|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Krakau (term clarifying).|
|surface:||326.8 km ²|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 50° 03 ′ N, 19° 56 ′ O50° 03 ′ N, 19° 56 ′ O
|height:||219 m and. NN|
|inhabitant:||757.430 (1. January 2005)|
|Postal zip code:||30-024 to 31-962|
|telephone preselection:||(+48) 12|
|Kfz characteristics:|| |
|economics & traffic|
|Next int. Airport:||Airport Krakau|
|kind of municipality:|
|city president:||Jacek Majchrowski (2006)|
|address:|| Pl. Wszystkich Świętych 3/4 |
|Web operational readiness level:||www.krakow.pl|
Krakau (Polish Kraków [ˈkrakuf]) is the capital that Woiwodschaft small Poland and is appropriate for approximately 250 km to the upper Weichsel in southern Poland, south the state capital Warsaw. This university town of first rank is industry -, science - and cultural center of the southern region, that by agriculture and viticulture coined/shapedis. A multiplicity at buildings of the gothic, the Renaissance, the baroque and later epochs coins/shapes the picture of the old city, which was until 1596 capital of Poland.
Table of contents
to Prähistorie and the early Middle Ages
of the Wawelhügel, on which today the lock and the cathedral, already for 20,000 years durably one settled. In close proximity toKrakau was already diminished in prähistorischen times salt. In 5. Century settled the westslawische trunk of the Wislanen in the area around Krakau. History Krakaus begins before the establishment of the Polish state as capital of the vistulischen trunk.
After the establishment myth of the city master prince Krak established the city on the Wawelhügel over a kite cave, after he killed the kite living there. From this time two grave hills originate, in those after the excessive quantity Krak and its daughter Wandatheir last Ruhestätte to have found are. In addition, the hills could have had astronomical functions, since to the summer solstice the sun goes down exactly over an up and the other one.
The first excessive quantities refer to Slawen, itself to Weichselufer settled. In 9. Century belonged to Krakau probably occasionally to the Grossmähri realm. In grossmährischen chronicles it is mentioned that Kyrill and Methody the ruler of the Wiślanen recommended the Christian baptism. It is not well-known whether this accepted the offer. Butthe first church is to have been already established in Krakau in the place of a heidnischen cult place (today Andreas church) at this time. In the year 965 Krakau was mentioned for the first time documentary by the Arab-Jewish buyer Ibrahim ibn Jakub. Around thatYear 990 became Krakau of Mieszko I. conquered and came thereby under the rule of the Polish Piasten.
End 10. Century was already Krakau an important commercial centre and became in the year 1000 of Boleslaw I. the courageous one (Bolesław IChrobry) made the bishop seat. The first stone buildings were established (a castle on the Wawelhügel and various Roman Sakralbauten).
the high Middle Ages
under Kasimir I. the Erneuerer became Krakau 1038 capital of Poland. Kazimierz left from the Czech rulerBrzetyslaus destroyed Gnesen, that so far the capital of Poland was and selected the Krakau than king seat, lain more favorably. Nevertheless Gnesen to today seat of the most important Polish ore diocese and thus the Polish Primas remained. By the assumption of the role as PolishCapital developed Krakau very fast in the 11. Century. Numerous buildings in the Roman style developed, among other things the Wawelrotunde, the churches pc. Adalbert and pc. Andreas, the monastery Tyniec and Norbertanki, as well as the quarters Okół north of the Wawel around thattoday's Maria Magdalena place. In the 11. Century came it in addition, to the conflict of the western with the church power into Poland, to which into the fact it flowed that king Boleslaw II. the bold one (Bolesław II Śmiały), the son Kazimierz´s I., the archbishop Stanislausin the Michaeliskirche 1079 killed. Stanislaus became one the first protection cartridge of Poland. Boleslaus II. had to flee from Poland and later in Hungary one poisoned. Its brother Herman, which followed 1079 him after the throne, shifted those for short timeCapital further after Plotzk. In the Plotzker cathedral Herman and its son are Boleslaus III. Inclined mouth buried.
But already at the beginning 12. Century secured itself Krakau again the position of the Polish capital. After death Boleslaus III. was Krakau of1138 to 1320 capital of the Seniorats Poland. The Krakauer prince was superordinate in the context of the Senioratsverfassung the remaining Polish partial princes and tried the Kingdom of Poland to again-unite. In this time many Jews and German immigrated after Krakau and acquired thatStadtrrecht. Krakau became simultaneous in 13. Century several times of act arene besieges. The first attack act arene was particularly devastating in the year 1241, which only the Wawelburg got over and the quarters Okół. The citizens could in the Andreas church andfind protection on the castle. After this destruction Krakau in the style of the gothic was again developed according to plan on a chessboard sample.1257 were again-created Krakau after farm servant citizen municipal law by Bolesław the shy one and in today still in the old part of town tooseeing way again developed. In this time the market places and the chessboard-like road system of the old part of town were formed, into which older fragments, like the Marienkriche or the Grodzka road, were embedded. Bolesław the shy one and its wife, the holy Kinga, promoted thatSalt dismantling in Bochnia and Wieliczka under-meets. Thus they put a Grundpfeiler for the wealth of the city in the late Middle Ages. 1281 took place the last large tatarische attack on Krakau, which the citizens warned by the Turmbläser could repel however. This very day that remindsabruptly ending Hejnallied of the Trompeters to the heroful act guard, who paid its act due to a tatrischen elbow arrow with its life. In the following night the Krakauer citizen crept as act arene disguised into the camp of the Mongols andthese struck by a ruse into the escape, that today still the Lajkonik reminds. After a rebellion of a part of the German population Krakaus under Albert, most Germans were temporarily banished by Władysław Ellenlang starting from 1306 from the city.1320 were crowned in the Wawelkatedrale for the first time since the division in the year 1138 Polish king, Władysław Ellenlang. Krakau remained coronation/culmination and funeral place of the Polish kings until 1734. Since 1150 a latin school under the management existed of theKrakauer of ore diocese, and Kasimir III. the large one (Kazimierz III Wielki) - the son Władysław Ellenlangs - the Krakauer University of ( the later Jagiellonen university) created 1364, which is the secondaryoldest after the University of Prague in Central Europe. Kazimierz the large one created two suburbsfrom Krakau Kazimierz (1335) and Kleparz (1366) and left the Wawelkathedrale and many other churches in the gothical style changes and/or. new-arrange. To his time many Jews particularly came to Poland and Krakau, those Kazimierz III. to the Pestprogromen. large privilegesand in the expansion Kali of the tolerance edict of 1265 the freedom of religion secured. Against a widespread mistake settled the Jews first not in the Kazimierz, but in the today's university quarter around the pc. Anna road. The city government Krakaus is subordinate for many centuries to the Krakauer archbishopas prince diocese. During the rule of Wladyslaw II. Jagiello (Władysław II Jagiełło) end 14. Century became Krakau a member of the Hanse, left these however 1478 again.
the late Middle Ages
after death Kasimir III. the large one 1370 came his nephew Ludwig von Anjou to the power, which was simultaneous also king of Hungary. After its death the 12 year old holy Jadwiga 1380 mounted the Polish throne as a king(not queen). She married the litauischen Grossfürtsten Wladyslaw II. Jagiello (Władysław II Jagiełło) and put thereby the foundation-stone for the union between both states. She deceased very young 1399 and left her whole fortune of the Krakauer university. Its married man WladyslawII. Jagiello defeated 1410 the German medals with fir mountain militarily and 1416 on the council to Konstanz legally. After the Polish litauischen union 1385 Krakau developed as capital of one of largest European continental powers economically, culturally, scientifically and urbanistisch. Wladyslaw II.Jagiello is considered as a master father of the dynasty of the Jagiellonen, which governed Wittelsbach, Vasa in Poland Lithuania, Tschechien and Hungary and maintained among other things also family relations with having castle. Under its rule Krakau continued to grow. The archbishop governed very skillfullystarting from 1434 for the sons under age Wladyslaw II. Jagiellos Wladyslaw III of Warna and Kazimierz IV. Jagiellonicus (Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk). Under the latter Krakau in the late gothic flowered up. It had 12 children, who in-married into nearly all important dynasties of Europe(all present European monarchs are with Kasimir IV. related). To train it left its children of the Italian human Kallimachus, which had fled for political-religious reasons from Rome after Krakau. 1475 recruited the Bavarian duke George that realms of Bavaria overthe hand of Hedwig Jagiellonica (Jadwiga Jagiellonka), the daughter of king Kasimir IV. Jagiellonicus. After a two-month journey prince wedding took place in land hat the land guardians. 1488 created the human Conrad Celtis the Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana, a scholar company after modelthe Roman academy. 1489 terminated Veit impact polarize (. Wit Stwosz) from Nuremberg the work on the high altar of the Krakauer Marienkirche. 1500 ago Johann Haller furnished the first Druckerpresse in Krakau and to Veit impact manufactures the Marmorsarkophag for KasimirIV. Jagiellonicus, Kallimachus and the Krakauer as well as the Posener bishop. Also numerous other artists from Italy, Holland and South Germany came in the time Kasimirs IV. after Krakau and created in the style of the late gothic and Renaissance. Three of its sons were successivelyPolish kings, the oldest however king of Tschechien and Hungary. The kings Alexander and January I Olbracht let the city attachment develop against a feared Turk attack and supplement around the Barbakane 1499 and put in Kazimierz the foundation-stone for the newJewish quarters, in which in the Renaissance the old person synagog (the oldest received in Mitteleuopa) was established. Its younger brother Sigismund I. the old person (Zygmunt I Stary) and its son Sigismund II. Krakau built August (Zygmunt II August) to the center of powerthe Jagielloni countries in Poland Lithuania and Tschechien Hungary out. Among this time Krakau ranked approx. 30,000 inhabitants. From this cultural bloom time of the city this very day a multiplicity of architectural monuments and art treasures of the gothic and Renaissance is received. In particular the lock complex upthe Wawelhügel and the fastened old part of town - Barbakane, cloth resounding, community centres etc. Also the university experienced in this time its bloom, particularly in the subjects mathematics and astronomy was in Europe prominent it. Here studied at the end 15. CenturyNikolaus Kopernikus.
early modern times
Sigismund I. the old person left that to 1499 down-burned gothical king lock, which to Kazimierz the large one had established, of the florentinischen masters Francesco Florentino andBartolomeo Berrecci, one of the largest Italian masters of building of Renaissances and - sculptors in the style of the Renaissance rebuild. The Sigismundkappelle on the Wawel of Berrecci is considered as the most beautiful building the Italian Renaissance outside of Italy. The genius Berreccis was like that towering above that one of his compatriots,that as artists at the Krakauer yard had likewise come, this 1534 from envy on the Krakauer market place stabbed. Berrecci was buried with large honours in the Fronleichnahmskirche in Kazimierz. Sigismund I. Bona Sforza from Milan married, the many ItalianArtist at the Krakauer yard brought. In addition, Germans, Dutchmen and Poland were under Sigismund I. in Krakau artistically actively.1505 is in the Balthasar Behem Kodex the statutes of the German-speaking citizens - Gilden described. Johann Beheim the production that arranges 1520 todaystill largest Polish church-bell, the Sigismund bell. Peter Vi from Nuremberg opened a bronze foundry in Krakau. Stanislaus Samostrzelnik created many Renaissancefresken in the Krakauer churches. In the same period Hans Dürer, the younger brother of the Albrecht Dürer, is yard painterwith Sigismund I. the old person.Hans's von Kulmbach manufactures the altar of the Johanniskirche. 1525 huldigte the large master of the German medal the Polish king on the Krakauer market place. This solved that on recommending Martin Luther and with approval of the Polish kingMedal state up and created the Polish Lehen Prussia, which accepted the lutherischen faith as the first area with Sigismunds agreement. Sigismund II. August became 1530 lifetimes of his father king of Poland and governed until 1548 together with this. Also it,after its nut/mother the Bona Sforza Italians was half, got many Italian artists after Krakau, was the most important under which the Brüger Santi and Monti Gucci. First converted those cloth resounding in the Renaissance style and created many marble plastics in the Wawelkathedrale,the latter converted the old synagog in Kazimierz. Center 16. Century was begun to replace the German-speaking city government by a Polish.1572 die the last Jagiellonenkönig, Sigismund II. August. Its successor from France Heinrich of Valois governs onlyone year on the Wawel. It that follows Hungarian Stephan Báthory, under which Krakau develops far in the style of the mannersism. But shift 1596 the Polish and occasional Swedish king as well as occasional Zar of Russia Sigismund III. Vasa (ZygmuntIII Waza) the residence to Warsaw, which was until 1526 (the year of expiring the masowischen Piastenhauses) capital of the duchy Masowien and dropped back afterwards to the Polish crown. Sigismund preferred the proximity of Warsaw to its Swedish hereditary kingdom and tooits Russian ambitions. Nevertheless Krakau still ergeizige baroque projects, as Peter and Paul Kirche, develop the pc. in the formal capital. Anna church, the Benediktinerkirche, the Kamedulenser abbey etc. The meaning Krakaus decreases however, accelerated by the plunderingduring the Swedish invasions 1655 and 1702 and by the plague, which demands 20,000 victims. End 17. Century and in 18. Century is appropriate for Krakau off the Polish policy, which develops now in Warsaw.
timeto Austrian occupation
see also history of Galizien
in the course of the third division of Poland Krakau 1795 the having citizens one slams shut. 1807 come it briefly to the large principality Warsaw and become after the Viennese congress as Republic of Krakau first a satellite state Austria. Later the having citizens Krakau annektieren 1846 and slam it shut Galizien, the Polish area from the first division of Poland 1772. Under starting from 1867 relatively the liberal rule of Austria again developed Krakau for the center of Polish art andCulture. Into this time working from January Matejko, Stanisław Wyspiański, January Kasprowicz, fell Stanisław Przybyszewski, Juliusz Kossak, Józef Mehoffer and Wojciech Kossak, Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz and Leon Chwistek. Krakau became the centerthe neoromantischen movement young Poland as well as the Polish modernism. In Krakau and Warsaw national liberations movement were established. Of Krakau from 1914 the legendary putting ions Piłsudskis in the Russian division area, marched, which achieved 1918 the renewed independence of Poland.
after the First World War came up Krakau in the new Polish state. It developed very fast in intermediate wartime and was beside Warsaw and Lemberg one of the most important cultural centers of Poland. In September1939 were occupied Krakau by the German armed forces and made the capital of the German crew government. Under franc the concentration camps Plaszów and Auschwitz in direct proximity were established to governor Hans. The Okkupanten destroyed a large part of the art treasures of the Wawels, in particularthe Polish artists. The built volumes Krakaus remained however as the only Polish large city (Vilnius and Lemberg became 1939 Soviet) to a large extent and for Krakau remained to a large extent spared by Bombardements and larger destruction. It lost however nearly half of its population,as well as the whole Jewish municipality and the universitäre elite.
After the Second World War the Soviet Union occupied Poland and the USSR and the communist puppet government suppressed the civil and aristokratischen currents of the Krakauer. From ideological considerations became indirect neighbourhood the then world largest steel plant and the socialist satelite town Nowa Huta (German: New hut) establishes. The government expected by a larger portion „socialist workers " the influence „of the capitalistic intellectual ones " to eliminate on. Nowa Huta became during that Solidarność - movement to a focus of the social and political happening. Into the 1990er years inside damaged the emissions of the steel plant the historical substance of the old city.
1978 became the old part of town of Krakau and the Wawel UNESCO - world cultural heritage andone of the twelve protect-who-test culture inheriting of mankind. The salt mine Wieliczka before the town-gates Krakaus became 1978 likewise UNESCO - and further the twelve culture inheriting of mankind in the same year became the cardinal of Krakau, Karol Wojtyła protect-who-tested world cultural heritagePope Johannes Paul II. selected. It visited Krakau several marks during its Pontifikates. This choice had important effect on the Polish opposition movement. 1980 created Lech Wałęsa the Solidarność in Danzig. After the discussions at rounding table 1988/89 and firstKrakau develops free elections 1989 again. The omissions of the restoration work of the communist time could do 20 in the 90's. Century to be retrieved and the art treasures Krakaus light up again in old gloss. Motorway tying up after Kattowitz and Breslau becameestablished and the airport in Balice developed. Now the A4 is developed toward Tarnos and the Zakopianka into the Tatra is modernized.
after the destruction by act arene in the high Middle Ages no substantial destruction took place thereand the industrialization rather outside took place, is Krakau richly by examples of all epochs starting from the high Middle Ages, above all Renaissance, in addition, art nouveau and Neogotik are to find (Collegium new fact). Building sins were committed pleasing few, however one existsremarkable investment ruin, the unfinished multistoried building Szkieletor. Since the year 2002 many building gaps in the city are closed by adapted new buildings.
cultural life, meetings
the most well-known theatres
- old persons the theatre (Teatr Stary)
- thatJuliusz Słowacki theatre (Teatr in. Juliusza Słowackiego)
- the opera
- the Operette
- theatre „Bagatela “
Krakau is admits for its old tradition of the literary Kabaretts,until today one maintains. Most well-known Kabarett theatres are Piwnica pod bar anemia and Jama Michalika. A new, young Kabarett is hole Camelot. In the Piwnica pod cash anemia had the legendary Chansonsängerin Poland Ewa Demarczyk their first appearances. It is thatKabarettkeller until today closely connected.
the most important meetings
- hourly trumpet signal of the tower of the Marienkirche (played of Trompeter)
- international festival of the sailor songs (Shanties) - (February)
- international festival of the alternativeand experimental theatre - Krakowskie Reminiscencje Teatralne - (March)
- days of the organ music - (April)
- Juvenalia - Studentenfestival - (May)
- Krakowski Festiwal Filmowy - (May/June)
- festival of the Jewish culture - (June) - one of the high points of the Krakauer culture yearly
- Jazzfestival in „the Pod bar anemia “- (July)
- festival „classical music at historical places “- (August)
- festival Jazztrompeter - Miles Davis Memorial Night - (September)
- festival „genius Loci “in Kazimierz - (October)
- competition of the Krakauer Weihnachtskrippen - (Decembers)
Krakau is inEducation center. There are 12 universities with approx. 10,000 officials and 51,000 students.
- Akademia Ekonomiczna
- Akademia Górniczo Hutnicza
- Akademia Muzyczna
- Akademia Rolniczna
- Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna
- Politechnika Krakowska]
- Jagiellonen university
- Szkoła Pedagogiczna
- Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Bankowości
- V Liceum Ogólnokształcące in. Augusta Witkowskiego(High school)
- I Liceum Ogólnokształcące in. Nowodworskiego (high school)
- XIII Liceum Ogólnokształcące in. Bohaterów Westerplatte (high school)
objects of interest
Krakau is also the goal of many Polish and international tourists. The city is with visitors due to its southern atmosphere much likes.
- of 100 churches and monasteries
- 28 museums with the most important exhibits out completely Poland
- Jewish quarter of Kazimierz (turning place for the film „Schindlers list “)
- over 200 cellar taverns
- a large investment ruin, the multistoried building Szkieletor
of royal way
the royal way begins north the old part of town at the monument of the green forest battle, which of the victory that reminds Poland over the German knight medals. One crosses the internal struggle race around the old part of town and managesthe Barbakane, which as the largest gothical military tower of Europe is considered. One continues to come to the remainders of the Stadtmauer with the Krakauer Florianstor. By this last received town-gate one enters the old part of town. In the process of the Floriansstrasse one comes at the pharmacy museumpast and reaches the largest European market place of the Middle Ages.
to and around the chief market (Polish Rynek Główny) several objects of interest lie, in addition the Krakauer Marienkirche with the famous high altar of the Nürnbergers Veit impact, those belongs Krakauer Barbarakirche, the Sukiennice (cloth-resound) with picture gallery and souvenir shops, the Krakauer city hall tower, the Krakauer Adalbertkirche and further monuments and community centres. Something off the market place lies the old part of the Jagiellonen university. Along the Grodzkastrasse comes one at furtherChurches past. In addition the Krakauer Dominikanerkirche, the Krakauer Peter and Paul church, the Krakauer Evangelist church belongs. At the end of the way one sees the overwhelming Wawel - lock on the Wawelhügel on the bank of the Weichsel with the feuerspeienden monument Wawel kites.
Jewish quarter and Ghetto
the quarters Kazimierz (Kasimir) was once an independent city. In Kasimir there was in former times a high Jewish population portion. The former Jewish quarter is today predominantly reorganized and to one point of attractionfor visitors become, however it is inhabited hardly more by Jews. Only about 150, above all older Jews reside at present still. The Jewish center assumes therefore that it will give soon no more Jews in Kazimierz. Thatformer Ghetto Krakau (and/or. the remainders of it like parts of the wall and the Ghetto pharmacy) against it south the Weichsel is in the quarter Podgórze. In the roads of the Ghettos numerous photographs for the motion picture film became due to the received historical built volumes Schindlers list turned.
the most important 28 museums:
- The national museum (Leonardo da Vinci, rem Brandt)
- „Bunkier Sztuki “(modern trend art)
- gallery the cloth resounding Sukiennice (painting 19. Jhdt)
- January Matejko - house
- the Manggha house (no, no Japanese Comics,but already Japanese collections)
- archaeological museum with the Daueraustellungen: 1000 years Krakau and Egypt
- pharmaceutical museum
- Trakl museum (dying room, in the military hospital)
the local kitchen is partly still of the K.u.K. - Past coined/shaped, but meanwhile apart from the fact sobroadly and internationally as in each comparable city. Particularly to emphasize the newest trend is to old-Polish rural and noble kitchen. The portions are very generously limited. The flour foods are clearly Austrian coined/shaped. An important speciality are filled grumbling ashes (pierogi), inthe most different variations (v.a. div. Fillings: Meat, herb, potato/cheese, blue berries) in nearly each restaurant to be ordered can.
of sons and daughters of the city
- Alexander Abusch, journalist, writer and politician in the GDR
- Stefan Banach, Polish mathematician
- Daniel Bogusz, Polish football player
- Boleslaw III. (Poland), CO duke (1102-1107), duke of Poland (1107-1138)
- Krzysztof Borek, Polish composer
- Carl Carl, Austrian actor and theatre manager
- Ewa Demarczyk, Polish singer and actress
- DJ Tomekk, German Hip Hop musician and music producer
- Robert Gadocha, Polish football player
- Mordechaj Gebirtig, jiddisch Polish poet and composer
- Henryk Grossmann, German economist of Jewish-Polish origin
- Ludwig Gumplowicz, one of the establishment fathers of the European sociology
- Friedrich stem, Austrian poetand dramatist
- Wojciech Has, Polish film director
- novel Haubenstock Ramati, composer
- Zvi Hecker, Israeli architect
- Jerzy Hoffman, Polish film director
- Josef Hofmann, Austrian pianist
- Stanislaus Hosius, GermanPolish theologian
- novel Ingarden, Polish philosopher
- Johann I. (Poland),King of Poland (1492-1501)
- holy Kasimir of Poland, catholic holy, second son of Kasimir IV.
- Johann II. Kasimir (Poland), king of Poland
- Antoni Kątski, Klaviervirtuose and composer
- Zygmunt Konieczny, Polish composer
- Ewa Lipska, Polish Dichterinand authoress
- Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Krakau and cardinal
- January Matejko, Polish painter
- Helena Modrzejewska, Polish actress
- Heinrich Nebenzahl, German film producer
- Edward Ochab, Polish politician
- Juliusz Osterwa, Polish theatre director and actor
- Karin Reschke,German authoress
- January Rokita, Polish politician of the party “citizen platform”
- Sigismund II. (Poland), king of Poland, large prince of Lithuania, last king of the Jagiellonen
- Jerzy Stuhr, Polish actor and director
- Grzegorz Turnau, Polish singer-songwriter
- Karl baron von Urban, Austrian field marshal second lieutenant
- Vladislav II. (Böhmen and Hungary), king of Poland
- Wanda Wasilewska, Polish and Soviet politician.
- Wladyslaw II. (Poland), upper duke of Poland, duke of Schlesien
famous one with Krakau connected persons
- Veit impact (Polish:Wit Stwosz)
- Oskar Schindler
- Johannes Paul II., as Karol Wojtyła in Wadowice with Krakau born, former bishop von Krakau
- Jerzy Hoffman
- Nigel Kennedy
- George Trakl
- Czesław Miłosz
- Stanisław Lem
- Stanislaus of Krakau
- Valentin Faltin (Polish: Walenty folds)
- Roma Ligocka
- Piotr Skrzynecki, founder of the Piwnica pod cash anemia
- novel Polanski
- Wincenty Maxylewicz
- Janos Thurzó (1437-1508) councilman, commercial gentleman and Montanunternehmer
terminator point of the motorway A4.
Direct railway connections to Warsaw and Breslau, after Danzig over Warsaw, after floats over Breslau; in addition, into the Ukraine over Przemyśl as well as to Prague, Budapest, Vienna and Bratislava. To Berlin over Breslau. All year round also direct connection over Berlin and Uelzen to Hamburg (IC “Wawel”).
Regular bus traffic, internationally and in the surrounding countryside.
The Weichsel is used at the most for excursion steamers.
- national park in Ojców (approx. 24 km removes) alsothe former hunting seat Piaskowa Skała of the Krakauer of kings
- Wieliczka with the oldest salt mine of the world (17 km removed)
- west of Tyniec
- that the city center convenient city forest, Wolski read abbey, with zoo-logical garden
- monastery in read Wolski
- Auschwitz,Polish Oswiecim
of twin cities
Krakau maintains partnerships between cities with the following cities:
- Bordeaux (France)
- Bratislawa (Slowakei)
- Cusco (Peru)
- Edinburgh (Scotland)
- Fez (Morocco)
- Florenz (Italy)
- Frankfurt/Main (Germany), since that 6. December 1991
- Göteborg (Sweden)
- Innsbruck (Austria)
- Leipzig (Germany)
- lion (Belgium)
- Lemberg (Ukraine)
- Milan (Italy)
- Nuremberg (Germany), since 1979
- Orléans (France)
- Smelling ester (the USA)
- Sevilla (Spain)
- Solothurn, (Switzerland)
- Wilna (Lithuania)
- Zagreb (Croatia), since 1975
climate and weather
Krakau is because of the threshold of the AtlanticSea to the continental climate. Depending upon prevailing wind direction the weather is affected. West hoist (~ 40%) bring particularly in the summer damp weather with rains, while particularly east winds (~ 22%) cause dry and very cold weather in the winter. The wind blows averagewith 11 km/h.
The middle temperature in January amounts to about -2 °C, whereby lowest temperatures of more than -20 are not °C rarity. In addition, the middle temperature in July amounts to about +19 °C, the thermometer can +35 °C and morereach. Generally the weather is very calm with small daily fluctuations.
On very hot summer days can it to strong thunderstorms come. In the last years in the region the extreme meteorological phenomena increased. In addition fall rains with 50 belong l/m ² or alsosmall Tornadoes. In the record summer 2003 dust devil were observed.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Krakau - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Krakau - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Magical Kraków - official side of the city
- tourist information
- travel guide for Krakau
- Krakau on-line one
- Krakau info.
- Kracow in Wikitravel (English)
- streetcar in Krakau
circle-free cities: Krakau | Tarnów | Nowy Sącz </br> Districts: Bochnia | Brzesko | Chrzanów | Dąbrowa | Gorlice | Krakau | Limanowa | Miechów | Myślenice | Nowy Sącz |</br> Nowy Targ | Olkusz | Oświęcim | Proszowice | Sucha | Tarnów | Zakopane | Wadowice | Wieliczka