War in Afghanistan

of these articles is concerned with the war of the USA and their allied one against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan in October and November 2001. To the Afghan civil war between 1979 and 1989, see Afghan civil war and Soviet invasion.

The Afghanistan war of the USA and their allied one in the year 2001 was the first direct military reaction to the terrorist attacks at the 11. September 2001 in the USA and represents thus the beginning to world-wide war of the USA against the terrorism . It was directed beside responsible for the notices the terrorist organization aluminium-Qaida made also against the Islamic-fundamentalist Taliban dominant since center of the 1990er years in Afghanistan - regime, which is accommodating and support Osama shop and was accused other high-ranking members by aluminium-Qaida. The Hauptphase of the war ended with the case of the capital Kabul and the province capitals Kandahar and Kunduz in November and December 2001. The installation of a provisional government under president Hamid Karzai after the parallel taking place first Petersberger conference of Afghanistan as well as the distribution of a mandate followed for the support of the reconstruction to “internationally the Security Assistance Force” (ISAF), placed from Nato states and several partner countries, by the UN security council in December 2001.

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prehistory

after the victory of the Mudjahedin and the military arguments broken off thereafter between the individual Mudjahedin groupings stepped 1995 a new grouping on the plan. From Pakistan the Taliban ( mainly from paschtunisch Afghan refugees recruited themselves) intervened in the arguments and obtained against the Mudjahedin weakened by internal conflicts fast successes. After rapid income of Kabul (1996) transferred it in far parts of the country the rule. Only in the northern part there were regions, from former Mudjahedin units (main from ethnical Usbeken and Tadschiken), which was controlled so-called north alliance. A formal recognized government did not give it since the fall of Mohammed Nadschibullah (1992) to no more.

The virtue guards of the Taliban implemented their radical interpretations of Islamic laws with large brutality. Hearing music, radio, television and often also, offences were forbidden to Kinderspielzeug frequently with physical corporal punishment, Amputationen or also with the death penalty were pursued. Further serious violations of human rights were reported by the international organizations.

In particular the suppression of the women in all areas of life marked the Taliban rule. The classical picture of women under the Burka became a symbol for their politics. Both the illiteratism and the child number of deaths rose enormously; in addition it came that the Taliban refused international relief organizations the effective support of the distressed population (for example with the hunger disaster 2001).

The moreover many cultural properties were destroyed, which were destroyed as „the Islam contradicting representation of living natures “. These actions fell millenium-old works of art from the Gandhara - epoch from the museums of the country exactly the same for sacrificing, like historical photographs from the Afghanistan early 20. Century. High point of this procedure was the breakup of the 1,500 years old Buddha-Statuen of Bamiyan, which ranked among the UNESCO world cultural heritage. Despite the open and covered resistance of many Afghans the Taliban destroyed a majority of the irreplaceable cultural inheritance of the country in these years.

Even if the Taliban were to a large extent isolated from the community of states, they had nevertheless inlet of radical Islamics, who followed them. Besides they granted, those to terrorists of the aluminium-Qaida Unterschlupf the country purposefully to the operational base removals. Among other things aluminium-Qaida established a set of training camps, in which thousands Islamics from different countries went through a military training.

The refusal of the Taliban, Osama Ben Laden after the terrorist attacks to the USA to deliver, had led in December 2001 to further sanctions by the United Nations.

operation Enduring Freedom

at the 11. Septembers took place the terrorist attacks in the USA, which the government George W. Bush to the resolution for military intervention in Afghanistan led.

The UN security council designated the notices in the USA in its to 12. September 2001 calm resolution 1368 as „international crime “ and as „threat of the world peace and international security “. Besides they were rated as „armed attack on the United States “, as well as „the natural right for individual or collective self-defense, which is recognized in the Charter of the United Nations “ stressed. Those, which were responsible for the support or accommodating the authors, Organisierer and clients, would be made liable for these actions.

In the opinion the USA and other governments, as for instance also that the Federal Republic of Germany, was rated with this formulation and that direct reference to in article 51 the UN-Charter fixed the right to self-defense the starting operation Enduring Freedom by the security council than an act of the self-defense of the USA against the attack proceeded from Afghanistan and thus according to international law legitimized.

The fighting began to 7. October 2001 with air raids on Kabul von Flugzeugträgern and American Militärbasen out. To 19. Octobers 2001 attacked US Army Ranger an airfield of the Taliban south of Kandahar .

Britische Pioniere zerstören am 10. Mai 2002 einen Tunnelkomplex zwischen den Provinzen Paktika und Paktia. (Operation Snipe)
British pioneers destroy to 10. May 2002 a tunnel complex between the provinces Paktika and Paktia. (Operation Snipe)

parallel to it undertook the north alliance an offensive, to 13. November with the combatless occupation of Kabul their high point reached. The Talibanhochburgen against it embittered contests and only in the following weeks taken (Kunduz to 25. November and Kandahar to 7. December).

Federal Chancellor Schröder spoke of „unrestricted solidarity with the USA “ and „of Germany new responsibility also at world-wide military employments “. This politics were carried by all in the Bundestag represented parties, except the two delegates of the Party of Democratic Socialism. Federal Minister of Defense Peter Struck affirmed expressly a defense of Germany already at the Hindukusch.

after Taliban era

after the income of far parts of the country by the north alliance units of the allied ones, under it also the German Federal Armed Forces began, with the search for terrorists and primarily after Bin Laden (however so far one did not seize). Individual caught Taliban and presumed aluminium-Qaida - terrorists were kidnapped accompanied by US armed forces , according to international law disputed and by protests by human right organizations, on the US base Guantanamo on Cuba.

The fall of the Taliban with military means was the avowed goal „of the operation Enduring Freedom “. It should improve the humanitarian situation in Afghanistan substantially and the bases for one, however constituted, „democratization “to create. It is disputed, whether this goal is reached and whether still to the defense of the ally the USA (exclusive ) are limited the German Federal Armed Forces for such purposes, which represent neither the German case of defense, to be used may. Further locally the human right situation is difficult; in particular the situation of the women and the situation in the prisons as well as the Flächenbombardements of the USA and Great Britain, which included also many civilian goals, were often criticized. At the end of September 2004 received to Afghanistan 20 wheel tanks fox from Germany. The supply is a component of the announced equipment assistance. A part of the unarmed troop transporters into the united Arab emirates is transported, where trains Afghan soldiers at the equipment become. The transport costs take over the united Arab emirates.

The German Federal Armed Forces stationed command scarcely 1,800 soldiers in the country in the context of a ISAF -. The reconstruction of the country is, after the words of minister of foreign affairs Joschka Fischer (the Greens), an important contribution in the fight against „the international terrorism “. In the country destroyed by the war the structure of a drug state must be prevented among other things by assistance to the self-help and the structure of the police, so Fischer. During the employment in Kabul also German soldiers died.

US-Soldaten des 141. Infanterieregiments in der Nähe von Bagram (Afghanistan) im Juni 2005
US soldier 141. Infantry regiment in close proximity to Bagram (Afghanistan) in June 2005

in the north from Kundus, on ISAF instruction, a German reconstruction team with approx. is. 230 soldiers and 50 civilian auxiliary workers stationed. So far NATO is - led ISAF with their approx. 5,500 men however only assigned in Kabul. In Kundus civilian structure aids are to protect up to 450 German soldiers. The German ISAF contingent is to rise thereby on up to 2.250 soldiers. The ISAF is to support so the interim government of president Hamid Karsai effectively. A goal is it to be expanded the influence of a later regular government into the provinces be controlled there these so far by regional war princes („being lords “), whose financial source predominantly on US - sales market flowing Opiate form.

At the same time in the province Kundus began the disarmament of militias. In the context of the project is planned, in the coming two years approx. To disarm 100,000 Milizionäre in the country. Who delivers its weapon, receive, depending upon rank, 200 to 475 dollar as well as food, civilian clothes and a medal. Besides an advanced training and the switching into regular working premises or a starting as a farmer are offered.

During a special meeting to 28. Septembers 2005 decided Bundestag and Kabinett with large majority the expansion of the mandate, whereby the number of 2.250 to 3.000 soldiers and soldiers increased as well as the length of application by one year was extended (until October 2006).

At the 3. November was handed over the complete north of Afghanistan to the power zone of the German Federal Armed Forces. Thus still the west remains of Spanish - and still contested the south and the east of US troops controls Italian soldier.

losses of the German Federal Armed Forces

to 6. March 2002 two soldiers of the army died in close proximity to Kabul, when they wanted to defuse an air defense rocket of the type SA-3 Goa. The soldiers Mike rouble and Thomas's cook ore belonged to the weapon removal company 11 with location Münster in Lower Saxony.

To 21. Decembers 2002 died 7 soldiers with a crash of a military helicopter of the type CH-53 super Stallion close Kabul. Heinz Ullrich Hewusst, Thomas Schiebel, Enrico Schmidt, Uwe Vierling, franc Ehrlich, Bernhard emperor and Friedrich Deininger. They belonged to that 15. and 25. Army aviation regiment on.

To 29. May 2002 dies the Gefreite Stephen of fire-place of 12 kilometers south of Kabul, when its vehicle of the type wolf drove into a mine.

To 7. June 2003 4 soldiers are killed by an autobomb during a bus travel to the Ausbildungscamp of the Afghan national army in Kabul. It concerns thereby the ISAF soldiers Jörg Baasch, Helmi Jimenez Paradis, Andreas Beljo and Carsten cooling mornings.

To 26. June 2005 the soldiers Andreas H become. and a further soldier in the province Takhar in Rustaq killed. They belonged to a PRT team (Provincial Reconstruction team) and died when loading trucks with delivered ammunition and weapons.

To 7. August 2005 kommmt a soldier southeast from Kabul with a traffic accident around the life.

To 14. November 2005 is killed the lieutenant colonel Armin Franz in Kabul by suicide assassin in a car.

So far 18 German Federal Armed Forces soldiers died into Afghanistan.

see also

literature

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