as motor vehicle - abbreviation: Kfz - one does not designate everyone to tracks bound land and usually road vehicle with the help of in or cultivated engine from own Kraft moved over as means of transport to use.
In that Switzerland is used the designation motor vehicle.
list of the motor vehicles
among the motor vehicles ranking among other things:
- Motorcycles in the traffic-legal categories
- passenger car (of automobiles)
- of force buses (KOM) (also overhead line and track-bound buses)
- separate Kfz
- tow truck
- of amphibious vehicles ashore
- a oh tractor
- of vehicles of the fire-brigade (e.g. Leiterwagen)
- of rubber mounted mobile cranes
- of floors conveyance (elevating truck platform, fork-lift truck etc.)
- golf course vehicle
- of tracked vehicles of all kinds (e.g. Tank, runway crawler-type vehicles, snow mobile)
- engine-claimant wheelchairs
- medical motor vehicle (Sanka), rescue car, emergency surgeon car
- of dragging vehicles for airplanes
- self-propelled machines (sfAM), if tractors
- living mobile
- two-way vehicle
- work on
classification for a more exact specification motor vehicles after an internationalKey divided:
- L1 single-lane small motor cycles
- L2 Mehrspurige of small motor cycles
- L3 of motorcycles
- L4 of motorcycles with sidecar
- L5 of engine tricycles
- M of motor vehicles for transportation of human beings with at least four wheels
- M1 of vehicles with maximally 8 seats (except the driver's seat)
- M2 of vehicles with more than 8Seats under 5 tons
- of M3 of vehicles with more than 8 seats over 5 tons
- of N of motor vehicles for carriage of goods with at least four wheels
- N1 of vehicles with a permissible total weight up to 3,5 t.
- N2 of vehicles with a permissible total weight up to12 t.
- N3 of vehicles with a permissible total weight over 12 t.
- O trailer including trailers for six-wheelers
- O1 trailer up to 750 kg (light trailers)
- CO2 trailer to 3.5 t
- O3 trailer to 10 t
- O4 trailer over 10 t
the motor vehicle consists of a multiplicity of parts, which are summarized in aggregates and independent building groups. The indirect and direct interaction of all parts ensures the normal function of the automobile. Among the main building groups rank:
- power transmission
- body or alsoStructure called
- electrical equipment of vehicle - electronics
engines are machines, which produce mechanical driving power by energy conversion. In the automotive manufacture momentarily combustion engines are used with priority. However are alternative propulsion principles on the advance. The partitioning of the combustion engines takes place on the basis of several criteria:
- afterthe design
- after the used source of energy (fuel)
- according to the effect principle
after gasoline and the same-trieven vehicles long time the automotive engineering controlled, leave risen Umwelbewusstseinand raising the price of, as well as foreseeable decrease of the availability of mineral oil-based fuels also alternative propulsion principles again into the field of vision of automobile developers and - producers move. Alternative propulsion technology are:
the power transmissioncontain all building groups in the drive strand between the engine and the drive wheels are arranged. Major tasks of the power transmission are the forwarding, distribution and regulation of the torque and the number of revolutions. To the power transmission belongs:
as chassis understands one all parts, those the handling of a motor vehicle determines and/or. affect. In addition count:
the chassis serves in its whole to make the motor vehicle mobile.Apart from the possibility the driving direction to change, must hold the chassis also uneven distances for constant contact to the roadway, in order to transfer forces in such a way.
At present in the passenger car an independent suspension is usually used. With jeeps and truck comesstill also the Starrachse for application. There isolated also still the leaf spring is used as spring element, while otherwise torsion bar - and coil springs dominate. In particular with the truck however increased also the pneumatic cushioning is used, the one simple adjustmentto the loading makes possible. With the passenger car the pneumatic cushioning from cost reasons is so far the upper class reserved. The concept of the modern pneumatic cushioning was already invented at the beginning of the 1950er years of Citroen as hydro-pneumatics.
as body one designates thatStructure and the lining of the motor vehicle. One differentiates between three different designs:
- and framework
- its own
unit form framework building method self-supporting building method carrying building method with the framework building method and are flexibly interconnected. This building method is used with priority in the building of trucks. With that a reinforced understructure the function of the framework takes over self-supporting building method. The entire structure forms a unit. This building method is used with priority in the building of passenger cars. With the carrying building method the framework is firmly connected with the body by welding or bolt connections.
electrical equipment of vehicle/- all
tension-prominent construction units belong to electronics for electrical system of the motor vehicle. Those are:
- Ignition system
- automotive battery
- electrical system
- lighting mechanism
- engine expensive equipment
- other electrical mechanisms
Environmental protection, landscape protection
the motor vehicles in the traffic are the principal reason for roads with all its consequences (land sealing, clearing etc.). Since it concerns in the predominant majority vehicles, those with combustion engines (more exact: with by combustion engines producedKraft) to be propelled, is the KFZ also one the causer of air pollution. Under the criterion of environmental protection energy savings cars can be differentiated by the usual motor vehicles, see 3-Liter-Auto.
the use of a motor vehicle on public reasonpresupposes in nearly all countries in the world the possession of a driving licence , which will provide with editions and restrictions can. A driving licence documents this permission.
in connection with motor vehicles some taxes are raised. Apart from the purposethe raising of funds use states this instrument also for the reduction of the environmental damage caused by motor vehicles . Apart from the consumption-dependent oil tax there is the time-related motor vehicle tax and (more rarely, z. B. in Denmark) a permission tax.
research establishments to the topicMotor vehicle
- Forschungsinstitut for Fraftfahrwesen and vehicle engines Stuttgart (FKFS)
- Institut for combustion engines and Kraftfahrwesen (IVK) of the University of Stuttgart
- Institut for Kraftfahrwesen Aachen (ika) the RWTH Aachen
- research association Kraftfahrwesen ltd. Aachen (fka)
- field of activity vehicle technologythat DO to Darmstadt (FZD)
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Motor vehicle - word origin, synonyms and translations|