Kortikoide (cortex = crust; lat.) or Kortikosteroide (stereos στερεος = firmly; gr.) is a group of approx. 50 Steroidhormonen formed in the suprarenal body crust as well as chemically comparable synthetic materials. All Kortikoide results thereby from the basic material Cholesterin or from polymerization by Isopren is formed. Common basic structure of the hormones is the Progesteron (Δ4-Pregnen-3,20-dion).
- Mineralokortikoide are formed in the Zona glomerulosa the suprarenal body crust and affect predominantly the potassium sodium household and with it the water content of the body
- Glukokortikoide to originate from the Zona fasciculata and affect predominantly the coal hydrate metabolism
- of androgens Sexualhormone from the Zona reticularis
to the natural Glukokortikoiden to belong Kortison, Corticosteron, and Kortisol; to the Mineralokortikoiden the Aldosteron and Desoxycorticosteron . Artificial Kortikoide e.g. is. Prednison and Prednisolon, Methylprednisolon, Triamcinolon, Dexamethason, Betametahason and Paramethason.
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4 therapy [work on] from Progesteron by Hydroxylierung (installation of OH-groups) and oxidation of these groups to Keto or groups of aldehydes at different positions. The function of the suprarenal body crust is steered by the ACTH, a protein hormone from the pituitary gland.
diseased overproduction or long-lasting income of Glukokortikoiden produces a characteristic disease picture (Cushing syndrome) with Osteoporose, diabetes fat craze and muscle decrease. To high Mineralokortikoid concentrations disturb the water electrolyte household and damage the kidneys (Conn syndrome).
A lack of suprarenal body crust hormones produces the disease Addison, a life-threatening illness with cycle weakness, drainage and Kachexie. A certain gene defect, with which too much androgens and Aldosteron are produced too little, causes Virilismus and water storage; the frame of the illness is called adrenogenitales syndrome.
Kortikoide are converted in the liver by reduction to inactive derivatives (17-Hydroxysteroide, 17-Ketosteroide) and separated over urine and Gallenflüssigkeit.
except with the above mentioned. Lack conditions above all Glukokortikoide in numerous immune illnesses and emergency situations are used as medicine. The natural Kortikoide is more weakly effective opposite the artificial Kortikoiden. Medicines with a higher affinity commit themselves more easily to the receptors and have with same medicament concentration a larger effect.
For the oral and intravenous therapy equivalence doses (the effective dose Kortison become, e.g. for) indicated. Prednison (17α, 21-Dihydroxy-1,4-pregnadien-3,20-dion) is an artificially manufactured Kortikoid, which corresponds to a dehydrogenated variant of the Kortison. Its effect is for instance with the four to the fivefold Kortison.
Kortikoide become the treatment of among other thingsAsthma, Ekzemen, Neurodermitis, rheumatism tables illnesses, chronically inflammatory intestine illnesses, Nephritiden, shed lichen (Psoriasis) as well as with certain Chemotherapieen (Hodgkin's disease, NHL) assigned.