Cross toad

cross toad
Kreuzkröte (Bufo calamita)
cross toad (Bufo calamita)
systematics
Class: Amphibians /Amphibians (Amphibia)
subclass: Lissamphibia
order: Salientians (Anura)
subordination: Modern salientians (Neobatrachia)
over family: Bufonoidea
family: Toads (Bufonidae)
kind: Genuine toads (Bufo)
kind: Cross toad
scientific name
Bufo calamita
Laurenti, 1768

the cross toad (Bufo calamita) is a salientian from the kind of the genuine toads within the family of the toads (Bufonidae).

Table of contents

characteristics

Adulte: The size of the males hands from four to seven centimeters, those of the females of five to eight centimeters. The back is veined on brighter reason of brown or olive colors. The skin surface is drying and warzig. The large warts as well as the Parotiden at the back of the head are sometimes reddish colored. Over the back („the cross “- name!) (however not always) a thin yellow longitudinal line usually pulls itself. The body penetrated, the head forward strongly dropping, the lip rounded, the pupil horizontally elliptically, the iris lemon-yellow to greenish. The hind legs are particularly short also for toad conditions, so that cross toads hop rarely, but move mouse-like crawling forward.

reproduction

the males produce for the Laichzeit with large, for blue colored, kehlständigen Schallblase loud mating calls, in order to make reproduction-willing females on itself attentive. The call series leave themselves as metallically loud ratchets („ärr…. ärr…. describe ärr “). Cross toad call choirs are to be sometimes heard over two kilometers far; in Central Europe usually in mild April and Main outlawing. The calls could be confounded with those of the Ziegenmelkers.

Laich: In or double-row, bead-chain-like, a Laichschnüre long up to two meters are put down in the shallow water directly on the waters soil, without purchase to Pflanzenstängeln or other vertical structures. They are not to be differentiated however in every case surely by those the earth toad, those normally in former times ablaicht and at deeper water places between Stängeln. The number of black eggs amounts to between 2800 and 4000, whereby the Eidurchmesser lies with one to 1.7 millimeters.

Kaulquappen: Also the dark, small larvae resemble those the earth toad, have however after development of the hind legs an indistinct, bright “Kehlfleck” and need with favorable outside conditions only three to six weeks up to the metamorphosis - „the European record “is even at only 17 days. Their length including the rudder tail reaches up to 36 millimeters.

habitat and spreading

just like the change toad is the cross toad a kind of pioneer of drying-warm habitats in areas with loose and sandigen soils. The presence openly, vegetation to free surfaces with sufficient hiding place possibilities than land habitat as well as to a large extent vegetation-free waters (flat and/or. Kleinstgewässer) as Laichplätze are a condition for the existence of the cross toad. If Abgrabungsflächen, mining industry subsequent landscapes are settled, broke, building grounds, troop exercise areas as well as Ruderalflächen within the human settlement range. Even in structure-poor agrarian landscapes the kind is sometimes found, if suitable Laichhabitate is available.

The spreading extends in west, central and northeast Europe of the Iberi peninsula over the south point of Sweden in the Baltic and to white Russia. Into Germany the cross toad - however absent-minded and unstable - in far parts comes forwards (there are gaps particularly in low mountain ranges). In many regions the existence are strongly declining, which is documented probably insufficiently by the red list classification in Germany (“only” endangered). On some North Sea islands with dune landscapes the cross toad is against it the most frequent kind of amphibian.

endangerment and protection

Kiesgrube als Ersatzlebensraum
gravel pit as spare habitat

as Pionierbesiedler of vegetation-poor drying biotopes with smaller, often sporadic lodgements of water suffer cross toads under the absence or to rapid draining of suitable Laichgewässer as well as under the Verbuschung and Beschattung of their Habitate. Particularly concerned they are however from interferences like the recultivation or use for new purposes of fallow land and former soil dismantling pits. Since the Flussauen is strongly impaired often in Central Europe by straightening and dyke construction in its hydrologic and surface textureal dynamics, usually also no natural habitats for cross toads can develop there more.

Legal protection status

red list classifications

  • red one list Federal Republic of Germany: 3 - red one
  • endangers list of Austria: 1 - from becoming extinct red one
  • threatens list of Switzerland: EN (corresponds: strongly) [
work on] literature

endangers

  • Rainer Günther (Hrsg.): The amphibians and reptiles of Germany. - Gustav Fischer publishing house Jena, 1996. ISBN 3-437-35016-1
  • Andreas Nöllert & Christel Nöllert: The amphibians of Europe. - Franckh cosmos, 1992. ISBN 3-440-06340-2

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