Roundabout

Kreisverkehr; Beachte: In Deutschland und der Schweiz ist das Blinken beim Einfahren in den Kreisverkehr verboten
roundabout; Note: In Germany and Switzerland flashing is when bringing in into the roundabout forbade
to StVO - characters 215: Roundabout

a roundabout (also roundabout place, colloquially gyroscopes mentioned) is a special road-structural kind of the traffic junction.

Table of contents

development of the roundabouts

in Germany were roundaboutsin the post-war period commonly. With the traffic law reform of 1969 the road sign roundabout was removed however from road traffic regulations (StVO). Roundabouts were converted in the following years frequently into light signal-regulated crossings.

In other European countries, for example France, Great Britain and Spain, were further built roundabouts against it. Particularly in France, which possesses half of all world-wide existing roundabouts with 20.000 roundabouts (ronds POINTs, giratoires), these are used gladly for the traffic regulation.

Only with the change of the right of way rules inIn February 2001 roundabouts experienced roundabout also in Germany return. Before into the roundabout if the bringing in was move forward-entitled, now in the roundabout drivers present have the right of way. This change causes a higher flow of traffic, which makes roundabouts verkehrsplanerisch only interesting.

In Germany became with change of the StVO of the 11. December 2000 § the 9a again taken up to the StVO, that the behavior in the roundabout regulates and the roundabout sign (to character 215, see picture) defined.

In contrast to it roundabouts are in Austria by the Gefahrenzeichen after § 50 No. 3a StVO as crossing marked by roundabout.

In order to reduce the entry speed still more, in the center artificial hills or monuments are often developed, the one view after the other side of the roundaboutprevent.

Whether a roundabout at a crossing is meaningful or not, depends on a set of factors:

advantages

Kreisverkehr in Steckborn, Kanton Thurgau, Schweiz
roundabout in putting fount, canton Thurgau, Switzerland

as advantage over a conventional traffic center the larger road safety applies. Thisparticularly by the low speed of the driving through vehicles one obtains, in addition, by the better clarity. The number of potential points of conflict in a roundabout is by far smaller than at a usual crossing. In addition it comes that - potential accidents milder run off,since the speeds are usually lower. At the same time thereby the flow of traffic can be increased. The transmission rate is often higher than crossing signal-steered with one before travel or, since traffic can run liquid.

While a crossing with more than fourApproach roads substantially more complex to steer is, depends with a roundabout the number of entries only on the size of the ring.

A well planned gyroscope can master very high traffic volume very efficiently, with a minimum of back-up.

In addition that placesRoundabout any traffic relationship of the attached roads principle-causes ready.

Further advantages are more visible traffic conditions, a better economy an environmental protection better by the distributing effect and by fewer exhaust gases and noise. In addition smaller maintenance costs come in relation to a traffic light solution.

Particularly forHeavy vehicles are substantially easier in and exits contrary to the crossing, where it can come to handicaps of the oncoming traffic, to drive through, if the radius is large enough.

disadvantages

ways of their larger space requirement at the exteriors oppositea normal crossing roundabouts in the existence can be only rarely carried out (exception: Mini roundabout). The free space, which develops in the center, cannot be used thereby often any longer meaningfully. This disadvantage relates itself with large crossings, there the space requirement of onelarge crossing with traffic lights is in approximately equal in size.

The guidance of footpaths at roundabouts can be problematic, above all because no traffic light devices are present usually and one must be particularly careful like that as pedestrians. Are pedestrians opposite bending vehicles privileged, depending upon bending radius the Kfz speeds can be however high. Cycle tracks often lead before the roundabout on the road. Therefore drivers, before they bring in into the roundabout, must pay attention particularly to the cyclists.

A further disadvantage in particularvery small roundabouts is the demarcation lacking of the right of way rights, since the entries lie closely together. So the drivers can recognize not immediately, who in the circle is already. On the circle zufahrende however are already very fast in the circle, if themto even wait do not have. This still leads to quasi-before travels also for vehicles zufahrende on the roundabout.

Likewise roundabouts at crossings with very high traffic volume are problematic, since into the circle bringing in vehicles must wait often for a very long time at the entryand thereby long back pressure form. In addition, this disadvantage applies to traffic light devices, if the made available capacity is not sufficient. Large gyroscopes can master very high traffic volume surely and efficiently. Also are such roundabouts of accident-pregnant, there smaller gaps for bringing inrisky to be used must, so e.g. at the Blaubeurer gate in Ulm, at whose roundabout the federal highways 10, 28 and 311 meet one another.

At crossings of traffic routes with strongly different traffic volume a disadvantage results in the case of the energy consumption: All vehicles, those thatHappen to roundabout, must brake and accelerate again. On the other hand some few vehicles must completely continue and again start with traffic light-secured crossings, while the largest part of traffic can pass the crossing with even speed. By more frequent accelerating in the roundabout becomesuses more energy clearly.

kinds from roundabouts

one differentiates depending upon function and size between three kinds of roundabouts: Mini roundabouts, small and large roundabouts. Their plant is for Germany in the guidelines for the plant ofRoads - part of I flat-same junctions in the instruction card for the plant regulated by roundabout places of the research association for road and traffic (FGSV).

A mini roundabout in Jever
mini roundabout as attempt in Wipperfürth

of mini roundabouts have no entrance into the guidelines into Germany stillfound and are in a set of cities in the pilot stage.

mini roundabouts

of mini roundabouts have a diameter from 18 to 25 M. Since the circle island of large trucks or penalties because of of them too large turning circle does not umfahren becomescan, this must be over-mobile arranged. Usually it is up-paved and of a Niederbord set in or in exceptional cases only abmarkiert. They are meant existing right of way regulations or light signal plants to replacing inside place and in the existence at suitable places.

small roundabouts

small roundabouts have a diameter from 26 to 35 M. The central island is usually not over-mobile implemented. Smaller roundabouts can have a over-mobile, set off internal trace, over large vehicles with large turning circles driving onto make possible. Small roundabouts are used particularly in boundary regions by places. The instruction card for small roundabout places (KVP) the FGSV differentiates these regarding their size whether a KVP lies within or outside of cultivated areas. Therefore is the outside diameter of the KVPwithin cultivated areas between 26 and 35 meters and outside of cultivated areas between 35 and 45 meters lie.

large roundabouts

large roundabouts have diameters of more than 40 M. In exceptional cases they can up to 120 mDiameters exhibit. Large roundabouts are often two to dreistreifig in the ring passably. They serve above all the wide distribution of traffic streams and become therefore usually outside from closed localities or at the end of a motorway in a city, e.g.Distribution circuit Cologne and Bonn, both A555, or the large star (with victory column in the center) in Berlin, uses. The latters are not implemented with traffic lights and both in the legal as well as in the traffic-technical sense roundabouts. In the French this kind becomesmentioned by gyroscope “Rondpoint”. In Switzerland one finds even roundabouts on motorways with a diameter of 450 M.

After the StVO are such roundabout places often no roundabout, but a consequence closely together lying inlets. Often are these inlets alsoprovided with light signal plants and occasionally right of way is given to the vehicles bringing in into the circle, if this river dominates strongly.

Around traffic the roundabout to derive the lanes are usually spiral arranged against the clockwise direction outward prominently. Thusmust the vehicles of fewer track switchings make.

structural organization

the central island is provided with small and large roundabout places for the reduction of accidents with Erdaufschüttungen and used often architecturally. Frequently art objects, wells or monuments are set up there.

Streetcar traffic run the tracks often across the roundabout. In this case it must be traffic light-regulated however nevertheless, as for example the distribution circuit favorite in Vienna. Also bus stops can be placed in the center.

laws forRoad user

“flashing in the case of leaving”

in Germany and Switzerland is flashing prescribed when bringing in into the roundabout forbidden, with which exit, in Austria when bringing in did not forbid obligation, when driving out however just as. Becomes general to the right, thus against thatClockwise direction, brought in. In countries with left-hand traffic (like e.g.Great Britain) is brought in accordingly left, thus in the clockwise direction. In Great Britain one flashes as before a crossing. Here most gyroscopes are zweispurig, on the outside trace change one only directly forwardsthe exit.

If the right of way is not expressly regulated, applies also in the roundabout of “right forwards left”, as frequent in Italy. Disadvantage thereby is that it can come with full roundabout to back-up. Because if further vehicles want to bring in, to havethe vehicles inside stop, and block so their entry.

In Germany bringing in traffic receives in principle the board priority gives. It is legally fixed that thereby traffic in the circle without additional boards has right of way.

Into Austria it comesconcerning the priority on it on whether for the bringing in vehicles the road sign “priority give” is set up (Wartepflicht for the bringing in - “roundabout with priority”) or not (Wartepflicht for those the vehicles in the roundabout according to the rule of “right forwards left” -“Roundabout without priority”).

In Germany holding and parking are forbidden on the roadway in the roundabout; likewise the over driving of a central island, which would be structurally suitable for the over driving (except for to large vehicles).

see also

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)