of the Christian peoples of the evening country religiously and economically motivated wars were finished Spain. They should originally serve release Jerusalems and the holy country Palestine from the hand of the disbelieving ones, after the Muslims under the Kalifen aluminium-Hakim those Grave church had destroyed. Had preceded the century for a long time Islamic expansion, military subjecting formerly Christian areas by Arab-Muslim conquerers in the Near East, in North Africa and Spain. To that extent the Zurückeroberung of the holy country and the Zurückdrängung of the Sarazenen becameas an act of the defense of the Christianity regards, which was affirmed by official assistance and the support of the church.
The crusades were used after short time however also to purely lay interests of power, in particular against the Byzantine realm. Already soonthe term crusade was not only expanded on wars against Nichtchristen of other countries, but also approximately of the church as Ketzer regarded humans (see Albigenser). This circumstance gave a strong political weapon to the papacy to the hands. Nevertheless may the religious aspect, particularly with the crusades into the east, although are not underestimated. Thus after the income Jerusalems had been celebrated in the year 1099 after Christ the pleasures as martyrs.
Like so often with wars, the interests were appropriate for thatwar-prominent parties and the fighting troops far apart. The mutual ruling powers pursued among other things power-politics interests. The cross drivers believed mostly in a honorable, holy fight for the church and God.
Already before the call to the crusade toRelease Jerusalems had begun the catholic church to support war courses. For example in the context of the conquest of England by William the conquerer geweihte flags at the war gentlemen were sent, who should strengthen him and its army in the fight. This applies ingeneral as the first historical event, at which the catholic teachings begin to strengthen and justify war courses dogmatisch.
A crusade was at the same time bus course and war course, that in the opinion (not orthodox, catholic Christian) the contemporaries directly from God by the wordthe Pope one announced. The participants put an obligatory Gelübde down, similarly as with a Pilgerfahrt. As consequence of göttlichen and papal announcing the crusades were very popular. This explains also the large number of participants and the nearly not existingCriticism from Christian side at these wars.
The officially announced crusades (among them for example the defense protection against the cross driver states in the Outremer do not fall) as affair of the entire abendländisch catholic Christianity were understood. The cross driver armies consisted therefore usually of “knights” outcompletely Europe.
Basis for the crusades was from Christian view the thought of the “fair war “ (lat.bellum iustum), as it had been represented by Augustinus of Hippo. This meant later that the “God-obliging/pleasing war” only of a legal authorityto be announced could (like the Pope). A fair reason for war had to be present (like the unfair treatment of Gläubigen) and the war had to be led for good intentions (like the göttlichen love).
After the catastrophic exit of the second crusade mehrten themselvesin addition, voices of theologians, who turned against the idea of armed crusades (Hannes Möhring: King of the kings, king stone i. Ts. 2004, S. 53ff.). In addition count in Germany of Anna cunning of peppering castle and Gerhoch of enriching mountain as well as the author of thePlay Ludus de Antichristo, in France the abbott of Cluny Petrus Venerabilis in his later writings, the English Cistercian Isaac (late abbott in France), walter map (a Höfling king Heinrichs II. of England) and the Englishman Radulphus the Niger. Itappointed themselves among other things on matte house 26.52, by the sword to therefore die is, who pulls the sword, in addition, on revealing the Johannes 19.11-16, where the recurring Messiah as a king of the kings the enemies of the Christianity with thatBreath of its mouth - thus only with God word - destroys. In order 1200 occurred also the canonists, Kirchenrechtler such as Alanus Anglicus, but, the Muslims to tolerate.
Table of contents
motives of the Kreuzritter and situation before the crusades
the motives of the cross drivers did not reduce by any means onlyon religious eagerness; rather they acted out of multilayered reasons, which besides in the course of the time changed themselves. It acted thereby over:
constructing on the crusade call Pope Urbans II. on the Synode of Clermont inYear 1095 (accompanied of the acclamation „Deus lo vult “- God wants it) many cross drivers were convinced to fulfill by driving the Nichtchristen out from the holy country of God will and to reach issuing all of their sins.This must be seen to the devastation of Christian places before the background of Christian reports over atrocities of the Islamic ruling powers against the Christian population of the holy country and, for example the grave church 1009 in Jerusalem. The religious motives stepped in the run the timeinto the background - with the conquest and plundering of the Christian city Konstantinopel in the fourth crusade becomes particularly clear. Concerning the crusades into the Orient they disappeared however never completely.
relationship to the Islam and toOrthodoxie
a substantial problem with regard to foreign policy for the Christian world represented the Islam, in its striving westward first in the center 7 to that. Century the Christian Byzantine realm attacked. Ostrom/Byzanz lost since the monophysitischen Schisma in religious contrastto the Greek and latin realm areas standing semitischen provinces Syria and Egypt within fewer years to the Arabs, who were welcomed there than Befreier, however the Greek coined/shaped small Asia maintained. The western North Africa carried 7 out up to the end.Century against the Arabs resistance, while the Spanish Westgotenreich broke down then around 700 within fewer months under the Arab tower, so that the Arab tower in the west was only broken by the Franconia realm.
After the Byzantine realm by the Langobarden 751 alreadyfrom central Italy displaced was (case of the Exarchats Ravenna) was the Byzantine realm at the beginning 8. Century mainly on the orthodox heartland small Asia, which limits coasts of the Balkans and South Italies. In the future the realm found in 9. and10. Century to a mode vivendi with the Arabs, which flowed even into military alliances with individual Arab states. Around the year 1000 an internal fall followed the military reclimb. With the Islamic Turkvolk of the Seldschuken at the same time however one enterednew, expansive power the political stage of the Near East, which expanded at expense of the Arabs and Byzantiner. This led 1071 for the Byzantiner to the military disaster in the battle of Manzikert against the Seldschuken, those the beginning thatTurkish colonization in Anatolien marks.
Small Asia left Byzantine emperors Alexios I. Finally Komnenos because of the defense of the normannischen invasion of Epiros and Macedonia (with the goal of the conquest of Konstantinopel) 1085 against one are complete up to few basesthe Seldschuken, in order between two opponents not to be reamed. After the victory over the Normannen Alexios asked then the Pope for support for the back conquest of the smallasiatic realm area, which was splintered in the meantime into several Turkish emirates, those the Byzantine diplomacyout-played against each other.
The large military expenditure of all Christian powers of the time at that time is to be explained with the fact that the Islam was seen as a large danger - not only for the Byzantine realm -. Finally the Islamic-Arab power area bordered on that Pyreneeses to France and nearly all Mediterranean islands and parts of south Italy were occasionally occupied by Arabs. The latters were attacked again and again also after back conquest by them. Byzantine Sicily was conquered starting from 827 by the Arabs, then by the Normannen,to it 1189 at Heinrich VI. it fell whereby the realm of the Staufer bordered likewise directly on the Islamic sphere of influence.
The morgenländische Schisma of 1054 loaded from beginning of the crusades to the relationship between orthodox and catholic Christians. The sight of oneMosque in Konstantinopel by the army of the first crusade did not contribute also to the creation of confidence.
A further aspect is the political relationship of two prominent powers of the catholic and/or. orthodox state world. The self-designation of the German like the Byzantine empire was “Roman realm” and the respective emperor derived from it a claim to leadership over the entire Christian state world. Byzanz operated thereby in 12. Century expansive west politics. Dynasti marrying with the Hungarian and German ruling family, in addition, miltärische interventions in Italy alsothe goal of achieving the Roman emperor crown also (west) thereby a basic constant of the foreign policy of the Byzantine Komnenendynastie was. Around the influence of Venice in the Byzantine realm back urge, one pursued 12 in Konstantinopel in the second half. Century a sharp, anti- venezianische policy.This did not remain in Western Europe naturally without reaction. The crusades were directed therefore increasingly not only against the Islam, but at the same time also ever more against the orthodox, Greek coined/shaped Byzanz.
The religiously motivated crusade thought remained nevertheless also in the futurea recurring component of the European policy. However one may not set their meaning after 1450 any longer all too highly. Thus in the year 1453 a military expedition was considered, around Konstantinopel against Sultan Mehmed II.to defend. But this halfhearted startedExpedition plentifully late, i.e. only in April 1453. The Sultan had begun however already in the spring 1452 with the structural preparations for possible FE storage and made from it no secret.
Whether one the concentrated military assistance of Christian powers like e.g.the German Reich and Poland with the defense of Vienna 1683 against the Turks into the crusade tradition to place may, is questionable. 1544 came it to few decades before a still inconceivable event: France, the Pope and the Osmani realm closedan alliance against have-castle-reach. Thus everyone was able to recognize clearly that it was with the cross driver spirit to end (Steven Runciman into the conquest of Konstantinopel 1453).
As crusade in the broader sense however anyway only military expeditions becometo Palestine designates.
economic factors and area of conflict between Rome and Konstantinopel
the abendländische aristocracy expected by conquest new properties. Also and straight met the younger sons of theAristocracy too, which were not entitled to inherit and saw now the chance to prevail but over their own area. This was just as also a goal of the church, since the church peace (a papal rule, which prescribed strictly, when and how are foughtwas allowed; Christmas and other high holidays were for example taboo) by conflicts, which turned primarily around territorial disputes, were again and again disturbed. Thus the crusades offered also a welcome occupation for the surplus sons, not in the monastery orin the Klerus to be accommodated could or wanted. Economically also the Italian sea-republics (Genova, Pisa, Venedig and other one) of the trade with the Orient profited. Thus also briefly one considered to accomplish a crusade to the safety device of the spice road. This idea became however quitesoon again dropped.
The papacy promised itself from control of the holy country a substantial stabilization of its position of power. In the long run the Popes have probably on the reunification with that and/or. hoped for for control of the east church. Besides dominatedwith beginning 4. Crusade also economic interests. The best example of this motive is the fourth crusade, that from the commercial metropolis Venice after Konstantinopel was probably rerouted and in the plundering by the cross driver army with evacuation of the bootyafter Venice flowed, in order to switch off the commercial competitor. Here the complete Pervertierung of the original, religious crusade thought on the one hand, on the other hand also a reason for the ever smaller effect of the crusades shows up in the defense of the eastRoman realm.
overview: Termand time axis
strictly speaking one understands the Orientkreuzzüge by crusades only. Besides there were the following kinds of crusades:
- against heaths (turns, Finn, Balten),
- against Ketzer (Katharer (Albigenser)),
- against the east church,
- against insurgent one (Stedinger),
- against political opponents (Pope Bonifatius VIII. against the Colonna 1297/98, England 1066, Ludwig von Bayern).
The crusade in its original form had release Jerusalems as a goal and was a totalEuropean enterprise, which is also called passagia generalia. Outthis developed itself passagia particularia, which could turn against every other place.
Beside the actualCrusades there was still the Katharer - or also Albigenserkreuzzug, which took place in south France, the child crusade, which ended for most involved ones in the slavery, the campaign of the German medal knights to the Baltic 1225 and various other campaigns, z.B. against non-Christian peoples such as Turks or Mongol, those partially to in 15. Century took.
Also wars against power-politics opponents were publicised of medieval rulers every now and then as crusade, in order to prevent questioning of the necessity for the war, overAllied to win and around plunderings and encroachments on civilians legitimize.
For some rulers the call to a crusade in addition a means were, in order to loose-will for them problematic groups of societies. Thus numerous homeless people followed, became impoverished or in the succession notconsidered noble ones and also lawless one this calls, because they expected in Palestine a new life, a religious fulfilment or a booty.
- first crusade: 1096 - 1099 a goal: Jerusalem
- second crusade: 1147 - 1149 a goal: Jerusalem
- third crusade: 1189 - 1192 a goal: Jerusalem
- fourth crusade: 1202 - 1204 a goal: Konstantinopel
- (Fifth) crusade: 1217 - 1221 a goal: Egypt
- fifth (sixth) crusade: 1228 - 1229
- sixth (seventh) crusade: 1248 - 1254 a goal: Egypt
- seventh (figure eight) crusade: 1270 a goal: Tunis
- Aragonesi crusade: 1284 - 1285
- crusade against Alexandria: 1365 under king Peter I. of Cyprus
- crusade of Nikopolis: 1396
In 15. Century took place four crusades against the Hussiten .
more detailed from 1188 to see the respective crusades.
Due to pressing the Byzantine realm by the Muslim Seldschuken due to the Byzantine defeat in that Battle of Mantzikert 1071, had the Byzantine Basileus Alexios I. Komnenos in the west around assistance inquired. Pope Urban II. 1095 had called also on the Synode from Clermont to the first crusade, around the holy places of the Christianity toorelease. A religious enthusiasm was caused, which accepted partly in addition, frightening courses: Thus in the Rhine country several Jewish municipalities were proper destroyed by Christians, and even simple people made themselves with Peter the a settler on in the holy country (so mentioned People crusade) - they should however never reach it.
When the different cross driver armies end reached 1096 Konstantinopel, further problems arose: Although the Byzantiner had intended not at all, a crusade to cause (they had rather hoped for for mercenaries from Europe) and that- Some of them, like the under-Italian Normannen, had fought before against Byzanz -, supported Alexios them also partly distrusted to cross drivers first, particularly since they had sworn a loyalty oath to him and the cross drivers were likewise dependent on the emperor.In the spring the army on the way made itself 1097, and first successes soon already adjusted themselves, how the conquest of Nikaia, which was handed over as stipulated to the Byzantiner. After heavy fights, among other things with the income Antiochias, this crusade ended with conquest Jerusalems in July 1099, with which to bloody massacres to remain-end to inhabitants came - regardless of the religion. The emergence Christian realms in the Outremer so mentioned followed. Byzanz hadparts of small Asia recovered, faced this development in the holy country however with distrust, which led soon also to fights with the Principality of Antiochia.
These cross driver states in such a way specified did not prove however as in the long run to the moslemischen pressure asgrown: Most noble ones had already left for the case Jerusalems again, and by any means only the elite had not stayed. The cross driver states were due to the small catholic-Christian number of populations (where the majority of the population was not catholic like a Christian, but, approximately inSyria) also dependent on supply from Europe, what lent a certain „colonial “character to these states. On the other hand it came to a quite remarkable change in the relationship between Christians and Muslims: From now on they lived together usually quite peacefully, thatMuslims within limits a free worship was permitted, likewise a separate jurisdiction was entitled. Also in relation to the other Christian denominations catholic „Franconias behaved “(so the Kreuzritter particularly in Arab sources mentioned) quite tolerantly. This development was likewisea direct consequence of the too small number of the cross drivers left, who were not able to control otherwise the conquered area - which was possible however anyway only in certain limits. Also the Jews had a substantially better position in the cross driver statesas in Europe and Jerusalems became also the victim of Pogromen in the Outremer, again differently than in Europe, never after conquest.
Even if it partly even succeeded to the cross drivers, the disliked moslemischen realms, which surrounded it, against each other to out-pass on (those Fatimiden in Egypt were for example hostilely deliberate the Turk), then the military situation was nevertheless always extremely difficult. The finally unsuccessful second crusade (1147-1149) had already the goal of relieving the pressed cross driver states (after the case of the county Edessa).After the battle of Hattin 1187, in which actually the entire military quantity of the Kingdom of Jerusalem had been struck, Jerusalem fell again into moslemische hands. The following crusades, which should turn around this development, had little success, partly due toinsufficient planning or strategic errors, partly due to the disagreement with the guidance of the supreme command: As for instance with the third crusade, where the main part of the army consisted of Frenchmen and Englishmen, who were each other hostilely deliberate.
The fourth crusade endedwith conquest and plundering Konstantinopels, the then largest Christian city of the world, by Kreuzritter, thereby the Schiffstransport by the fleet of Venice „paid “; the Pope, who realized himself in view of the Gräueltaten of the cross drivers that with ita church union with the Orthodoxie became practically impossible, condemned this action also on the sharpest, which without effect remained however actual.
The Republic of Venice had weakened thus its largest competitor in the Orienthandel durably, the nimbus of the crusades took therebyhowever durably damage, particularly since in this connection the Byzantine realm was degradiert from an intact great power to (after back conquest Konstantinopels 1261) a regional power. In addition the relationship of the orthodox peoples to Western Europe was heavily loaded for centuries. Thus turneditself the Russians on centuries nearly completely from Europe.
The crusades had also finally lost thereby however their original character, which lay in the back conquest of the holy country. However one lost sight of this goal never completely, alsoif all further attempts - of the diplomatic success of the Stauferkaisers Friedrich II. during fifth (and/or. after other counting of sixth) crusade apart - no success had or even in military disasters ended.
The Albigenserkreuzzug (1209-1229) and other similarly constituted enterprisesagainst Christians it contributed however also to the fact that the crusades were understood also often only as a political weapon of the papacy. In contrast to this „the crusades “the Reconquista on the iberischen peninsula carried already quasi-national courses.
The crusades into the Levante ended 1291 with the case of Akkon, the last cross driver bastion. The crusades into the Baltic (those above all the Missionierung served and in addition, of the participating noble ones as „social event “were understood) went however to in 14. Centuryfurther.
Also after the end of the Middle Ages military actions were defined again and again as crusades (so the attempt of an invasion of England by the catholic king of Spain, Philipp II., and also the battle from Lepanto became from a in such a way specified„Crusade league “led). The papacy still undertook in 17. Century similar approaches, which however at best only temporary successes had granted.
But already the Perserkrieg of the Herakleios in 7. Century carried characteristics of a Christian Religionskrieges in certain way, whereby the emperor laterto an example of a Christian fighter one stylized: The historical work William of Tyrus was well-known also in the old-French translation under the title livre of d'Eracles.
modern trend of crusades
the term „crusade “is not limitedonly on the historical crusades, but also today still in the transferred sense one uses. Its political use is today highly disputed and in Europe mostly as derailing is regarded.
general term use
„crusade “becomes in Germanas in English also in the sense of “campaign” uses. Thus Pharmazeutiker lead a crusade against AIDS, and globalization opponents lead a crusade against globalization and internationalization. There are crusades against Sextourismus, against diseases, epidemics and countless other topics. In the colloquial languageand also in the policy the word does not have to do anything with war, if for instance a delegate proclaims one „crusade against the Internet infrastructure “.
political use of the term
- in the twentieth century designated the evangelikale Massenprediger Billy Graham itsLarge meetings, and. A. to the special serviceses in the Viet Nam war, as Crusades, English. for crusades.
- The US president George W. Bush called the third Iraq war repeated crusade against terrorists, although to date no connection between the terrorists of the 11. September 2001 andthe Iraqi regime to be manufactured could. Without urge of its advisors Bush did however relatively soon this term, primarily because of its historical-contentwise meaning.
- The Italian reform Minister Roberto Calderoli from the right government party Lega north called the Pope in addition asReaction to the protests in the Islamic world in the caricature controversy to place itself against the point of a new crusade against the Muslims.
Pope Urban II., Bernhard von Clairvaux, Gottfried von Bouillon, Balduin of Boulogne, Friedrich I. Barbarossa, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations I. Lion heart, Konrad von Montferrat, David IV. the designer, Zengi, only ad-DIN, Saladin (Salah ad-DIN).
the chroniclers of the first crusade on Christian side
- Albert of Aachen
- Robert the monk
- the author of the Gesta Francorum
- Raimund of Aguilers: a cleric from France, stood for the leader of the Provenzalen (south Frenchman) Raimund of Toulouse close.
- Fulcher of Chartres: likewise cleric, politically however far better informed than its colleagues, stood for Pope Urban II. and its reform politics close. It terminated its minute around 1100.
- Anna Komnena: Daughter Byzantine emperor Alexios I., calledthe cross drivers Hoi Keltoi (Celt). Terminated their minute around 1118.
- Lambert of Arras: wrote very in detail over the decrees of Clermont.
- William of Tyrus
- corner hard of aura
- Odo of Deuil
- Gottfried of Villehardouin
- Jean de Joinville
The chroniclers on Muslim page
- Ibn aluminium-Qalanisi
- Usama Ibn Munqidh
- Ibn aluminium-Athir
- Abu Shama
- Abu l-Fida
- Ibn Kathir
- Abu l-Mahasin Ibn Taghribirdi
resuming information to this topic: Crusade/Bibliografie
- Peter Milger: The crusades. War in the nameGod, Munich 5 2000. ISBN 3-572-01169-8
the book contacts the interested layman, who a plentifully illustrated and liquid written overview would like. It is the instruction book to a TV serial of the hessian broadcast.
- Steven Runciman: History of the crusades, Munich 3 2001. ISBN 3-423-30175-9
standard work from the 50's, on high literary level writes. Partly however romantisierend.
- Hans's Eberhard Mayer: History of the crusades, 10. Aufl., Stuttgart 2005. ISBN 3-170-18679-5
proven standard work.
- Emmanuel Sivan: L'Islam et la Croisade.Idéologie et propagande dans les réactions musulmanes aux Croisades, Paris 1968.
- Peter Thorau: The crusades, Munich 2004. ISBN 3-406-50838-3
Knappe and favorable introduction.
- Amine Maalouf: The holy war of the barbarians. The crusades from the view of the Arabs, Munich 2003 (dtv 34018).
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Crusade - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- the standard work of set clay/tone, A History OF the Crusades freely accessible!
- Laiou/Mottahedeh (Hgg.), The Crusades from the Perspective OF Byzantium and the MuslimWorld
- of source excerpts (English)
- link list (part of the Virtual LIBRARY History)
- bringing up for discussion the crusades in the Orient
- of crusades are to be rehabilitated - a conference in a catholic university in Rome occurs the culture fight and connects the crusades with the ChristianMärtyrertum with the presence of the Muslim Dschihad Telepolis
people crusade · First crusade · German crusade · Crusade from 1101 · Second crusade · Turning crusade · Third crusade · Fourth crusade · Albigenserkreuzzug · Child crusade · More failed fifth crusade · Fifth (sixth) crusade · Sixth (seventh) crusade · Seventh (figure eight) crusade · Crusade against Alexandria · Crusade of Nikopolis