Cancer (medicine)

cancer designates a malicious tumor in the medicine. Not each tumor is a cancer, because a tumor knows each described Gewebsvermehrung and/or. Space demand in the body its. This contains both swelling with an inflammation and thoseNew formations (neoplasias) of body fabric by false regularizations of cell growth. In the closer sense are the malignant epithelial Tumore (Karzinome), the malignant mesenchymalen Tumore (Sarkome) and malicious hectar mobilization load eyes, like z. B. Leukaemias, meant. Property-well-behaved Tumorehow nut/mother marks and Fettgeschwülste (Lipome) do not become in the technical language when cancer designates, but they can become nevertheless dangerously, there them and. A. to degenerate can. Cancer is generally linguistic usage a comprehensive term for a multiplicity of related diseases,with those body cells uncontrolled grow, divide and healthy fabric to displace and destroy can. Cancer has different trips, which lead in the long run all to a disturbance of the genetically regulated equilibrium between cell cycle (growth and division) and cell death (Apoptose).

Table of contents

occurrences and process

in principle can each organ of the human body by cancer to be struck, it gives however substantial frequency differences after age, sex, to collective affiliation, geographical region, nourishing habits etc. In Germany cancer illnesses arise frequently up in organs such as chest gland (women), Prostata (men), lung and large intestine.

Cancerthe secondarymost frequent cause of death is in Germany after the cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless each cancer process is not deadly, if in time a therapy is begun, or the cancer only in high age arises and slowly grows. The present healing rate with all cancer illnesses amounts to average30 to 40 per cent. When in the Onkologie a patient is healed designated, who survives at least five years long without relapse (Rezidiv). This definition of healed problematic, because many of the back cases take place only after five years. Ittherefore flow many patients into the cancer success statistics, who die later at cancer (see.Cancer Atlas).

The cancer illness does not express itself in different developments and disease pictures, for this reason can general statements concerning life expectancy and healing chances be made. There is at present approx. 100 different cancer illnesses admits, which differ in chance of survival, possibilities of treatment and the education from Metastasen partly strongly.

Most cancer illnesses increase in frequency at the age clearly, so that one cancer also as a degenerative age illness of cell growthto regard can. Apart from the age are smoking, other karzinogene Noxen, family arrangement (assessment) and virus infections the main causes for cancer illnesses.

By cancer krebsvorbeugung and early recognition the cancer risk under certain circumstances can (dependent on the diagnostic time, the kind of cancer and one for itoptimal age of the patient) to be reduced clearly.

Die krankhaft Zellteilung bei Krebs

name history

the name cancer was inspired Galenus according to by the similarity of the swollen Venen of an outside tumor with cancer legs (see illness as metaphor). Before Hippokrates used the term „cancer “probably first, than he discovered the similarity with the legs of a crustacean with the treatment of a Brustgeschwüres.Aristoteles called superficially ascertainable Geschwülste in-increasing infiltrating into neighbouring organs and (z cancer. B. advanced skin cancer or cancer of the breast).

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Generation of cancer

with cancer cells is repealed set the tuning by growth, division and destruction in the cell federation. Adjusting signals are recognized or are not implemented, since the genetic code needed for it is defective mostly.

About 5,000 of altogether 25,000 geneshumans are busy with the automatic constant of the genetic code from a cell generation to the next. They supervise the correct succession of the pairs of cousins in the DNA after each Reduplikation, decide on the necessity for repair procedures, stop the cell cycle, tothe repairs are implemented and arrange if necessary a programmed cell death (Apoptose), if the repair does not lead to success.

At present most plausible theory of the generation of cancer (Karzinogenese) means that a copying error - or more rarely an already innate damage- supplies guard genes “the Initialzündung to these with in one „: The appropriate gene cannot implement the indexing step supervised by it any longer correctly, so that it comes in the next cell generation to further defects. If a second guard gene is concerned, then strengthens itselfthe effect etc. Finally also genes are concerned, which would have to actually release cell death in these high-grade defective cells (z. B.p53), then become the cells unsterblich.

On in the detail way not clarified yet develop from the chaos completelynew cell characteristics, z. B. the ability to survive under oxygen deficiency to develop an own blood supply (Angiogenese) or emigrate from the federation and itself in strange fabrics such as bones to settle lung or brain (Metastasierung). Only by this phenomenon that winsCancer its deadly power: 90% of all cancer patients, with whom the illness goes out deadly, die not at the primary tumor, but at its Metastasen.

The immune system of the total organism tries to attack the uncontrolled growing cells. There it in many respects howeverstill normal body cells resemble, fail the defense mechanisms too weakly, in order to stop the senseless growth process.

multi-stage model

most cancer researchers proceed from a multi-stage model of the generation of cancer. The older three-stage model so mentioned is divided thereby into thosePhases of the Initiation, graduation and the progression. After year and/or. Decades continuing latency phase between initials the DNA damage, thus the transformation of an individual cell, it comes only to the provable tumor. At the multi-stage model it is problematic that the conceptualnesses Initiation, graduation and progression only describe and the cause do not explain. Besides about graduation and progression are in practice unfortunately not sharp from each other definable.

Up to ten different mutations must have taken place. Some these necessary mutations can be left, whichexplained that also very small children with cancer to get sick to be able and that cancer in „cancer families so mentioned can occur “frequently. A typical example of it is leavable xeroderma pigmentosum. With close relatives of female patients to cancer of the breast is the probability,Cancer of the breast to get twice as highly as in the remaining population. In the intermediate steps of the tumor emergence (graduation and progression) genotoxische processes do not play a large role, which could tempt observers to classify these influences as actual „cancer exciters “. The actualMalignität (with malignant tumors) of the degenerate cell is reached in the phase of the progression. In recent time instead of the classical three-stage model of a complex multi-stage model one speaks (is only partially understood) and the terms graduation and progression becomeincreasingly of the term of the CO-Carcinogenese replaces.

The case Henrietta of lacquer, which died 1951 at a malicious cervix cancer, is remarkable. Before its death their Gewebsproben were taken and the HeLa in such a way specified - cell line developed. The tumor cells live thus since more thanfifty years on laboratory conditions.[1]

1902 John

Beard wrote historical acceptance that cancer cells resembled trophoblastischen Embryonalzellen. At the beginning of a pregnancy these cells ensured for the fact that the embryo in the Gebärmutter in-sneezed themselves could. Growth is aggressively and chaotically. The cells divided fast and would win their energy from the sugar fermentation. They suppressed the immune system of the nut/mother and produced human Choriongonadotropin (hCG), which is recognized as tumor markers meanwhile. Rampant growth stops only if the embryostarting from 7. Week Pankreasenzyme produces. Without these enzymes the most malicious tumor, the Chorioncarcinom would develop. That cancer tumors energy from the sugar fermentation would win (D. h. the tumor would live anaerobic), is the basis for many outdated working methods.

In the year Ellermann discovered 1908 and fear for a virus, which caused leukaemia in chickens.

Peyton Rous was it then, which filtered 1911 from a muscle tumor with the very high grade of filtration of 120 nanometers an excerpt, with which it again cancer produce could. He assumed inthis excerpt a virus.1966 received Rous for this discovery of the Rous Sarkom virus (RSV) to the Nobelpreis.

theories to cancer trips

Krebserregend are, according to the theory described above above all influences, which change the hereditary property. For it is particularly sensitivethe cell during the cell division; therefore cells, which divide fast, are particularly susceptible. Also influences, which prevent the immune system from it, degenerate cells to recognize and eliminate, are considered as krebsfördernd. Particularly dangerously therefore are:

Classification of the kinds of cancer

malicious one (malignant) Tumore differ from good-like (benignen) tumors by three characteristics: They grow

  • infiltrating: the tumor cells exceed fabric borders and grow into neighbouring fabric
  • destruierend: they destroy thereby surrounding fabric
  • metastasierend: they settlevia blood and lymphatic vessels or they form Metastasen so mentioned by dripping off metastases -.

The stage organization takes place generally after the international TNM nomenclature. T0 to T4 stands for N0 to N3 for the size of the primary T umors,for the number and situation of regional lymph nodes (lat.N odulus lymphaticus) and M0 and/or. M1 for the absence or presence of far from M etastasen.

special forms

beside it are differentiated still semimaligne Tumore and precancerous ones. Semimaligne tumors fulfillonly two of the criteria mentioned, precancerous ones are degeneration width units fabric, which entdifferenziert itself with high probability to malignant tumors, but grew yet not infiltrating and metastasierend.

The most frequent semimaligne tumor is the Basaliom, a tumor of the basal cell layer above allthe sun-exposed skin, which infiltrating and destruierend, grows however does not metastasiert. Untreatedly the tumor can destroy the entire face including the face bones.

The by far most frequent precancerous one is cellbiological zervikale intraepitheliale neoplasia, a rampant growth of the cervix, their cells indication thatMalignität exhibit, however from the fabric yet did not infiltrate, destruiert or metastasiert. To the precaution women the annual bearing nut/mother reduction is called , recommended after Papanicolaou, also Pap smear, since precancerous ones can be treated clearly better.

fabric origin

cancer tumors becomeaccording to the type of the degenerate fabric classifies. Karzinome constitute the by far largest part of all cancer illnesses , thus Tumore, which proceed from epithelium. This again differentiated in diskepithelium or squamöse Karzinome, which from verhornter and more unverhornter (Schleim) skin are derived, and Adenocarcinomas, which are derived from the gland epithelium and are continued to differentiate depending upon origin and structure. A further large group are the hämatologischen cancer forms of the blood and the haematinic organs, itself in leukaemias and lymphomas, also „Lymphdrüsenkrebs “mentioned,to partition leave. Besides there are rarer malicious tumors, like from the supporting and connective tissue outgoing the Sarkome, neuroendocrine tumors like the Karzinoid or from embryonalem fabric outgoing Teratome (above all the gonads).

get sick

to statistics in Germanyabout 395,000 humans annually to cancer, of it approximately 195,000 women and 200,000 men. Most cases arise at the age of over 60 years. Under 60-jährigen a quarter of the cancer new illnesses constitutes only approximately with approximately 107,000 cases.

EveryoneApproximately 1,750 children get sick to year under 15 years at cancer in Germany. Most frequently in this age group leukaemias, Tumore of the brain and the Rückenmarks as well as lymph node cancer are diagnosed. The newest statistic numbers for Germany the available (cancer registers of theSaarland) a relative 5-Jahres-Überlebensrate of 55 per cent results in for the period of 1998 to 2002 for all kinds of cancer. After these 5 year old survival period an average life expectancy those then mostly results from of the same age ones of the general population for the survivorscorresponds. Only with very few kinds of cancer this is not the case, here must one 10-period of one year be waiting. From all cancer healings become approx. 90% exclusively by, the lokoregionäre treatment so mentioned, thus by operation, directed locally toward the tumor region, andRadiotherapy (” steel and jet “) reaches.

There are also spontaneous rem eating ions very rarely. They arise only with for instance 1:50.000 - to 100,000 cases. Spontanremission one calls a complete or partial disappearing of a malicious tumor in absence of all treatments or with treatments, forthose so far no effectiveness proof to be led could. However the probability of such spontaneous rem eating ions is under the probability of a wrong diagnosis. Despite intensive research does not succeed inducing at present aimed spontaneous rem eating ions therapeutically.

comparison of the diagnosed and the deadlyCancer illnesses in Germany

numbers also conditions: 2000

male womanlike sum
organ concerned (+ ICD-10 code) diagnosed deceased diagnosed deceased diagnoses deceased
all 200,018 108,835 194,662 100,349 394,680 209,184
chest (C50) ? 221 47,515 17,814 47,515 18,035
lung (C33, C34) 31.819 29.144 10,434 9,846 42,253 38,990
intestine (C18 - C21) 32,602 13,658 34,175 15,329 66,777 28,987
Prostata (C61) 40,670 11,107 40,670 11,107
bladder (C67, D09.0, D41.4) 17,796 3,804 6,956 2,173 24,752 5,977
stomach cancer (C16) 11,107 6,909 9,865 6,223 20,972 13,132
kidney(C64, C65, C66, C68) 8,836 3,887 6,319 2,629 15,155 6,516
pancreas (C25) 5,766 5,750 7,711 6,366 13,477 12,116
Lymphdrüsen: Non Hodgkin lymphomas (C82 - C85) 5,977 2,705 6,584 2,758 12,561 5,463
skin: Malignant Melanom (C43) 5,348 1,161 6,128 1,027 11,476 2,188
blood:Leukaemia (C91 - C95) 5,654 3,479 5,151 3,327 10,805 6,806
Gebärmutter (C54, C55) 10,022 2,720 10,022 2,720
ovary (C56) 9,671 6,113 9,671 6113
cervix (C53) 6,588 1,882 6,588 1,882

(source: Brochure” cancer in Germany “ of the working group of population-referred cancer registers in Germany)

Prozentualer Anteil der Zahl der Krebssterbefälle in Deutschland (im Jahr 2000)
Proportional portion of the number of the cancer deaths in Germany (in the year 2000)

cancer amassments with certain occupations

of the description
kind of cancer occupation
1775 Testicle cancer chimney sweep (contact with soot)
1820 Skin cancer brown coal worker (contact with brown coal tars)
1879 Cancer of the lungs Miners (inhalation of coal dust)
1894 Skin cancer of sailors (contact with GET ores ropes, planks etc.)
1895 Blister cancer worker with contact to Fuchsin
1902 Skin cancer Roentgen personnel
1912 Cancer of the lungs of occupations with chromate - contact
1922 Skrotal and skin cancer of occupations with contact to shale oils
1928 Leukaemia of occupations with contact to Benzen
1933 Nose and cancer of the lungs of occupations with contact to nickel
1933 Cancer of the lungs of occupations with contact to asbestos
1938 Pleuramesotheliom of occupations with contact to asbestos
1954 Peritonealmesotheliom of occupations with contact to asbestos
1972 Cancer of the lungs of occupations alsoContact to Haloether
1974 Leberangiosarkom of occupations with contact to vinyl chloride

possibilities of treatment

  • operation: operational removal of the tumor and neighbouring lymph node.
  • Radiotherapy
  • the tumor
    • surrounding fabric („chemotherapy “); the cancer cells are prevented from the Vermehrung and/or. stopped
    • hormone therapy, z. B. Testosteronentzug with the Prostatakarzinom
    • inhibition of blood vessel growth (cancer fabric luresBlood vessels on to grow toward the cancer fabric to supply around it.)
    • immune therapy (increase of the immune answer to the tumor cells) immunological cancer therapy
  • radio immune therapy
    • this therapy form is the advancement of the immune therapy. The radio immune therapy combines the goal-exact impact of the immune therapy anti-body therapy with thathigh effectiveness of the radiotherapy. With the radio immune therapy an anti-body (Ibritumomab) leads a cancer cell-destructive radiation source like a taxi goal-exactly to the cancer cells. Contrary to the pure immune therapy with the radio immune therapy not only the cells at the tumor surface are destroyed, but alsothe cells inside the tumor mass.
  • Palliative treatment and/or. Promotion of the quality of life
    • gift of pain means
    • improvement of the general condition by pain treatment
    • sufficient nutrition
    • inhibition of the bone dismantling
    • increase of the blood formation in the marrow
    • symptomatic treatments z. B. Aufdehnung of Stenosen by Bougierung orInsert of Stents
    • Physiotherapie (special breath therapy with cancer of the lungs)
  • alternative working methods, among other things the Mistel therapy or B17-Therapie. Both are disputed. Fact is however that many successful cytostatic drugs (like Vincristin) were found original in plants. These cytostatic drugs are however highly pure andto compare highly concentrated and therefore not with „herb dte “or the like.

The unsatisfactory healing rate with certain tumor illnesses and the side effects of the established working methods often release fears and despair with the concerning and their members. Perhaps this leads to the turnto unorthodox types of treatment, to which in many cases the proof of the effectiveness is missing, and whose bases usually a scientific examination do not withstand. Some of them as „miracle healing “, others are rejected however than supplementing therapy procedures also of the school medicineaccepted.

Even if - unfortunately frequently - a complete healing cannot be achieved, it is to be considered that with a 75jährigen a lifetime extension of 1 or 2 years is to be regarded cancer patients already as a very good result(older cancer patients often die at something different one than at the cancer), while with a 45jährigen breast cancer patient only a 10jährige relapse liberty is evaluated as „very well “- it has a large part of its life still before itself.

In the industrial nationssurvives 75 of 100 children a cancer illness, while the cancer-conditioned mortality is with children in developing countries with two thirds (The Lancet)

is appropriate for borders

of the working methods the present healing rate with cancer in the industrialized countries with approx.30 to 65 per cent (the USA: 65 per cent), if one summarizes all different cancer illnesses with both sexes. As long as a cancer illness remains locally limited, the healing chances are better, as if the tumor already spread in several organs of the body (z.B. Cancer of the lungs metastasiert very fast, during Prostatakrebs this does more rarely). The difficulty of many cancer illnesses lies however in the fact that they are recognized very late - a tumor can produce starting from a volume of under 1 Milliliter Metastasen, but z. B.Cancer of the breast can be recognized by means of self scanning by a layman only starting from this size. A problem represents every now and then the anatomical accesibility of the tumors for an operational removal, for example at the esophagus. Also are not easy the symptoms always to recognizeor it arises only in advanced stage why pancreas cancer is recognized often very late.

Extremely different chances of survival have cancer patient - see the list above. Factors, in addition contribute are

  • take place early recognition?
- the tumor must up to a certainSize increase, until it is recognized by the layman (for instance cancer of the breast)
  • kidnaps the patient the illness and goes only late to the physician?
- for instance with atypical symptoms, as for instance chronic cough with smokers
  • metastasiert the tumor fast?
- the danger aboutthe cancer of the lungs is indeed the fast formation of metastases
- depending upon origin fabric of the tumor certain Wirkstoffklassen are complete or nearly ineffective
  • can the tumor at all be operated?
- Interferences such as distance one Lung bag can lower the survival ratio of the patients drastically, therefore one tries to avoid such operations

cancer krebsvorbeugung

it is not all factors well-known, which promote or restrain the generation of cancer.

In order to decrease the risk of a cancer illness, should Suspend the body with carcinogenic materials to be avoided.

Krebsfördernde factors are:

  • (The passive) smoking
  • inhalation of other fine types of dust (under it asbestos, soot, exhaust gas)
  • radiation (radioactivity, UV-RADIATION (sun), x-ray)

it is not strongly proven that one z. B. by one „general healthy way of life “thatRisk at cancer to get sick, reduce can, but this can also when other illnesses (z. B. Cardiac infarct) preventing work.

It is advisable to be able to be examined in regular intervals on cancer there an early recognition with many kinds of cancer the healing chances enormouslyimproved.

early recognition

with most cancer illnesses is important the early recognition. , Only rarely as for example with the cancer of the lungs, the early recognition is so far ineffective. The early recognition is primarily task of each humans and not only the physician. Untreatedly the malignant growsTumor until the organ and/or. the body is destroyed. There the danger of a cancer illness for a population varies and and. A. on again arising environmental poisons depends or on the elimination of such poisons by environmental laws, as well as by the nourishing behavior andthe readiness to protect itself against direct sun exposure in addition, by the Sexualverhalten (Durchseuchung of a population with possibly krebserregenden viruses), the individual cancer risk must be always intended for each generation and each country on the new.

Ever rather a cancer recognizedbecomes, so much the better the healing prospects. Could be healed more cancer diseases, if they were in former times recognized. But each early recognition does not offer only advantages (see also Screening). One exchanges a risk for a bundle of other risks, like wrongpositive findings.

ForMen are important to preventive medical examinations (over 50 years ) regular investigations of the physician on blood in the chair and scanning the Prostata, for Mrs. a reduction of the cervix ( systematic early recognition investigation for cervix cancer) and mammography -, whereby the use small in absolute numbersthe mammography to be discussed with the physician should.

Also by means of genetic investigations it is possible to already erkennnen for certain kinds of cancer in the early stage. This procedure is in practice used however rarely.

Many cancer illnesses become of the patient due to changesrecognized. A physician attendance is recommendable:

  • unusual swelling; Wounds, which do not heal; Change of the form, size or color of a skin mark or the abnorme bleedings
  • of chronic coughs or continuous hoarseness, a change with the chair course or with the Urinieren, or an unexplainable decrease in weight
  • changesdetermine when regular scanning the chests.

Each of these self investigations is afflicted with a quite large error risk. Knötchen in the chest can be well harmless, and on the other hand laymen know malicious chest tumors only ore branches if they have already 1 ml volume -and with large probability already metastasiert.

approach places


scientific literature

  • cancer in Germany, Häufigkeiten and Trends. 4. Edition 2004, given change of cancer registers in Germany, Saarbruecken (= cancer Atlas), population-referred by the working group
  • , Onkologie for occupations of care. hrsg. v. Agnes Glaus,Walter F. Jungi and. Hans Jörg Senn, Thieme flexible paperbacks, ISBN 3-13-620305-4. Much and deepened overview of cancer illnesses spreads; to a large extent also for laymen understandably.
  • Check list Onkologie. Row begr. v. Felix Largiader, Alexander storm and. Otto Wicki; OfHans Jörg Senn, Peter Drings, Agnes Glaus, ISBN 3-13-685505-1
  • Klaus cook: Investigations for early recognition - cancer. Use and risks. Donation goods test, Berlin 2005
  • The China Study. T. Colin Campbell PhD, ISBN 1-93-210038-5. Scientific studies to the connection between nutrition andDiseases, particularly also cancer are popular-scientifically presented here. The author led even some studies to this topic (z. B. the probably largest study on this sector, i.e. evenly China Study) and points connections out, which in the publichardly admits are. (English)

special books without scientific requirement

  • Stamatiadis Smidt, to living (Hrsg): Topic cancer. Questions and answers. DKFZ KID. Springer, Berlin, 440 sides, new edition 1998 of Stamatiadis Smidt, Sellschopp (1993), ISBN 3-540-64353-2
  • Oehlrich, straw: Internet compass cancer. Springer,Berlin 2001
  • Gisela Friebel: Health nearly to the zero tariff. ISBN 3929960060
  • Robert A. Vineyard: War of the cells. ISBN 3426266423
  • Sibylle harsh ore: Survive luck thing. ISBN 3502140022
  • Pascale Gmür: There the cancer and my life are round. Women persuadeCancer. Observer publishing house, Zurich, ISBN 3-85569-230-0

barking trichloroethylene TIC

  • Michael Cordy: The Nazareth gene. To Heyne publishing house, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-453-14728-6

see also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Cancer - word origin, synonyms and translations

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