease deliveries costs of fertilizers and transport stepped. This led 1939 claimant alone 340,000 households to many tasks of yard, after task of their yards „Nomadenwirtschaft “with Brandrodung in remote mountain areas. Thus (and by expropriations) again much farmer country arrived into Japanese hands.
Also the Korean fishery was taken over by Japanese (small) enterprises, which fished annually to 90,000 in Korean waters; 30.000 of them became established in Korea. Something similar applies to Korean forestry.
industry and mining industry
was original the Japanese crew at Korea under military aspects as marching-up area against China - there in particular Manchuria - and Russia and under economic criteria as paragraph region interested in manufactured products, moved the industrielle exploitation only in the twenties into the foreground: low wages and long work times promised investors within the range of the energy industry (water power) and the chemical industry (for fertilizers and above all ammunition) high net yields. According to the military need the chemical industry quadrupled its production since 1925, besides became particularly in the north of Korea steel, coal, tungsten and lead won. The industrielle staff worker (1945) rose from 50.000 workers (1911) to 1,5 millions, who obligation-obligates most of it.
By transport -, power supply - and communications network works the Japanese trade Korea was opened. These could be used, as far as does not destroy, after 1945 for Korean purposes. This changes however nothing in the motive, from which they were created: the development of a colonial empire in the classically European sense.
hard labour, obligation recruiting and obligation prostitution
crew power recruited 22 since that. February of 1938 Korean men to the Japanese military, in particular for the infantry. At first one was here reserved - similarly as in Nazi Germany for race-ideological reasons - very and took up only very few „the Freiwilligen “, so for instance 1938/39 only 1,280 of 15.294 candidates. This changed however after the expenditure tire of the military arguments, more substantially remains however the hard labour.
Starting from 1938 hundredthousands of young people both kinds of sex were organized obligatorily in the national work service, which covered about 750,000 units, and had - similarly the forced laborers out completely Europe in Germany - in mines and factories of Japan the Japanese men needed for the military service to replace. There they were forced in their small spare time to visit seeming ton shrines and pray there for the success of the sanctified mission of Japan in Asia and for the victory over China. On the day of the surrender lived approx. 2,3 millions Koreans in Japan, far more than 30% of the victims of the atom bomb releases on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are Korean forced laborers: victim radioactively contaminated 40.000 of 140.000 dead ones and 30,000.
The population remained in Korea was organized at the same time in neighbourhood troops, which covered in each case 10 households and took over for crew power a driving of the taxes and other deliveries. While so in Korea the cultivated rice was driven as Naturalabgabe, these neighbourhood troops distributed barley and other inferior food for nutrition to the population. Also also regular meetings serve the exploitation as around 1937 „the patriotic day brought into being “and „the day in the service of the ascent of Asia “, which is united 1939: the first day each monthly was dedicated to the common Fronarbeit of the Korean population for its Besatzer and their war.
Particularly starting from 1940 and strengthened starting from October 1943 the crew regime is intensified again: Thousands are condemned and are not arrested as „thought criminals “, „not desired persons “and „rebels “.
In the course of this work mobilization hundredthousands were kidnapped from experienced workers to the hard labour in Korean and Japanese industrial centres and forced later also to the examination; about 50,000 Koreans were of it concerned - despite substantial doubts against their reliability and only after extensive examination of scarcely 350,000 persons -. The Japanese pressure is particularly strong on (1943) the 6,500 Korean students (exception only: Medicine and technical fan) in Japan, by which 5,000 is drawn into the Japanese army; many fled and hid themselves in Korea or Manchuria, most ended before the military court. Some the “Freiwilligen” underwent to training and service in the Japanese army in hope to be able to serve as trained and experienced soldiers “a future free Korea.
From Korea - as from other Japanese controlled areas - many thousand young girls and women were kidnapped to the fronts and raped there in soldier brothels for many years by the dozen; these war victims were called euphemistisch comfort women. They lived after end of war and crew frequently in Japan as in their Korean homeland as Verfemte and hidden one. Only demonstrations in the 90's and the establishment of the private Japanese Asia Women' s find after confessions of former Japanese officers made their fate for a broader public public. Since the Japanese government to today an apology does not only refuse, but also government archives, is not dependent one does not open with the evaluation of the numbers on estimations, which (altogether for completely Asia) are enough from 50.000 to 300,000, from which a large part from Korea to originate is.
Japan gave itself the appearance, Korea a accordingly equal component of the Japanese empire was more integral after a state union since 1910 and. Only one Korean belonged to the Japanese upper house nevertheless (1944), in the same year on became only one Korean member of the Lower House. Altogether 54 Koreans belonged to the administration of the governor general in Korea.
Korean political and military resistance
after the collapse of the armyarmy army 1915 in Manchuria formed starting from 1920 under co-operation „of the Korean provisional government “ (Daehan min guk Imsi Jeongbu) (KPR), which was already created 1919 in Shanghai, there a proper army, which fights on the one hand against Japanese occupation in the area of the eastern region of Soviet Russia and is taken up after driving out the Japanese obligatorily to the Red Army, on the other hand more successfully in Manchuria against the Guandong army fought, thus in the four-day battle with Cheongsan ri in October 1920.
The conquest of north China in and after the second Chinese-Russian war cuts the supply off for the Korean armyarmy army. Only the possibility for assassination attempts from the underground remains, in particular by by the president of the KPR (since 1927) Kim Gu 1930 in the life called 시설당 (Korean patriotic Legion):
- unsuccessful shell assassination attempt to 8.1.1932 on the Japanese emperor Hirohito in Tokyo by Lee Bong Chang
- bomb attack to 28.4.1932 in Shanghai by Yoon Bong Gil on the military guidance of the invasion troops in China, that among other things the commanders in chief of the fleet and the army to the victim fall
after 1933 permit Chiang dock shek Korean cadets to the Chinese military academy, for the first time become so since 1905 again the regular training of Korean officers possible. Only after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, on which the KPR at Japan and Germany the war explains 9.12.1941, succeeds to provide it under Kim Gu, from the Chinese exile internationally hearing with the “euro American Liaison Committee” in Washington, it sends observers to the conference of Cairo 1943, on suggestion of Chiang dock shek a call for independence and Selbstständigkeit of Korea one decides there. In the consequence also in co-operation with the American OSS special-purpose forces in the Pacific region eye-built with the goal of an employment also with back conquest and release of Korea.
After 1943 succeeds the education of regular Korean units, which fight on sides of the allied ones at the Chinese front and in the Pacific war; besides Korean emigrants and your armies of the allied one, so also the communist groups individual from the Japanese army as individuals and groups belong to that around Kim IL-sung, as a captain battalion commander with II. eastern army of the Red Army was.
end of the crew
to 8. August 1945 explained the Soviet Union Japan the war. The Red Army ran over Manchuria with more than one million soldier, then however still came before Korea to a halt, because their fuel was not enough. Also the Korean release army achieves not Korean area from China from, as Japan to 15. August 1945 capitulates.
Japan capitulated to 15. August 1945 after the atom bomb releases on Hiroschima and Nagasaki; at the same time the Red Army in arrangement occupied the north of Korea with the USA and there still furnished in the same month a Soviet civil administration, whereas the Americans under general John R. Hodge only to 8. Septembers in Incheon landed and the south occupied. After a suggestion Dean Rusks had itself all still in Korea Japanese military member remained north 38. , South of degree of latitude of the Red Army the same the US army result in. Both crew powers leaned a Korean autonomy off the Americans in clear contradiction for the resolution of the conference of Cairo.
While the occupied Japan and the north of Korea civil administrations were subordinated, the USA in their Korean zone of occupation establish a military administration. Abe, to 9. September had tried to kill itself however the Americans had then arisen, became only to 12. September 1945 from its post as a governor general dismisses; many Japanese officials remained meanwhile under the American military administration until 1946 in the office.
from the crew to the division of Korea
the Japanese administration under
the governor general of Korea Abe Nobuyuki the delivery at longer term of the not durable rule at Koreans prepared beginnings to a Korean autonomy since at the beginning of of August 1945, in order to prevent and for its people possible an arranged retreat make a power vacuum. To 8. August explains itself the Korean Yeo Un-hyeong ready to introduce the reconstruction of a Korean autonomy and educate a government. The Korean units on the Chinese theater do not succeed in to achieve and releasing with their offensive against the back-yielding Japanese Korean territory.
This Korean republican government (KVR) with Yeo Un-Hyeong as a vice-Prime Minister existed in the south however only between the Japanese collapse in August and using the US military government in September. The US administration forbade the KVR and its structures.
On the other hand it in addition, the KPR returning from the exile ( Daehan min guk Imsi Jeongbu) with its president Kim Gu did not recognize than Korean agency, their delegation white the US commander in chief Hodge after its arrival back. Up to the establishment both Korea continuing KPR and Kim of the Gu play a substantial role, nevertheless Hodge, play it and the Rhee Shyngman returning from the US exile against each other out.
Korean autonomy versus UN-mandate
for the refusal independent Korea exists under the allied powers agreement: the conference of minister of foreign affairs of 14. - four to five-year trusteeship and a provisional government under US support decides 23.12.1945 in Moscow.
The US administration wants those the communist infiltration suspects members of the KVR like also nationalistic circles from each power to keep away. The union of the two contractors Rhe and Kim of 14.2.1945 is to hold accordingly „the communists “around Yeo Un-Hyeon from the establishment of a comprehensive national alliance, which fails however: the agreement of the non-partisan KPR breaks, their left wing follows the new link alliance. Besides Kim is not available for offices in a not independent or divided Korea.
Background is a dramatic change of the world situation: in all other respects meager successes of the Muscovites conference, the disputes around the Persian Aserbeidschan, the disputes around China and Korea caused the US president Harry Truman to his famous note, which ended to I' m
with the sentence „tired OF babying the Sovjets “
and those the beginning „of the Containment “- politics represent, thus the beginning of the “cold war”.
therefore the influence of the Korean contractors on the future fate of Korea is not limited for Korea, victims of outside conditions, although the disputes accompanying murder and homicide at (altogether) 4 chairmen of the party within four years stability and cross-party orientation of the policy is occupied. This Zwist must be attributed in addition, to the policy of the US administration, the lighter the Rhee favored and the establishment of two states, of it at least one under US influence, which can be steered, wanted. Parallel ones to the following development of Germany are over clear.
The alliance between Rhee and Kim breaks by the question of the trusteeship and the establishment of a South Korean partial state operated by the US administration. The attempt of Kim Gu to stop by internal-Korean conferences at 25.2.1947 and 20.4.1948 with groups from the north under Kim the IL Sung the development for the division of Korea ends without result. After elections under UN-supervision in the US zone of occupation, in which the left groupings do not take part, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) is created, which in the follow-up of the provisional government of the Republic of Korea (KPR) sees itself, while the KDVR (North Korea) followed from structures of the Korean republican government (KVR), those the Soviet administration in their part of Korea had not forbidden, but had not affected and had steered.
1965 South Korea under
park Chung hee in a contract its relations with Japan normalized Korea and Japan, whereby the South Korean leadership left the “comfort women blank” with the Reparationsfragen against Japan. The Japanese governments of the future regarded and to see all requirements of South Korea against its country as with the present Treaty paid off.
The inheritance of the crew time loads further the relationship of the two Korean States of - like also the remaining East Asian countries - to Japan, particularly since neither an official apology took place with the survivors “comfort women” or its national remuneration still another remuneration of the forced laborers in the eye is calm. Also so far the attempt of Japan is missing to consider the own position at the crew time: neither ready mixed school book commissions flickering disputes around revisionistic contents of school books an end repeats is still omitted the entire region provoking attendance of high national functionaries in the Yasukuni shrine, in which also the main war criminal condemned by the international Court of Justice is thought.
Besides becomes the obligation-obligated Korean soldiers of the Japanese army as well as this mainguilty among other things the Annexion Korea as Japanese heroes in the Yasukuni shrine meant, without appreciating it as victims of this politics. Complaints of members on distance of the names of the concerning remained so far unsuccessful also before Japanese courts.
The gene over the common adjustment of the football WM withdraws 2002 as connecting element: both crews came also owing to the support of their fans unexpectedly far, but hardly believe in Korea someone that with a victory of the Korean team in the semi-final over Germany Japanese spectators would have supported their asiatic neighbours in the final.
- left Mirok, „the Yalu flows: a youth in Korea “, pc. Ottilien, ISBN 3-88096-299-5
- Kim Hiyoul, Korean history, introduction to the Korean history from the prehistory to the modern trend, Asgard 2004, ISBN 3537828402
- Andrew C took, „A History OF the Korean People - tradition and transformation “, Seoul/new jersey 1988, ISBN 1565910702
- Han Woo Keun, „The History OF Korea “, Seoul 1970, ISBN 0-8248-0334-5
Web on the left of
- http://www.lvk-info.org/nr17/lvk-17moelli.htm Hans Alexander Kneider, Paul Georg von Möllendorff: Minister at the Korean king yard
- http://www.isop.ucla.edu/eas/documents/kore1910.htm English translation of the contract over the Annexion Korea by Japan
- http://www.japanlink.de/druck/gp_geschichte_milita_druck.html Mark of Verfürth, Japanese militarism
- http://korea.assembly.go.kr/history_html/history_10/col_14.jsp various English articles to Korean history on the homepage of the Korean national assembly
- http://www.kimsoft.com/2000/kimgu.htm English-language biography of Kim Gu, writes German-language biography of ancestor
- Chung Gun from cause of the premiere of the opera of the same name from the Lee Wha rank http://www.koreaheute.de/spez/0801/sp002.htm to 28.9.2001 in Berlin