Correspondent

a correspondent (v. frz.: correspondre; urspr. lat.: cor respondere, correspond, in connection stand) are firmly employed or as a suitor coworker, for printed media, sound broadcasting, television, press agencies or on-line editorships outside of an editorship durable a journalist , to that or orfor a certain period over a country, a region or over special events reports. There are correspondents in in and abroad, whereby those have employees firmly generally their own office and coworker.

Table of contents

correspondent inland

correspondents inland work either in the federation or in a state capital, otherwise it actsaround special correspondents (see below). The emphasis of their task is the political reporting, whereby it does not only concern the switching from messages, but particularly around background reports and comments. They pursue the debates in the parliament, visit press conferences and “press circles” and take at officialDates part.

The large supraregional printed media as well as television stations with own newscasts have own correspondents in the Federal Capital. In the state capitals only the regional media are represented constantly. In addition there is a large number of free journalists.

to get problems and

criticism around background informations,must the Inlandskorrespondenten the contact to politicians and government officials maintain. Heads of the government and Ministers invite generally regularly to informal press conferences, whereby they determine, who on the “guest list” come. This proximity to the persons, on whom it report, can for the loss of the journalistic objectivity andIndependence lead. So correspondents can become conscious or unconscious the language pipe of the government or a party. During critical reporting they must besides count no more to background discussions to be invited.

Over this problem the mirror has - correspondent Jürgen line man 1995 (at that time still over Bonn) critically and critically written:“With this hehren conception I went to Bonn: One would have to be foreign correspondent in the own country. Distance hold. As a lawyer of the citizens look the powerful one on the fingers. (...) At the beginning it went also still, says my friends outsidein the country. (...) However already soon I would have sounded, as if Bonn was my crew. (...) The official arena for this short circuit political communication is the federal press conference. That is the stage, which created about 800 German journalists accredited in Bonn, over three times the week politicianto be able to invite to ritualisierter questioning. (...) Halfofficially the intimate dialogue in scarcely hundred “circles” and “circles”, in which politicians on invitation chat, consolidates itself without something to have said to want.” (Jürgen line man: Ritchie and Rita and I, in: Mirror special, the journalists, 1995)

Hans Ulrich Jörges, deputy editor-in-chief star and director/conductor of the capital office, speaks of “Kumpanei” between politicians and journalists. It attaches importance to the statement that it a politician duze and also to no background circle do not belong. In one taz - articles remembers it that at the beginning of the 1980er years“rising politicians with rising journalists” would have together-sat in a Bonn tavern and “the choice victory 1998 then as common ascent to power” would have experienced. (Source: Jens king: Large Populisten & small elite, taz of 2. One speaks April

2004) [

work on

] foreign correspondent of foreign correspondents, ifa domestic coworker from the foreign country for its country or a region reports. They control ideal-prove the language of the host country and bring along fundamental previous knowledge over the political situation and culture. These correspondents cover the entire topic spectrum off from politics to culture, whereby them forthe domestic public the role of the explaining interpreter play. The purely information reporting will leave usually to the agencies, in demand is above all background reports and comments as well as reports. Since the contributions often contain valuations to assist in the understanding of events, Korrespondentenberichte in the printed media become in particularmarked.

The largest network of Auslandsstudios maintains the pool of broadcasting corporations in Germany. Supraregional newspapers and larger television stations have own foreign correspondents in for important countries and regions held, while smaller publishing houses take part frequently in “Korrespondenten pools”, whereby a correspondent supplies all newspapers of a pool. In addition givesit a great many free correspondents, which offer their articles and accept orders. The firm correspondents are responsible frequently not only for a country, but for a whole region or even a continent. Thus there are foreign offices for Eastern Europe, the Middle East or Latin America. In theseCases are dependent the correspondents on reliable native coworkers and informants. They investigate to topics, manufacture contacts and prepare television productions.

Most firm foreign correspondents work three to seven years on a location and return then to the homeland editorship or change into anotherCountry. That is to prevent a too firm integration in structures of the report country and to large routine.

problems and criticism

in countries without or with reduced Pressefreiheit have themselves to argue the foreign correspondents with national censorship; they cannot move uncontrolled and notnot approved turn or interviews lead. Information, which receives it, could be falsified or manipulated. Every now and then unpopular correspondents are also proven.

Foreign correspondents deplore frequently that the interest of the media is limited to few groups of topics, which public effective one considers, and other topic offers are rejected. Thus developsa distorted picture over the reality of the report countries. The reporting over Africa is limited so frequently to wars, disasters and hunger emergencies. Matthias Matussek writes:“Everyone knows that Africa is more than hunger and epidemics, the Far East more as diligence and uniforms, Russia more than icons andPoverty, America more than Glamour and purge. But everyone knows likewise that there is these stories, which remain hanging in the vergröbernden assortments of the domestic market: One does not read anything at home rather than what one always imagined. And nothing, then leaveswith some security assume themselves, lands faster in the booklet or at a transmission place than the confirmation of a prejudice. “ (Matthias Matussek: The truth about America, mirror special, the journalists, 1995)

not a problem which can be underestimated represents the fact that a correspondent often for more thana dozen of countries is responsible and it its substantial information from the there media receives. These are frequently only translated and conveyed without further search into the homeland. The foreign correspondent Susanne gel hard was in the Second Channel of German Television - Studio Vienna starting from 1992 for the reporting over twelve countriesin central and South-east Europe responsible. The correspondent expressed Peter Puhlmann in an interview:“We care for more than 20 countries, among them Mexico, central America, the Karibik and the northern South America. Actually we are rather a travel agency, because we always on the way are ". (Source see Web on the left of)

in such a way those remainsthorough search nearly inevitably on the distance.“The journalistic jet set, which seems to displace the Ausladskorrespondenten of old coinage for economic reasons (lower personnel expenditure, is particularly problematic) ever more. These journalists, who rush from a crisis to the next and from capital to capital, do not have at allthe time for low-digging search ", criticizes Michael Kunczik in its essay over foreign reporting on the television (source see Web on the left of).

The increasing speed of the transmission of news and the topicality pressure by the competition of the media - above all the television station - are added as further factors. “Meanwhile offenseoften only few minutes between an event and the first pictures. Or the event is presented equal live. (...) With Second Channel of German Television and pool of broadcasting corporations and the “realign-free” time takes at night only about five hours”, criticizes Susanne gel hard (source see Web on the left of).

acquaintance foreign correspondent

Well-known foreign correspondents are and/or. were:

special correspondent

a special correspondent reports on a certain event like e.g. the choice of the Pope, the consequences of an earthquake, a Sportveranstaltung like those Olympic plays or also from a crisis area. The duration of the employment can be enough from few days to several months.

war correspondent

war correspondent (English. ) are in principle special correspondents, whom from a theater of war report, were correspondent. Frequently it concerns thereby foreign correspondents,are been versed in the region concerned. Their task is it, the readers and/or. To describe spectators the situation locally as eye-witnesses as realistically and objectively as possible; with broadcast reporters to it meanwhile also the live-reporting belongs.

As first war reporters is considered William Howard Russell, the 1854for Time of the Krimkrieg reported. Officers had been entrusted before with the task to write written reports for the press which were sent with the post office. A consequence of these new realistic descriptions was that the British Commander-in-Chief, general William John Codrington, in February1856 the censorship introduced.

In the Viet Nam war the American reporters were not subject to a censorship, and the reporting led in the long run to substantial pressure of the public on the American government; this very day there is the view, the war at the “homeland front” one lost. This experience led to the fact thatthe US Government already into the 1980er years strict rules for the reporting in the Kriegsfall set up and the pool system in such a way specified developed. It was applied for the first time in this form in the Gulf War, to all western journalists.

At the beginning of the Iraq war 2003 this extended the USAPool system and permitted a limited number of journalists to accompany the allied armed forces as Embedded so mentioned of journalist directly in the employment quasi as not armed part of the troop.

problems and criticism

the life of war correspondents is naturally more strongly endangered than ofCorrespondent outside of theaters of war. It is considered as unwritten journalistic law that reporters do not carry weapons and also no uniforms. Some journalists reject even the use of the ball-safe west. Nevertheless also the clear marking is not as a journalist safe protection from it, under bombardment taken toobecome intentional or unintentional -. Also the conditions of work are partly very with difficulty, particularly for television teams. Only sometimes the infrastructure of the national media can be used. In the Gulf War and also in the Iraq war the western press instructed the USA in certain hotels or also Camps -to their protection and as a check.

Embedded journalist were unarmed, but university-formed, not to differentiate and therefore for third of the soldiers of the allied ones. The integration into the troop makes - independently of the censorship - an objective reporting more difficult rather itit promotes.

The censorship practice of the allied ones and handling the correspondents after the Gulf War in Europe was publicly discussed and criticized also violently. It became admits that the military had spread partly also aimed wrong information (just like the Iraqi side). The journaliststo have accused, too uncritically report and contribute to produce war as “Medienspektakel”. The Gulf War was world-wide the first war, whose first bomb attacks became to transfer live in the television, in the USA to best transmitting time. That is to have said ABC - reporter Gary Shephard: “It is the largest fireworks, which I saw ever. That is like Silvester, it is fantastic. “ (Quotation after Stefan Storz: Beautiful new war, mirror special, the journalists, 1995)

critical words to the own role gave it from a whole set of journalists. In an explanation that Grimme - winner 2003 was called it: “We düfen ourselves to Waffenerklärern and amateur stepping gene do not instumentalisieren leave. (...) The true pictures of the war are not starting jets, green phosphorisierende night sighting, military maps or the last video pictures of remote controlled weapons before their destructive impact. (...) Do not leave to us the truthcover with word cases. Behind the “collateral damage” dead civilians, a “military strike” lie are a destructive bomb attack and “surgical operations” zerfetzen and mutilate humans. There are no “intelligent” weapons. (...) “ (S. quotes after epd development policy 7/2003. 36)

acquaintance war correspondent

literature

  • Sylvia Breckl: Foreign reporting on the German television, publishing house franc & Timme, 2006, ISBN 3-86596-025-1
  • Claudia Cippitelli/Axel Schwanebeck: Only crises, wars, disasters? Foreign reporting inGerman television, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-88927-323-8
  • Alexander Foggensteiner: Reporter in the war, Vienna 1993, ISBN 3-85452-241-X (interview with war correspondents)
  • Christoph Maria Fröhder/Peter count: A picture of the war. My days in Bagdad, publishing house Hoffmann and Campe, 2003, ISBN 3-45509-419-8
  • Stefan hard TIG: Conflict and communication.Reporting, medium work and propaganda in international conflicts from the Krimkrieg to the Kosovo, Münster 2003
  • Antonia Rados: Live one from Bagdad. The diary of a war Reporterin, publishing house Heyne, 2003, ISBN 3-453-87724-1
  • Martin Wagner: Auslandskorrespondent/in for press, radio, television and press agencies, publishing house cunning, 2001, ISBN 3-47179-168-X
  • Olive Zöllner: “The truth says: Those kill us! “To the role of the media in crises and wars, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89158-318-4

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)