Cosmos (rocket)

cosmos B-1

cosmos (Russian Космос) is the name for a Soviet and/or. Russian booster rocket. It was designated, as at that time in the Soviet Union usual, after its first pay load, the satellite Kosmos-1. With cosmos the Soviet Union had a rocket smaller contrary to earlier Soviet booster rockets, in order to start lighter satellites.

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cosmos B-1

the first cosmos rocket cosmos B-1 one called. B stood in the US clearing-up for the second Grundtyp of booster rockets, 1 for the number of upper stages, other names: SL-7 (US Department of Defense), cosmos 2I, cosmos 11K63, cosmos 63S1, Sandal; Variant cosmos 63SM; Variant cosmos 63S1M, also calls 2M cosmos. It came out from the medium-range missile R-12 (in the west as SS-4 Sandal well-known), which was developed in the design engineering department Yangel. The maximum pay load in a low earth orbit amounted to 420 kg. The Erststart took place to 26. October 1961 in Kapustin Jar. Until 1977 there were 166 starts, of it failed 21. The first stage of the rocket became with kerosene and nitric acid, which second stage with liquid oxygen and UDMH (asymmetrical Dimethylhydrazin) operated. The first stage had a four-chamber engine RD-214 with pump delivery. The second stage used the engine RD-119 with four firm Steuerdüsen. The start came from a silo. In different representations putting the upper stage on was shown into the silo.

cosmos c1 and 3M

of the successors cosmos c1 (corresponded to the third Grundtyp with an upper stage, other names: SL-7 (US Department of Defense), cosmos 1, cosmos 65S3, Skean; Variant cosmos 11K65, more frequently called cosmos 3) came out from the larger medium-range missile R-14 (US designation SS-5 Skean). The pay load is clearly larger with 1400 kg in an orbit in 400 km (700 kg in 1,600 km an orbit). The Erststart took place to 15. May 1967. The first stage of the rocket uses the second stage nitric acid , nitrogen tetroxide and UDMH in the engine RD-216M UDMH and nitrogen tetroxide. Thus the rocket contains only storable fuels.

The variant cosmos 11K65M, also designation as cosmos 3M, uses an improved second stage S-3M and is until today in use. The rocket is 32,4m long, with a diameter of 2,4 m, and possesses a takeoff weight of 109 t. Thus it can transport a pay load of 1.500 kg into a rotating height of 250 km. The maximum height amounts to 1,700 km.

The start takes place either in Kapustin Jar (48° inclination) or Plesetsk (66° to 98° inclination).

With the variant cosmos 65MP, also designation as cosmos 3MP, the space shuttle models Bor-4 and 5 were tested on their reentry characteristics. Suborbitale or near earth orbits were reached.

The company Poljot in Omsk, Russia, works since longer on an advancement cosmos 3MU also “Vslet” (Russian Взлёт - too German taking off). Internationally the company Cosmos markets internationally Satellitenstart GmbH in Bremen, a subsidiary of OHB system, the booster rocket.

see also

to disasters of space travel



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