Kreditinstitut is colloquially usually called bank or banking house. Depending upon type it concerns itself with the granting of credit, the administration of savings deposits, the trade with securities, or in case of a Universalbank with everything together. The whole of all credit institutesas well as, one calls the legal regulations in addition banking.

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legal bases

in Germany is the credit system law legal basis for credit institutes. In Austria, which took over the German regulations for the time being after end of the Second World War, a modified, Austria-specific credit system law starting from 1979 , which 1986 by means of law novella, appliedagain, and 1994 were changed by the new banking law were completely replaced.

A characteristic of Switzerland, whatever applies partly still to Austria, is the banking secrecy.

kinds of clearing banks

organization possibilities of private clearing banks

  • after size: Small bank, major bank
  • after owner: Private banker, foreign bank (bank in the possession of a foreign credit institute)
  • afterGeografie: District bank, country-wide active bank, internationally active bank

major bank

as major bank the private credit institutes of a country are designated, which do not only offer their services in branches/branches country-wide, but also in the foreign business are active.

In Germany count momentarilythe four largest private credit institutes Deutsche Bank, Dresdner bank, Commerzbank and HypoVereinsbank also under this position in the bank statistics of the German Federal Bank to be summarized, as major banks. They represent the heavyweight of the private group . The average balance sheet totalthe major banks corresponded in the year 2003 about 32% to the sum of all credit institutes and amounted to 1.5 trillion euro. Outside of the bank statistics also quite often the German postal bank is counted to the major banks.

In Austria become the groupthe private major banks the bank Austria Creditanstalt, the first bank and the bank for work and economics (BAWAG) counted.

In Switzerland the UBS and the Credit Suisse apply as private major banks.


the earliest forerunnersthe modern bank nature assumes one in Mesopotamien. There one probably already knew v. starting from the second century. Chr. the accounting as shown by the books of demands, the accounting method for inserts as well as loans, cheques and changes.

As one of the first note banks those functionedBank of Amsterdam in the year 1609.

Banks became necessary in a arbeitsteiligen national economy, since the achievements of the restaurant subjects under inserting of money one exchanged. The mediators of these money stream are the credit institutes. Further they provide for reconciliation between investment of funds desires and credit requires.

Credit institutes are subject to a set of national and international and supervision-legal laws (z due to their special meaning in the business circle as a rule. B. in the case of occupation to the management, with the balance etc.) and are subordinate as a rule besidesthe supervision of a particularly responsible authority. Therefore also special requirements apply to it.



an important characteristic number during the evaluation of the purchase price with the assumption of banks is the book value multiplicator. This giveson, as high the purchase price is in relation to the book value. In principle, the more prospective customer it applies with a concrete bank assumption gives, the more highly is the book value multiplicator, there after the economical Basic Law of supply and demand large demand the price inthe height floats.

functions of banks

confidence function (also: Risk transformation): The depositor trusts concentration function in the care and the expertise of the credit institute with the granting of credit, also regarding

the Risikostreuung (also: Lot size transformation): Banks create oneReconciliation between the offer of many relatively small inserts and the demand for large credits

time extension function (also: Period transformation): The strict interpretation of the golden bank rule does not apply today any longer without reservation, since a certain percentage of short term inserts can be lent also on a long-term basis(Sediment)

distribution function: Credit institutes are broker (mediator) between investors and credit-looking for

national bankings

see also


  • hitting a corner hard change: Banks and insurance in 19. and 20. Century. Oldenbourg, Munich 1998
  • Alexander Scheike: “Legal conditions for the material privatisation of local savings banks. An investigation with special consideration thatLegal form of the registered cooperative ", long Frankfurt 2004, ISBN 3631524706

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