Cross driver states
They were militarily underlaid for the Muslims, could hold itself however, because the constant wars between Islamic powers made it for them possible to occupy and regard as the supply the coastal country open. The cross drivers became recapitulatory as “Franconias “, which calls country” Outremer “.
That likewise 1098 established Principality of Antiochia became among its first normannischen rulers Bohemund of Tarent († 1111) and its nephew Tankred († 1112) by conquests against the Muslims and Byzanz extends. They left a strengthened state, for which however Raimund of Poitiers 1137 the Byzantine emperor huldigen had. 1268 succumbed to Antiochia, in the meantime economically become impoverished, a Mamelukenheer of the Sultans of bay bear of Egypt.
(1289) Tripoli fell not many later, since Bohemund IV. from the princes Antiochias co-governs; it was established to 1109 as the last cross driver states and Bertrand of pc. Gilles lent as vasallitische county of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Under Balduin I., the first king of Jerusalem (1100), and its next successors Balduin II. (1118 - 1131), Fulko of Anjou (1131 - 1143) and Balduin III. (1143 - 1162) the area could be extended and maintained against the Sarazenen. 1187 defeated Saladin the cross drivers destroying with Hattin and conquered afterwards Jerusalem.
The Christians recovered 1191 Akko under guidance of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations lion heart , which 1192 with Saladin agreed upon contractually the Christian rule in the coastal line from Tyrus to Jaffa.
The fifth crusade Friedrichs II., which crowned itself 1229 to the king of Jerusalem, Jerusalem and further areas brought the cross drivers. The capital went 1244 finally lost; Akko, center of the remaining kingdom, was weakened by internal fights and fell 1291. The remainder of Palestine was vacated - up to the city Byblos (Erorberung 1298) and the island fortress Ruan before the Syrian coast (task of 1303) still in the same year - (escape to Cyprus). From Palestine Syria to Cyprus refugee Johanniter conquered starting from 1306 Rhodos, which they controlled up to conquest by the Osmanen 1522.
Among the cross driver states also the Kingdom of Cyprus is ranked, during the 3. Crusade one based. Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations lion heart conquered the island on its way in the holy country, which became in the future the rule area of the dethroned kings from Jerusalem to 1489. A further Christian state at the edge of the crusades was the Kingdom of small Armenia, which had been established among native rulers on the escape before the Seldschuken some years before and approximately 300 years hold itself could.
- M.W. Baldwin (Hg.): The roofridge dog-talk years (A History OF the Crusades, Bd. 1), Madison 1969, S. 368ff., here on-line.
- Hans's Eberhard Mayer: History of the crusades, 10. Edition, Stuttgart 2005.
- Steven Runciman: “History of the crusades”, C.H. Beck, Munich 2001
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